1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Alabama's 7th congressional district
Alabama's 7th congressional district is a United States congressional district in Alabama that elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives. The district encompasses Choctaw, Greene, Lowndes, Pickens, Perry and Wilcox counties, portions of Clarke, Jefferson and Tuscaloosa counties; the district encompasses portions of the Birmingham and Tuscaloosa/Northport urban areas. The largest city within the district is Selma; the district has been majority nonwhite, with a majority of African-American residents, since the redistricting following the 1990 census. It is represented by Democrat Terri Sewell, who succeeded Artur Davis in 2010. Alabama's 7th Congressional District was first defined in 1843; the geographic area represented by this district has changed over time, depending upon the number of U. S. Representatives apportioned to Alabama. Around the turn of the 20th century, the district included the city of Gadsden. Over time, the district was redefined to include the area around Tuscaloosa.
The last two representatives for the district before its reconfiguration as a majority-minority area were Richard Shelby and Claude Harris, both Tuscaloosa residents. The shape of the current district was established in 1992, when it was reconstituted as a majority-minority district under provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as amended in 1982 to encourage greater representation for minorities in Congress. Half of the western Alabama portion of the district was moved to the 4th district, a large portion of Tuscaloosa County was moved into the 6th district, based around Birmingham. To counter the loss in population and to create the majority minority, many counties from the Black Belt region, a rural expanse in Alabama with a high proportion of African-American residents descended from workers on cotton plantations, were added to the district, as was an arm extending from Tuscaloosa along the Interstate 20/59 corridor into Jefferson County to take in most of the black precincts of Birmingham.
Most of Birmingham's white residents remained in the 6th District. The three representatives elected from the district following reconfiguration—Earl F. Hilliard, Artur Davis and Terri Sewell—have all been residents of Birmingham. Minor changes in the following two redistrictings have not changed the shape of the district. But, western portions of Montgomery County have been restored to this district, including large swaths of inner-city Montgomery in the redistricting following the 2010 census; this area had earlier been removed after the 2000 census. The district contains urbanized areas of Birmingham and Tuscaloosa, ten of the fourteen rural counties in the Black Belt. Three of the state's largest colleges are located in the district: Alabama State University in Montgomery, the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Democrats have represented the 7th district in all but 6 years since 1843. A majority of voters in the district are African Americans who support the Democratic Party and its candidates.
As of October 2017, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from this district who are living. Alabama's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
U.S. Route 11
U. S. Route 11 is a signed north–south highway United States highway extending 1,645 miles across the eastern United States; the southern terminus of the route is at U. S. Route 90 in the Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge in eastern New Louisiana; the northern terminus is at the Rouses Point - Lacolle 223 Border Crossing in Rouses Point, New York. The route continues across the border into Canada as Quebec Route 223. US 11, created in 1926 follows the route of the original plan; until 1929, US 11 ended just south of Picayune, Mississippi at the Pearl River border with Louisiana. It was extended through Louisiana after that; the Maestri Bridge, which carries US 11 across Lake Ponchartrain, served as the only route to New Orleans from the east for six weeks after Hurricane Katrina due to its sturdy construction. The storm destroyed the Twin Span Bridge on I-10 and damaged the Fort Pike Bridge on US 90. Interstate 81, constructed in the 1960s, parallels the route of US 11 in many areas. Beyond I-81's southern terminus, other interstates run along corridors paralleling US 11 I-59, joined to I-81 by I-40, I-75, I-24.
US 11 spans 31.2 miles within the state of Louisiana. Its southern terminus is located in Eastern New Orleans at a junction with US 90; the route begins as a two-lane highway that travels northward through a remote stretch of marshland within both the Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge and the New Orleans city limits. After crossing over I-10 at exit 254, US 11 proceeds across Lake Pontchartrain on the Maestri Bridge, a 4.8-mile-long span dating from 1928 that parallels the I-10 Twin Span Bridge. Midway across the lake, US 11 enters unincorporated St. Tammany Parish. Upon reaching the north shore, US 11 follows Pontchartrain Drive into the city of Slidell, where it becomes a busy four-lane commercial corridor. After a brief concurrency with Louisiana Highway 433, US 11 turns onto Front Street and travels alongside the Norfolk Southern Railway line through Slidell's historic district. During this stretch, the route intersects both US 190 Bus. and mainline US 190, both four-lane thoroughfares connecting with nearby I-10.
Returning to two-lane capacity, US 11 crosses to the west side of the NSRW line on a narrow overpass built in 1937. At the north end of the city, US 11 intersects I-12 at exit 83, located just west of a major interchange with I-10 and I-59. A few miles US 11 enters the town of Pearl River and intersects LA 41. Here, the route turns southeast onto Concord Boulevard and proceeds a short distance to exit 3 on I-59. US 11 turns north onto I-59 and utilizes the four-lane interstate alignment for the remainder of its distance in Louisiana. Following a second interchange serving the small town, I-59 and US 11 cross the West Pearl River into the dense Honey Island Swamp. Along this stretch is an exit connecting to Old US 11, a remnant of the pre-interstate alignment that provides access to the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area. US 11 crosses into the state of Mississippi with I-59 on a bridge spanning the main branch of the Pearl River just south of Nicholson. U. S. Route 11 enters the state of Mississippi along Interstate 59, passing through several directions of trees.
After a short distance, Route 11 and Interstate 59 interchange at Exit 1 with Mississippi Highway 607, where 607 ends and U. S. Route 11 takes over its northeastern alignment away from Interstate 59. Route 11 parallels I-59 across Mississippi, serving as a local business route and following city streets through communities such as Hattiesburg and Meridian, it leaves the state east of Meridian concurrent with U. S. Route 80. U. S. Route 11 and U. S. Route 80 split three miles into Alabama near Cuba, with U. S. 80 following an eastward track toward Demopolis. US 11, in contrast, continues to parallel the I-20/I-59 freeway through Livingston to Eutaw, where US 11 joins U. S. Route 43; the overlapping routes proceed northeast to Tuscaloosa, where US 43 splits from US 11 and heads north. US 11, continues along the I-20/I-59 corridor to Birmingham. US 11 overlaps I-20/59 for 12 miles between Woodstock and Bessemer. From Bessemer into Birmingham, the route is locally known as the "Bessemer Superhighway." US 11 is co-signed with Alabama State Route 5 between Birmingham.
US 11 through the western side of Birmingham is known as the Bessemer Superhighway and 3rd Avenue West. It passes near Rickwood Field and Legion Field. On the east side of Birmingham, US 11 is known locally as Roebuck Parkway. West of downtown Birmingham, US 11 intersects U. S. Route 78. US 78 turns east onto US 11. In the midst of the city center, US 78 breaks from US 11, progressing south of US 11 as the two routes exit the city. East of downtown, I-20 splits with US 11 following I-59 to the northeast. US 11 passes through Gadsden and Fort Payne before crossing into Georgia ten miles northeast of Hammondville. Throughout Alabama, US 11 is paired with unsigned Alabama State Route 7; until 1955, US 11 was routed to Ashville and Gadsden following the current routes of AL 23 and US 411, followed Third Street and went west on Forrest Avenue in downtown Gadsden. It was relocated to its present route to Attalla, with the original route designated as an alternate route until 1963; the routes that corresponds to US 11's route in Alabama includes the Bear Meat Cabin Road (Hunt
Eutaw is a city in and the county seat of Greene County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 2,934; the city was named in honor of the Battle of Eutaw Springs, the last engagement of the American Revolutionary War in the Carolinas. Schools in Eutaw include Robert Brown Middle School, Eutaw Primary School, Greene County High School. Eutaw was laid out in December 1838 at the time that Greene County voters chose to relocate the county seat from Erie, located on the Black Warrior River, it was incorporated by an act of the state legislature on January 2, 1841. As the county seat, it developed as the trading center for the county, which developed an economy based on cultivation and processing of cotton, the chief commodity crop in the antebellum years; the crop was lucrative for major planters, who depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans, they built a number of fine homes in the city. Many have been preserved into the late early 21st centuries. Eutaw has twenty-seven antebellum structures on the National Register of Historic Places.
Twenty-three of these are included in the Antebellum Homes in Eutaw multiple property submission. The Coleman-Banks House, Old Greene County Courthouse, First Presbyterian Church, Kirkwood are listed individually. Additionally, the Greene County Courthouse Square District is a listed historic district in the heart of downtown. A nearby property, Everhope Plantation, is listed in the register. During the Reconstruction Era, Eutaw was the site of a number of Klan murders and acts by insurgents who were not finished with the war; the county courthouse was burned in 1868. On March 31, 1870, the Republican county solicitor, Alexander Boyd, was shot and killed at his hotel when resisting being taken by a masked group of armed Klan members; that same night, James Martin, a black Republican leader, was killed near his home in Union, Alabama in Greene County. In the fall of 1870, in the run-up to the gubernatorial election, two more black Republican politicians were killed in Greene County. On October 25, 1870, white members attacked a Republican rally in the courthouse square that had attracted 2,000 blacks, who voted Republican.
The Eutaw massacre resulted in some 54 wounded outside the county courthouse. Most blacks did not vote in the fall's election, which showed a majority in Greene County for the Democratic candidate for governor. Whites continued to use violence and intimidation of blacks across the state to suppress their voting and to regain power in the state legislature. In many places in Alabama, lynchings increased in the late 19th century into the early 20th century. None was documented in Greene County during this period, according to a 2015 report by the Equal Justice Initiative. On May 16, 1892, Sheriff Cullen and Deputy Sheriff E. C. Meredith of Greene County, with aid of a posse, distinguished themselves by going into Pickens County after a lynch mob of about 50 men; the mob had taken African-American suspect Jim Jones from the Greene County jail, saying they were going to hang him in Carrollton for an alleged crime there. Cullen and his posse confronted the mob at gunpoint, took Jones back to Greene County.
Agriculture has continued to dominate the economy of this county. Now conducted on an industrial scale, it has reduced the need for farm workers. Unemployement is high in the rural county. James Bevel, the main strategist and architect of the Civil Rights Movement, was buried in Ancestors Village Cemetery in Eutaw on December 29, 2008. In addition to his early work in the Nashville Student Movement and Mississippi movement, he initiated and directed the strategies for the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade, the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march, the 1966 Chicago Open Housing Movement. Eutaw is home to the Roman Catholic Convent of Our Lady of Consolata, the Consolata Sisters, a small monastery for nuns in West Alabama, they are known throughout Greene County for their humanitarian efforts. Eutaw is located east of the center of Greene County. U. S. Routes 11 and 43 pass through the center of town; the highways enter together from the northeast as Tuscaloosa Street. Alabama State Route 14 passes through the city as Greensboro Street to the southeast and Mesopotamia Street to the northwest.
Interstates 20 and 59 run through the northwest corner of the city, with access from Exit 40, 3 miles northwest of the center of town. Tuscaloosa is 34 miles to the northeast via Interstate 20/59, Meridian, Mississippi, is 60 miles to the southwest. Demopolis is 24 miles south via US 43, Greensboro is 21 miles to the southeast via Highway 14, Aliceville is 27 miles to the northwest via Highway 14. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Eutaw has a total area of 12.0 square miles, of which 11.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.63%, is water. The center of town is 3 miles west of the Black Warrior River, accessible to boats at Finches Ferry Public Use Area; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Eutaw has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,878 people, 778 households, 504 families residing in the city. The population density was 411.1 people per square mi