2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Boone County, Iowa
Boone County is a county in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,306, its county seat is Boone. Boone County comprises the Boone, IA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Des Moines-Ames-West Des Moines, IA Combined Statistical Area; the land that now forms Boone and several other Iowa counties was ceded by the Sac and Fox nation to the United States in a treaty signed on October 11, 1842. On January 13, 1846, the legislative body of the Indiana Territory authorized creation of twelve counties in the Iowa Territory, with general descriptions of their boundaries. Boone County's name referred to Captain Nathan Boone, son of Daniel Boone, an American pioneer who formed the Wilderness Trail and founded the settlement of Boonesborough, Kentucky. County residents selected Boonesboro as the county seat in 1851; the first building erected in the new settlement was a double log house, to be used as interim county office and courthouse. It was supplemented by a two–story building erected in 1856 replaced by a three-story building in 1868.
The nearby settlement of Montana was incorporated in 1866. It was renamed to Boone in 1871, it continued to grow, it annexed the settlement of Boonesboro in 1887, thus becoming the county seat. After the second courthouse became too small for the county's expanding populace, a new building replaced it, it was completed in 1917.. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 574 square miles, of which 572 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. US Highway 30 – runs east-west through center of county. Passes Beaver and Jordan. US Highway 169 – runs south from Webster County through west-central portion of Boone County. At its intersection with US 30, it runs east 3 miles to Ogden runs south to Dallas County. Iowa Highway 17 – runs south through east Boone County to Jordan, west one mile south to boundary line between Dallas and Polk Counties. Iowa Highway 144 – runs across the southwest tip of county, running NW-SE. Iowa Highway 210 – enters south line of county at Woodward runs east and ENE across the southern portion of county to Story County.
Dallas County – south Greene County – west Hamilton County – north and northeast Polk County – south and southeast Story County – east Webster County – north and northwest The 2010 census recorded a population of 26,306 in the county, with a population density of 46.07/sq mi. There were 11,756 housing units, of which 10,728 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,224 people, 10,374 households, 7,137 families residing in the county. The population density was 46 people per square mile. There were 10,968 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.53% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 0.43% from two or more races. 0.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,374 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families.
26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,763, the median income for a family was $49,346. Males had a median income of $32,504 versus $23,838 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,943. About 4.50% of families and 7.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.00% of those under age 18 and 5.90% of those age 65 or over. The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Boone County.† county seat Prior to 1932, Boone County was Republican in presidential elections, aside from 1912 when the county backed Bull Moose candidate & former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt.
From 1932 to 1980, the county was a swing county, voting for the national winner in all elections in that period aside from 1960. From 1984 to 2012, the county was Democratic in presidential elections, but swung hard in 2016 by 20.7 points to back Republican Donald Trump similar to many other counties in Iowa. Boone County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Boone County, Iowa Don Williams County Park Boone County on state government portal Boone County government's website Boone County Republican, Google news archive. —PDFs of 1,242 issues, dating from 1873 to 1897
Iowa Highway 4
Iowa Highway 4 is a state highway which runs from north to south across the state of Iowa. It is 146 miles long, beginning at an intersection with Iowa Highway 44 in Panora and ending at the Minnesota state line north of Estherville, it continues north as Minnesota State Highway 4. The route was created on January 1, 1969, when several route designations were changed to match other states' route numbers. Before 1969, Iowa 4 was known as Iowa 17. Iowa Highway 4 begins at Panora at Iowa 44, it goes north and is overlapped with Iowa Highway 141 north of Yale. It continues north until Jefferson, where it intersects U. S. Route 30, it goes north turns west to enter Churdan turns north until meeting Iowa 175. At Iowa 175, the highway turns west, with Iowa 175, passing through Lohrville, it turns north west of Lohrville, continues north through Rockwell City, where it intersects US 20. After a short concurrency with US 20, Iowa 4 continues north, intersects Iowa 7, they overlap through Pomeroy Iowa 4 goes north through Pocahontas, where it intersects Iowa 3.
North of Pocahontas, Iowa 4 meets Iowa 10 east of Havelock before passing through Mallard. Iowa 4 goes north into Emmetsburg, where it meets US 18. Iowa 4 and US 18 continue west of Emmetsburg together Iowa 4 turns north to go through Graettinger. Iowa 4 turns northwesterly to go through Wallingford, before meeting Iowa 9 in Estherville. Iowa 4 goes northeasterly out of Estherville before ending at the Minnesota border. Iowa 4 was created on January 1, 1969, during an effort by the Iowa State Highway Commission to renumber Iowa's state highways; the goal of the effort was to reduce confusion among drivers crossing into Iowa from other states by aligning Iowa's route numbers with their adjoining routes in other states. However, most of the route on which Iowa 4 is now applied has been in the primary highway system since it was created in 1920. At its designation, Primary Road No. 17 was a much longer route than Iowa 4. Primary Road No. 17 began in Albia at Primary Road Nos. 8 and 59 and headed northwest through Knoxville and Des Moines.
It continued west and north by passing through Adel and Perry before turning more northerly at Jefferson. It entered Rockwell City, Pocahontas and Estherville, it ended at the intersection of Primary Road Nos. 9 in Spirit Lake. In 1926, when the U. S. Highway System was introduced, Iowa 17 was shortened on both ends. A service bulletin from the IHC in late 1925 listed Iowa 17 would begin in Jefferson and follow the same route to Estherville. However, maps published the highway commission in 1927 show the route extended south to Adel ending at US 6. By 1931, it had been extended north to the Minnesota state line along what was Emmet County Road H. Ten years the southern end of the route shifted west to its current in end Panora, replacing Iowa 150 in its entirety; the sections that were duplicate routes with US 30, US 169, Iowa 141 were removed, while the standalone section between Grand Junction and Perry became part of Iowa 144. Over the next 28 years, sections of Iowa 17 were straightened and the paving of the route was completed.
As of 2011, construction of a new four-lane expressway for US 20 has caused a portion of that route to be rerouted onto Iowa 4. The expressway extends across the rest of the state to Dubuque; the Iowa Highways Page by Jason Hancock
Webster County, Iowa
Webster County is a county in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,013; the county seat is Fort Dodge. The county was established in January one of 43 counties established by a legislative package; this county was named after Daniel Webster, an American statesman noted for his moving oratory. Webster County comprises IA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 718 square miles, of which 716 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. US Highway 20 -- runs east -- west through Moorland and Coalville. US Highway 169 -- runs south to Harcourt, it runs 4 miles east turns south to exit the county. Iowa Highway 7 – enters western Webster County running east from Manson, it runs east to its terminus at US Highway 169 at Fort Dodge. Iowa Highway 175 – enters southeastern Webster County, running west from Stratford, it runs south -- north to its connection to US Highway 169 at 4 miles east of Harcourt. Iowa Highway 144 – enters southern Webster County near its midpoint.
It runs north to its connection to Iowa Highway 175 at 3 miles west of Harcourt. The Fort Dodge Regional Airport is located just north of Fort Dodge, it is a general aviation airport, with some commercial service provided by Air Choice One. Daily direct flights are operated to Lambert-St. Louis International Airport and Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, with connecting service through Mason City to Chicago O'Hare International Airport. Boone County Calhoun County Greene County Hamilton County Humboldt County Pocahontas County Wright County The 2010 census recorded a population of 38,013 in the county, with a population density of 53.1479/sq mi. There were 17,035 housing units, of which 15,580 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 40,235 people, 15,878 households, 10,304 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile. There were 16,969 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.39% White, 3.39% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races.
2.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,878 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.10% were non-families. 30.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,334, the median income for a family was $43,772. Males had a median income of $31,047 versus $23,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,857.
About 6.70% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.30% of those under age 18 and 7.00% of those age 65 or over. Coalville The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Webster County.† county seat Robert Schliske, member of the Wyoming House of Representatives, 1971-1975, born in Webster County In recent presidential elections, Webster County had a strong Democratic lean, voting for the party's candidate in every election from 1984 to 2012. In 2016 however, the county swung hard to vote for Republican Donald Trump by a wide margin, a nearly 27 point swing compared to 2012. Webster County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Webster County, Iowa Webster County government's website Webster County map 1895 Webster County Fair Website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820