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Green flash

The green flash and green ray are meteorological optical phenomena that sometimes occur transiently around the moment of sunset or sunrise. When the conditions are right, a distinct green spot is visible above the upper rim of the Sun's disk; the green flash can resemble a green ray shooting up from the sunset or sunrise point. Green flashes occur because the earth's atmosphere can cause the light from the Sun to separate out into different colors. Green flashes are a group of similar phenomena that stem from different causes, therefore, some types of green flashes are more common than others. Green flashes may be observed from any altitude, they are seen at an unobstructed horizon, such as over the ocean, but are possible over cloud tops and mountain tops as well. They may occur at any latitude, although at the equator, the flash lasts longer than a second. A green flash may be observed in association with the Moon and bright planets at the horizon, including Venus and Jupiter. With an unrestricted view of the horizon, green flashes are seen by airline pilots when flying westwards as the sunset is slowed.

If the atmosphere is layered, the green flash may appear as a series of flashes. While observing at the Vatican Observatory in 1960, D. K. J. O'Connell produced the first color photographs of a green flash at sunset. Green flashes are enhanced by mirages. A green flash is more to be seen in stable, clear air, when more of the light from the setting sun reaches the observer without being scattered. One might expect to see a blue flash, since blue light is refracted most of all and the blue component of the sun's light is therefore the last to disappear below the horizon, but the blue is preferentially scattered out of the line of sight, the remaining light ends up appearing green. With slight magnification, a green rim on the top of the solar disk may be seen on most clear-day sunsets, although the flash or ray effects require a stronger layering of the atmosphere and a mirage, which serves to magnify the green from a fraction of a second to a couple of seconds; the "green flash" description relates to a group of optical phenomena, some of which are listed below: The majority of flashes observed are inferior-mirage or mock-mirage effects, with the others constituting only 1% of reports.

Some types not listed in the table above, such as the cloud-top flash, are not understood. The amount of blue light is sufficient to be visible as a "blue flash"; as an astronomical object sets or rises in relation to the horizon, the light it emits travels through Earth's atmosphere, which works as a prism separating the light into different colors. The color of the upper rim of an astronomical object could go from green to blue to violet depending on the decrease in concentration of pollutants as they spread throughout an increasing volume of atmosphere; the lower rim of an astronomical object is always red. A green rim is thin and is difficult or impossible to see with the naked eye. In usual conditions, a green rim of an astronomical object gets fainter when an astronomical object is low above the horizon because of atmospheric reddening, but sometimes the conditions are right to see a green rim just above the horizon; the following quote describes what was the longest observation of a green rim, which at times could have been a green flash.

It was seen on and off for 35 minutes by members of the Richard Evelyn Byrd party from the Antarctic Little America exploration base in 1934: There was a rush for the surface and as eyes turned southward, they saw a tiny but brilliant green spot where the last ray of the upper rim of the sun hung on the skyline. It lasted an appreciable length of time, several seconds at least, no sooner disappeared than it flashed forth again. Altogether it remained on the horizon with short interruptions for thirty-five minutes; when it disappeared momentarily it seemed to have been shut off by a tiny spurt, an inequality in the skyline caused by the barrier surface. By moving the head up a few inches it would disappear and reappear again and after it had disappeared from view it could be recaptured by climbing up the first few steps of the antanea post. For the explorers to have seen a green rim on and off for 35 minutes, there must have been some mirage effect present. A green rim is present at every sunset.

A green rim changes to a green flash and back again during the same sunset. The best time to observe a green rim is about 10 minutes before sunset; that is too early to use any magnification like binoculars or a telescope to look directly at the Sun without potential harm to the eyes. As the Sun gets closer to the horizon, the green rim becomes fainter due to atmospheric reddening. According to the above, it is correct to conclude that although a green rim is present during every sunset, a green flash is rarer because of the required mirage. Jules Verne's 1882 novel. A 1986 film called The Green Ray uses the green flash and Verne's book as a plot device. Additionally, the green flash has inspired or been mentioned in: Jules Verne's 1905 novel The Lighthouse at the End of the World Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco composed a 1916 solo piano work titled Il raggio verde, op. 9, depicting a musical/emotional impression of the phenomenon. Victoria Holt's 1976 novel Pride of the Peacock, which uses both the green flash and an opal named for the phenomenon as plot devices Willi

List of highest-grossing films in Romania

The following lists represent the highest-grossing films in Romania. This lists only accounts for the films' theatrical box office earning and not their ancillary revenues. In 2009 there was a significant increase in the Romanian box office due to rising of inflation, the appearance of new theaters in several cities of the country and a higher effort in promoting the films. In April 2014, Cinema City International, the main cinema operator in Romania, plans 22 new cinema openings in Romania between 2014 and 2016; the most represented year on the list is 2019, with 10 films. Titanic is the first film in Romania to surpass the 1 million lei mark, while Avatar is the first film to surpass the 10 million lei mark; this list is ranked only in Romanian Lei. Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs is the first film to gross over 1 million lei in a weekend, The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn - Part 2 is the first to gross over 2 million lei in a weekend, The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies is the first to gross over 3 million lei in a weekend and The Fate of the Furious is the first to gross over 4, 5, 6 and 7 million lei in a weekend.

The charts are based on films that premiered on a Romanian release date and not the film's worldwide release date. This is the list of highest-grossing animated films. Six of these films are in the Top 50 Romania's highest-grossing films list. 2016 is the most represented year, with 5 films. This is the list of highest-grossing Romanian films. Child's Pose is the first Romanian film to surpass the 1 million lei mark, Selfie 69 is the first romanian film to surpass the 2 million lei mark, Moromete Family: On the Edge of Time is the first romanian film to surpass the 3 million lei mark, Oh, Ramona! is the first romanian film to surpass the 4 and 5 lei marks, 5Gang: A Different Kind of Christmas is the first romanian film to surpass the 6 million lei mark, Miami Bici is the first romanian film to surpass the 7, 8, 9 and 10 million lei marks. 2019 is the most represented year, with 4 films. Two of this films are in the Top 50 Romania's highest-grossing films; this is the list of highest-grossing franchises and film series in Romania ranked in Romanian lei.

Marvel Cinematic Universe is the highest-grossing franchise, with over 100 million lei. Jumanji has the highest per-film average, with over 10 million lei; the Fast and the Furious & Jumanji are the only franchises with two films to have crossed the 10 million lei mark. 1There is no online reference of previous Star Wars films to be released theatrically in Romania before 1995. List of Romanian films Cinema of Romania Box office sources

Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas (album)

Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas is a #1 selling bilingual English/Norwegian album by Norwegian singer Kurt Nilsen in participation of Kringkastingsorkestret, the Norwegian Radio Orchestra conducted by Nick Davies. The Christmas album was hit # 1 in 6 different years; the album contains 13 songs. 11 of the songs are solo and 2 as duets with Helene Bøksle. "The Christmas Song" "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow" "Baby, It's Cold Outside" "Himmel på jord" "When You Wish Upon a Star" "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" "Winter Wonderland" "Gje meg handa di venn" "Walking in the Air" "Nå tennes tusen julelys" "Stjernesludd" "White Christmas" "Auld lang syne"

Cricket in the Netherlands

Cricket has been played in the Netherlands since at least the 19th century, in the 1860s was considered a major sport in the country. The sport is governed by the Koninklijke Nederlandse Cricket Bond. Other sports have long since surpassed cricket in popularity amongst the Dutch but today there are around 6,500 cricketers in the Netherlands and recent developments show that cricket is growing in Netherlands; the first national association, the forerunner of today's KNCB, was formed in 1883, the Netherlands achieved associate membership of the ICC in 1966. The Dutch national side has qualified for the World Cup on four occasions and the ICC World Twenty20 on four occasions; the team had One Day International status, but lost its status at the 2014 World Cup Qualifier, at which at failed to qualify for the 2015 World Cup. They regained the One Day International status after clinching the ICC World Cricket League Championship title in 2017; the popularity of cricket in the Netherlands has influenced the sport's development in both former Dutch colonies and current members of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Cricket in Indonesia was introduced by the Dutch, Sint Maarten is a member of the West Indies Cricket Board, Suriname is an associate member of the ICC. The popularity of cricket in the Netherlands has influenced the sport's development in former Dutch colonies, including current members of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Suriname is an associate member of the ICC, Sint Maarten is a member of the West Indies Cricket Board, which has full membership; the Dutch team has taken part in all eight ICC Trophy tournaments, winning the competition in Canada in 2001 and finishing as runners-up twice. The Netherlands participated in the 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2011 Cricket World Cups, from 1996 onwards the national team entered the English domestic NatWest Trophy competition. In 2004 they played first-class cricket in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, drawing with Scotland in Aberdeen and going down to an innings defeat against Ireland in Deventer. In 2005 the Dutch team beat the UAE to finish fifth in the ICC Trophy, a disappointing result but one which qualified them for the 2007 World Cup.

In 2001 saw the Netherlands win the ICC Trophy, beating Namibia in the final in Toronto. They thus qualified for the 2003 World Cup, they again failed to progress beyond the first round in the tournament, but recorded their first one-day international win over Namibia during the tournament. Feiko Kloppenburg and Klaas-Jan van Noortwijk scored the first two One Day International centuries in the side's history. In the 2005 ICC Trophy, the Netherlands finished 5th, qualifying for the 2007 Cricket World Cup, gaining one-day International status until the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier, their first one-day international with this new status was scheduled to be against Kenya in March 2006. Instead their first ODI with this status came against Sri Lanka; however Sri Lanka won the two match series 2–0, with a record ODI score of 443–9. The Dutch played their first Intercontinental Cup match of 2006 against Kenya in Nairobi in March; the game was drawn. In August, the Netherlands competed in Division One of the European Championship.

They beat Denmark and Italy, but lost to Scotland and their game against Ireland was rained off. They finished third in the tournament. In November, the Dutch travelled to South Africa, they first played an Intercontinental Cup match against Bermuda: David Hemp achieved what was a competition record score of 247 not out in the drawn match. This was followed by a triangular series against Canada, which they won, their final game of 2006 in South Africa, was an Intercontinental Cup game against Canada. They won the match by 7 wickets, with Ryan ten Doeschate setting a new competition record individual score of 259 not out. In early 2007, they travelled to Nairobi, Kenya to take part in Division One of the World Cricket League, finishing third out of six; this was followed by the 2007 World Cup in the West Indies, where they were eliminated in the first round, though they did beat Scotland along the way. Following the World Cup, they underwent a period of transformation. Captain Luuk van Troost retired, as did their coach Peter Cantrell.

Daan van Bunge opted to take a break from international cricket, the new coach opted not to retain the services of bowling coach Ian Pont. In June 2007, they visited Canada, first winning an Intercontinental Cup match against Canada in King City, Ontario, they won the first ODI by 117 runs, with the second one being abandoned. They played a quadrangular series in Ireland, losing by ten wickets to the West Indies, by one run to Ireland, with the game against Scotland being abandoned due to rain. In August 2008, The Netherlands participated in the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 Qualifier; this was their debut playing. They finished in first place based on their run-rate. After beating Scotland in the Semi-Finals, the final was abandoned due to rain and the trophy was shared between The Netherlands and Ireland; the Netherlands caused a sensation in the cricketing world by beating England in the opening match of the ICC World Twenty20 2009, whilst being 500/1 outsiders. They lost their second match to the eventual winners Pakistan and did not qualify f


The PalaBancoDesio is an arena located in Desio, Italy. Opened in 1992, the arena – with a capacity of 6,700 or 8,000 depending on the layout – has hosted a number of sporting and artistic events, chief of which have been basketball and gymnastics; the construction of the PalaDesio took eighteen months and the arena was completed on 12 March 1992 for a cost of around 6 million lire. It was built to host Aurora Desio, a basketball club that played in the second division Serie A2; the club would only play two seasons at the Banco Desio-sponsored arena, disappearing after the 1993-94 season after selling its sporting rights. Aurora's demise would open a vacuum that the Desio municipality struggled to fill, women's basketball and volleyball clubs Feg Robbiano and Preca Moda Cislago played there, whilst guests such as the Harlem Globetrotters or a number of artists periodically visited but despite this and the presence of gymnastics organisations the venue remained unprofitable. Faced with upkeep costs of between €120,000 and €250,000 per year, the municipality tried to involve private event-managing companies without avail, an attempt to sell the arena in 2003 did not go through either.

Another basketball club, neighbours Pallacanestro Cantù, used the arena to play in the 2011–12 Euroleague as the Palasport Pianella where they played did not meet Euroleague standards. It underwent a €130,000 refurbishment over the 2011 summer, with changes to the court, electrical installations and outside area that made it fall in line with the aforementioned standards; the PalaDesio hosted the Euroleague 2012–13 qualifying rounds, before again seeing Cantù play their Euroleague games there after they emerged victorious. They have played domestic Serie A games in Desio, including one game during the 2010-11 season, four more the next two local derbies against Vanoli Cremona and EA7 Emporio Armani Milano in 2014-15. Milano themselves have played a handful of games at the arena when their Mediolanum Forum proved unavailable, with two league games in 2011-12 season, three the next season and two 2014–15 Euroleague games, it hosted the games of Power Volley Milano for the 2014-15 season, after which the club moved to Castellanza's PalaBorsani.

In January 2015, Banco Desio - who had rescinded their naming sponsorship about twenty years earlier - signed a new sponsorship agreement with the municipality that saw the arena re-become the PalaBancoDesio. The newly minted PalaBancoDesio played host to the 2015 Italian Basketball Cup between the 20th and 22 February; the arena started hosting rhythmic gymnastics club San Giorgio ‘79 in the early 2000s, with the Italian national rhythmic gymnastics team making it their base from 2003. The relationship between San Giorgio - who had taken over the management of the arena - and the municipality after the latter decided to launch a tender in September 2012 to find a new managing entity. San Giorgio accused the local authorities of trying to force them out, denied by the town's mayor and head of sports who claimed they wanted to keep them in place but that an arena of that size was unsuited for their sole use; the dispute, which stemmed from the organisation of basketball games in the venue resolved itself when a new gym was projected to be built over 180 days from November 2013 to house all the gymnasts, thanks to funding from the Italian National Olympic Committee.

It was the venue of the 2014 finals of the Italian artistic gymnastics championships. The event, organised by neighbouring club Pro Carate Brianza, saw the national attendance record of the sport beaten with 5,700 tickets sold. Besides, it hosts international rhythmic gymnastics meetings to prepare the national team, who train every day in Desio, for competitions; the total dimension of the circular arena is 20,000 m2. It is 25 metres high and under a dome with a diameter of 78 metres; the arena has a basic capacity of 6,700 seats, which can be expanded to 8,000 if part of the court is used. It consists of the court-side, first ring and second; the arena was seen as well-built, so much that the neighbouring municipality of Monza asked - and obtained free of charge - for the building plans so that they copy them for their own arena

Wesley Church, Perth

Wesley Church is a Uniting Church in Perth, Western Australia, located at the corner of William Street and Hay Street. It is one of the oldest church buildings and one of few remaining 19th-century colonial buildings in the City of Perth. Wesley Church is built of load-bearing brick laid in Flemish bond in the Victorian academic gothic style and features a landmark spire, steeply pitched roofs, parapeted gables, label moulds and wall buttressing; the church has a strong verticality of form emphasised by tall lancet windows with plate tracery to the east facade. Angle buttresses divide the nave wall into five bays and the major windows have stucco label moulds above them; the bricks of the building, fired at uncertain temperatures in wood-burning kilns, show a range of mellow tones and, laid in Flemish bond, create a chequerboard effect on the walls, which provides a decorative element to the walls of the building. The spire is 35 metres high with a weathercock on top; the north-east tower replicates these smaller spires above the gable.

The roof structure is of hand-sawn timber and the roof covering was shingles, but at some point the Church was re-roofed in clay tiles. The first Methodists arrived in the Swan River Colony on 3 February 1830 aboard the Tranby, to found a small religious community at Tranby House, six kilometres upstream along the Swan River from the newly established town of Perth; the group was led by Joseph Hardey and John Wall Hardey, included a surgeon, bricklayer, shoemaker, hatter and several farmers. The site for the church was purchased from James Inkpen at a cost of £400; the new church was the third Methodist place of worship to be built in the forty years in which the denomination had been established in the colony. The original church was subsequently used as a caretaker's cottage. George Shenton had earlier suggested that the name of the church be Wesley Church, promised £1,000 to establish the building fund, with Joseph Hardey contributing a further £500. Wesley Church was designed by Richard Roach Jewell, an architect, circuit steward, clerk of colonial works and church member.

Jewell was responsible for the design of a number of other prominent Perth buildings, including the Cloisters, the Pensioner Barracks, extensions and alterations to Government House and Perth Town Hall. Jewell designed Wesley Church in the fashionable Gothic revival style, a style which he adapted in his other buildings. Jewell's plan for Wesley Church, comprising the nave and bell tower with a tall and elegant spire, was accepted with one alteration - the relocation of the bell tower from the north-east side to the south-east side; the foundation stone was laid on 25 October 1867 by Governor John Stephen Hampton. The church was opened on Sunday 10 April 1870 with services by Reverend William Lowe, Rev. William Traylen and Rev. T. C. Laurence; the total cost of the building was about £3,000 - a considerable sum for a church membership of 138. The original bricks were made from local clay pits and the floor is made of jarrah; the church bell hanging in the southern tower, came from the sailing ship Tranby, which brought the original members of the congregation to the colony.

In June 1875 the first church organ in the colony was installed at Wesley Church, a Bishop and Son instrument of two manuals and pedal with 15 speaking stops. In 1880 a clergy vestry, choir vestry and organ loft were added to the Church at a cost of £385. In 1896 further alterations and additions were made, including the construction of the north-east tower, the side galleries, the ceiling to the nave and the south-west porch; these alterations were undertaken by Talbot Hobbs at a cost of £1,150. The 1968 Meckering earthquake caused structural damage to the church's steeple. A decision was made to demolish the steeple but, when 30 ft was removed, the remainder of the structure appeared secure and so a copper cone was placed on top to replace the damaged section; the bell was removed from the tower as it was considered that the structure was too weak to support its weight. The bell was mounted on display outside on the Hay Street side of the church. In 1974 redevelopment occurred on the north-west and south-west sides of the church site with the construction of the Wesley Arcade and Tower, which opened in May 1976.

During these developments a small chapel was constructed at the north-west corner of the church. Wesley Church continued to be used as an active centre of worship and in 1977 the Methodist congregation joined the Uniting Church in Australia. In 1985 the Church launched a Restoration Fund through the National Trust of Australia to restore the external brick walls, gables and high part of the tower brickwork. Restoration works were completed in mid 1987; the church is the home of the Wesley worshipping community of the Uniting Church in the City, part of the Uniting Church in Australia. The Wesley Church was entered into the Register of the National Estate by the Australian Heritage Commission on 23 March 1985 and classified by the National Trust of Australia on 11 June 1973. On 23 May 1995 it was place