Rutherford County, North Carolina
Rutherford County is a county located in the southwestern area of the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 67,810, its county seat is Rutherfordton. Rutherford County comprises NC Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county was formed in 1779 from the western part of the former Tryon County. It was named for Griffith Rutherford, leader of an expedition against the Cherokee in 1776 and a general in the American Revolutionary War. In 1791 parts of Rutherford County and Burke County were combined to form Buncombe County. In 1841 parts of Rutherford and Lincoln counties were combined to form Cleveland County. In 1842 additional parts of Rutherford and Burke counties were combined to form McDowell County. In 1855 parts of Rutherford and Henderson counties were combined to form Polk County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 566 square miles, of which 564 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. McDowell County - north Burke County - northeast Cleveland County - east Cherokee County, South Carolina - south Spartanburg County, South Carolina - south Polk County - southwest Henderson County - west Buncombe County - northwest US 64 US 74 US 74A US 221 US 221A NC 9 NC 108 NC 120 NC 226 As of the census of 2000, there were 62,899 people, 25,191 households, 17,935 families residing in the county.
The population density was 112 people per square mile. There were 29,535 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.79% White, 11.23% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The largest ancestry groups in Rutherford County are: English - 44% Irish - 9% African American - 11% German - 5% Scotch-Irish - 4% Scottish - 3% Dutch - 2% Italian - 1% French or French Canadian - 1% Mexican - 1% Polish - 1%There were 25,191 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.40% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,122, the median income for a family was $37,787. Males had a median income of $28,890 versus $21,489 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,270. About 10.40% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.30% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. In 2010, Rutherford County was selected as the location for a new $450 million data center for Facebook. Horsehead Corporation announced the construction of its new, state-of-the-art zinc and diversified metals production facility in Rutherford County, NC, near the municipality of Forest City. Bostic Ellenboro Forest City Lake Lure Ruth Rutherfordton Spindale Chimney Rock Caroleen Cliffside Henrietta Alexander Mills Corinth Harris Mount Vernon Union Mills Rutherford is a powerfully Republican county.
No Democratic presidential candidate has carried Rutherford County since Jimmy Carter did so in 1976 – and Hillary Clinton's 24.4 percent in 2016 is the worst performance by a Democrat. Before 1928 when Herbert Hoover won it, the county was a clear-cut part of the Democratic "Solid South". Smoky Burgess, record-setting major league baseball player Walter Dalton, former lieutenant governor of North Carolina Tim Earley, American poet Kay Hooper, best-selling author Robert McNair, Owner Houston Texans Burl Noggle, American historian born in Rutherford County in 1924 Richard O'Sullivan and filmmaker National Register of Historic Places listings in Rutherford County, North Carolina Rutherford County official website NCGenWeb Rutherford County- free genealogy resources for the county Rutherford County Tourism Information
Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a river's gradient increases enough to generate so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a bubbly or aerated and unstable current. The term is loosely used to refer to less turbulent, but still agitated, flows; the term "whitewater" has a broader meaning, applying to any river or creek itself that has a significant number of rapids. The term is used as an adjective describing boating on such rivers, such as whitewater canoeing or whitewater kayaking. Four factors, separately or in combination, can create rapids: gradient, constriction and flow rate. Gradient and obstruction are streambed topography factors and are consistent. Flow rate is dependent upon both seasonal variation in precipitation and snowmelt and upon release rates of upstream dams. Streambed topography is the primary factor in creating rapids, is consistent over time. Increased flow, as during a flood or high rainfall season can make permanent changes to the streambed by displacing rocks and boulders, by deposition of alluvium or by creating new channels for flowing water.
The gradient of a river is the rate at which it loses elevation along its course. This loss determines the river's slope, to a large extent its rate of flow. Shallow gradients produce gentle, slow rivers while steep gradients are associated with raging torrents. Constrictions can form a rapid when a river's flow is forced into a narrower channel; this pressure causes the water to flow more and to react differently to riverbed events. A boulder or ledge in the middle of a river or near the side can obstruct the flow of the river, can create a "pillow". If the flow passes next to the obstruction, an eddy may form behind the obstruction; as with hydraulics, the power of eddies increases with the flow rate. In large rivers with high flow rates next to an obstruction, "eddy walls" can occur. An eddy wall is formed when the height of the river is higher than the level of the water in the eddy behind the obstruction; this can make it difficult for a boater, who has stopped in that particular eddy, to reenter the river due to a wall of water that can be several feet high at the point at which the eddy meets the river flow.
A marked increase or decrease in flow can create a rapid, "wash out" a rapid or make safe passage through previously-navigable rapids more difficult or impossible. Flow rate is measured in cubic metres per second, or in cubic feet per second, depending on the country; the most used grading system is the International Scale of River Difficulty, where whitewater is classed in six categories from class I to class VI. The grade reflects both the technical difficulty and the danger associated with a rapid, with grade I referring to flat or slow moving water with few hazards, grade VI referring to the hardest rapids which are dangerous for expert paddlers, are run. Grade-VI rapids are sometimes downgraded to grade-V or V+ if they have been run successfully. Harder rapids are portaged, a French term for carrying. A portaged rapid is where the boater lands and carries the boat around the hazard. A rapid's grade is not fixed, since it may vary depending on the water depth and speed of flow. Although some rapids may be easier at high flows because features are covered or "washed-out", high water makes rapids more difficult and dangerous.
At flood stage rapids which are easy can contain lethal and unpredictable hazards. Class 1: Very small rough areas, requires no maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, small drops, might require maneuvering. Class 3: Medium waves, maybe a 3–5 ft drop, but not much considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, large waves, long rapids, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, continuous rapids, large rocks and hazards, maybe a large drop, precise maneuvering. Characterized by "must make" moves, i.e. failure to execute a specific maneuver at a specific point may result in serious injury or death. Class 5 is sometimes expanded to Class 5+ that describes the most extreme, runnable rapids Class 6: While there is some debate over the term "Class 6", in practice it refers to rapids that are not passable and any attempt to do so would result in serious injury, near drowning or death. If a rapid is run, once thought to be impassible, it is reclassified as Class 5.
On any given rapid there can be a multitude of diff
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The V-lip redhorse is a species of freshwater catostomid fish from Eastern North America. It inhabits drainages on the Atlantic Slope between South Carolina. Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Moxostoma pappillosum" in FishBase. April 2006 version
Henderson County, North Carolina
Henderson County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 106,740, its county seat is Hendersonville. Henderson County is part of NC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was formed in 1838 from the southern part of Buncombe County. It was named for Leonard Henderson, Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court from 1829 to 1833. There is no evidence Henderson passed through the area. In 1855 parts of Henderson County and Rutherford County were combined to form Polk County, in 1861 parts of Henderson County and Jackson County were combined to form Transylvania County. Henderson County, which in 1861 encompassed present-day Transylvania County as well, contributed 1,296 soldiers to the Confederate States Army out of its 10,000 population, as well as 130 Union troops.. Henderson County government was centered around Hendersonville in the 1905 county courthouse on Main Street, until this structure was replaced by the new Courthouse on Grove Street in Hendersonville.
The first rail line reached Hendersonville in 1879, ushering in a new era of access to the outside world. However, parts of the county had long been known as retreats, including the "Little Charleston" of Flat Rock in which South Carolina's Low Country planter families had maintained second homes since the early 19th century. A major land boom ensued in the 1920s, culminating in the crash of 1929, which deflated prices and left structures such as the Fleetwood Hotel atop Jumpoff Mountain incomplete. Population growth in the county has been rapid since the 1960s as a result of an influx from other states, with many new housing developments changing the face of rural areas of the county. Other notable historic sites in Henderson County include: the Woodfield Inn, Connemara—final home of Carl Sandburg -- and the St. John in the Wilderness Episcopal Church. Today, Flat Rock is the site of the main campus of Blue Ridge Community College. Henderson County is located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of southwestern North Carolina, on the border with South Carolina.
The Eastern Continental Divide, which lies along the crest of the Blue Ridge, passes through the county. The northwestern slope of the Divide is known as the Blue Ridge Plateau and the southeastern slope as the Blue Ridge Escarpment; these two physiographic features have unique characteristics that account for wide variations in the county’s climate. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 375 square miles, of which 373 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. The county's largest body of water is Lake Summit, a reservoir impounded by the Duke Power Company for hydroelectric generation; the county's major streams are the French Broad River, Mills River, Green River, Little River, Mud Creek, Clear Creek, Cane Creek, Hungry River, the headwaters of the Broad River. The lowest point in the county is to be found along the Broad River at 1,394’ feet at the boundary between Henderson and Rutherford Counties in North Carolina; the high point is located on Little Pisgah Mountain at 5,278 feet along the Henderson-Haywood County boundary in North Carolina.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 375 square miles, of which 373 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. The county's largest body of water is Lake Summit, a reservoir impounded by the Duke Power Company for hydroelectric generation. Due to its geographic setting along the Eastern Continental Divide and its extreme topographic variation, Henderson County presents a wide variation in temperature and precipitation conditions; the highest elevations occur along the northwest and northern boundaries of the county and within the Blue Ridge Escarpment, a rugged area of peaks and narrow valleys that rise from the Piedmont to the continental divide and the Blue Ridge Plateau. The lowest elevations occur within the valleys of the escarpment and in the broader valleys of the Blue Ridge Plateau; the mean annual temperature of the county is 55.1°F, with a range from 50.3 to 57.9°F depending on the elevation, with higher temperatures occurring at lower elevations and lower temperatures in the higher mountains.
The month of July is the hottest in the county, with a mean temperature of 72.6°F and a mean range of 66.6 to 75.8°F. The coolest month is January with a mean temperature of 36.9°F and a mean range of 33.3 to 39.5°F. Precipitation is correlated to elevation, with higher precipitation occurring at higher elevations and lower precipitation in the valleys; the mean annual precipitation of Henderson County is 56.2 inches, with a mean range of 45.04 to 78.03 inches. March has the highest mean precipitation of 5.1 inches, with a mean range of 3.9 to 6.7 inches. The lowest precipitation occurs in October, with a mean value of 3.9 inches and a mean range of 2.8 to 5.8 inches. Henderson County's topographic and climatic diversity make it ideal for a great variety of commercial crops and agricultural products. Parts of the county between the Pisgah National Forest on the northwest and the boundary with Polk County on the southeast are referred to l
Wildwater canoeing is a competitive discipline of canoeing in which kayaks or canoes are used to negotiate a stretch of river speedily. It is called "Whitewater racing" or "Downriver racing" to distinguish it from whitewater slalom racing and whitewater rodeo or Freestyle competition; the objective of the sport is to go from the starting point of the course on a river to the end point as as possible. Typical wildwater venues consist of Class II - IV whitewater, in contrast to extreme racing, which takes place on more difficult streams. Match competitions consist of a classic and a sprint race. A classic course is 4 to 6 miles in length or 10 to 35 minutes in duration, while the Sprint is between 500 and 750 meters and lasts around 2 minutes. Although there is some specialization, the vast majority of racers compete in both classic and sprint. Competitors are placed in classes based on gender and boat type as follows: K1 – solo kayak, male K1W – solo kayak, female C1 – solo canoe, male C1W – solo canoe, female C2 – tandem canoe.
The competitors are numbered within their class based on results from previous races and compete in reverse order at one-minute intervals. To race paddlers must possess refined technical skill, as well as strength, aerobic capacity, the ability to "read" whitewater. Whitewater racing is practiced by competing teams. Whitewater racing started in Europe with the International Canoe Federation being formed and having the first World Championships in Switzerland in 1949. Since there has been a World Championships every two years. Since 2011 there is a sprint only world championships, with sprint and classic being contested every other year. Wildwater solo kayaks are 60 cm wide; the boats all have a rounded hull profile, making them unstable and hard to turn. Rather than using wide sweep strokes to turn the boat, the paddler tilts the boat to one side, utilizing its curved profile to effect the turn in a manner similar to "carving a turn" in skiing. Two "wings" meet the minimum width required by racing rules and add secondary stability, as well as enhancing the effect of carving a turn.
When the boat is under way, most of each wing will be above the waterline so as to minimize drag. The use of kevlar, carbon fiber, glass-reinforced plastic construction has reduced the weight of wildwater boats, while improving stiffness; the top part and the bottom are molded separately and bonded together using kevlar or glass cloth strips and epoxy or polyester resin. A boat without an oven can take weeks to cure fully. Before glass-reinforced plastic boats, the common racing craft was the folding kayak composed of a wooden frame covered with canvas. Competitors are required to wear an appropriate whitewater helmet and PFD and River shoes or booties and flotation bags for their boats. Racers paddle down a course along the fastest jets of water. In order to go fast, they follow the edges of wave trains and hold as straight a line as possible down the river. If it is unclear which line is fastest, two paddlers float the different options and see which boat moves ahead; because of the high speeds, racers run a river two or three times a day when training for a race.
Some racers practice on rivers. They will paddle 5–10 miles a day, five to six days a week. Others practice on lakes or flatwater rivers. In northern areas rivers and lakes freeze, so racers sometimes train in an indoor pool, lift weights, run or do Cross-country skiing; when the rivers and lakes become free of ice training is resumed outdoors. Popular whitewater racing courses in Scotland include Stanley on the River Tay. Whitewater racing courses in England include the Tees. Popular whitewater racing courses in Wales include the Tryweryn, the Dee. In the United States, races take place throughout the Southeast, Northeast and Western states. There are well-attended annual races on West Virginia's Cheat and Gauley rivers, Maryland's Potomac and Youghiogheny rivers, as well as on Colorado's Arkansas for the annual Fibark Festival which has the oldest continually run downriver/wildwater race in the USA. Rivers in Europe that have held international races include the Isère in Bourg St Maurice, the Loisach in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the Liffey in Ireland and the Teplá in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic.
In South Africa races take place on the Trichardt Spruit, Umkomaas River, Bushmans River and As River. The As River forms part of a water exchange program between South Africa and Lesotho and is fed via a tunnel from the Katse Dam; the 2004 World Wildwater Championships were held in Germany. The 2006 Championships were held from 12 -- 17 June in the Czech Republic; the K1 men's sprint race was won by Max Hoff of Germany. The 2008 World Championships will take place from 5 -- 8 June in Italy. US wildwater site UK wildwater site International Canoe Federation WW Site Canoeing South Africa site KayakMind ICF Wildwater Canoeing World Championships
Interstate 26 is a nominally east–west main route of the Interstate Highway System in the Southeastern United States. I-26 runs from the junction of U. S. Route 11W and U. S. Route 23 in Kingsport, Tennessee southeastward to U. S. Route 17 in Charleston, South Carolina; the portion from Mars Hill, North Carolina, east to Interstate 240 in Asheville, North Carolina, has signs indicating FUTURE I-26 because the highway does not yet meet all of the Interstate Highway standards. A short realignment as an improvement in the freeway was planned in Asheville, but has been postponed indefinitely due to North Carolina's budget shortfalls. Northwards from Kingsport, US 23 continues north to Portsmouth, Ohio, as the Corridor B of the Appalachian Development Highway System, beyond to Columbus, as the Corridor C. In conjunction with the Columbus-Toledo, Ohio corridor formed by Interstate 75, US 23, State Route 15, I-26 forms part of a high-speed four-or-more-lane highway from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast at Charleston, South Carolina.
There are no official plans for extensions north of Tennessee. I-26 is a diagonal Interstate Highway; the extension past Asheville is north–south. Where I-26 crosses the French Broad River in Asheville at the Jeffrey Bowen Bridge, the highway runs in opposite directions from its designations; when the extension was made in 2003, the exit numbers in North Carolina were increased by 31 to reflect the new mileage. The part that it shares with I-240 has not had its numbers changed, although most of the road signs now indicate I-26 instead of I-240. I-26 has signs with an extra FUTURE sign above the EAST and WEST signs from Asheville north to Mars Hill, North Carolina, because the older U. S. Route 23 freeway does not yet meet all of the Interstate Highway standards; the road shoulders remain substandard or nonexistent along short sections of the route, a rebuilding is planned in Asheville to avoid some tight interchanges. The exit numbers in Tennessee were numbered "backwards"—increasing from "east" to "west" —because this highway was signed north–south as U.
S. Route 23. Although this is consistent with the south-to-north numbering conventions, this exit numbering was changed on all 284 signs along I-26 to be consistent with the rest of the east-to-west-numbered highway in March 2007; the remaining I-181 signs north of I-81 were replaced with I-26 signs at that time. For its entire length in Tennessee, I-26 shares the route with U. S. Route 23; the route is named the James H. Quillen Parkway, after Jimmy Quillen, a past member of the U. S. House of Representatives for Tennessee. In Tennessee, US 23 runs south from the Virginia state line for 1 mile to Kingsport. I-26 begins at the junction of US 23 with U. S. Route 11W, northwest of the city. After about 1,000 yards, I-26 crosses the South Fork Holston River before swinging around to a south-east path through Sullivan County, it reaches its major interchange with Interstate 81 at southwest of Colonial Heights. Shortly after entering Washington County, it reaches the northwest part of Johnson City, serves as a local transit route as it makes its way around the north and eastern parts of the city.
It begins to travel through more mountainous terrain before turning to travel in a south direction. Entering Carter County it passes exit 27 before entering the Cherokee National Forest and Unicoi County. From this point, it passes through part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, first the Unaka Range and as it passes Erwin, Tennessee between exits 34 and 40, the Bald Mountains, it meets the Nolichucky River just after mile marker 38 and travels along its southeast bank before crossing it before exit 40. The remainder of I-26 in Tennessee passes through a sparsely populated area, at elevations of above 1,800 feet, before reaching the North Carolina state line. About 20 miles beyond Spartanburg one reaches the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. After crossing the border into Polk County, I-26 intersects with U. S. Route 74, a limited-access freeway near Columbus, it heads up a 6% grade for the next three miles through Howard Gap, it passes over the highest bridge in North Carolina, the Peter Guice Memorial Bridge, 225 feet above the Green River between Saluda and Flat Rock in Henderson County, it crosses the Eastern Continental Divide at an elevation of 2,130 feet, having climbed from an elevation of around 1,100 feet at the US 74 interchange.
The land flattens after entering the French Broad River drainage basin from Flat Rock to Hendersonville and Arden. I-26 has a major interchange with Interstate 40 in Asheville. After 3 miles, U. S. Route 23 follows it into Tennessee; the two interstates cross the French Broad River having shared the highway for 4.5 miles part company. As I-240 continues to swing round to the north and east of Asheville, I-26 turns north towards Weaverville and Mars Hill, it enters first the Blue Ridge and the Walnut Mountains and Bald Mountains of the Appalachian range, passing through the Pisgah and Cherokee National Forests as it does so. As I-26 crosses the Bald Mountains near the North Carolina/Tennessee state line, it trave