The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Columbia County, New York
Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,096; the county seat is Hudson. The name comes from the Latin feminine form of the name of Christopher Columbus, at the time of the formation of the county a popular proposal for the name of the United States of America. Columbia County comprises the Hudson, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Albany-Schenectady, NY Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the east side of the Hudson River. At the time of European encounter, the area was occupied by the indigenous Mohican Indians. To the west of the river were the Mohawk and other four tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, extending past what is now the border of New York state; the first known European exploration of Columbia County was in 1609, when Henry Hudson, an English explorer sailing for the Dutch, ventured up the Hudson River. An accident to his craft forced him to stop at what is now known as Columbia County, search for food and supplies.
In 1612, the Dutch established trading posts and minor settlements, constructing New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. Fort Orange became a center of the fur trade with the Mohawk people. Traders began to stop at midway points along the Hudson River, on their travels between New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. Small settlements arose along the river to supply the traders' ships. In 1649, Dutch colonists purchased land near Claverack and in 1667, more land was purchased; as more Dutch arrived, the region developed. In 1664, the English renamed it the Province of New York. In the late 17th century, Robert Livingston, a Scots immigrant by way of Rotterdam, built on his connections as Indian agent in the colony and purchased two large portions of land from the Native Americans, he gained much larger grants for a total of 160,240 acres. He was made lord of the manor by the Crown, with all its perquisites, started to develop the property with tenant farmers. In 1710, he sold 6,000 acres of his property to Queen Anne of England for use as work camps and resettlement of Palatine German refugees.
The Crown had supported their passage to New York, they were to pay off the costs as indentured labor. Some 1200 Palatine Germans were brought to Livingston Manor. New York's Governor Hunter had helped with these arrangements: the workers were to manufacture naval stores from the pine trees in the Catskill Mountains, they were promised land for resettlement after completing their terms of indenture. They were refugees from years of religious fighting along the border with France, as well as crop failures from a severe winter. Work camps were established on both sides of the Hudson River; the Germans established Protestant churches at the heart of their community, which recorded their weddings and deaths, among the first vital records kept in the colony. After many years, some of the colonists were granted land in the frontier of the central Mohawk Valley west of present-day Little Falls in the 100 lots of the Burnetsfield Patent, they were buffer communities between the British settlements and the Iroquois and French Columbia County was formed in 1786 after the American Revolutionary War from portions of Albany County, once a vast area until new communities were developed and jurisdictions were organized.
In 1799, the southern boundary of Columbia County was moved southward to include that portion of Livingston Manor located in Dutchess County. In the nineteenth century, the Vermont Central Railway was constructed to the area, it provided transportation north towards Rutland and Burlington and south towards the major junction town of Chatham, New York, for travel to points west and east. Voters in Columbia County since the mid-19th century have elected Republicans to office, but from 1996 - 2007, new voter registrations by Democrats have outpaced those by Republicans by a margin of 4 to 1. This substantial shift in party affiliation is due in large part to an influx of people from New York City who now live either full or part-time in Columbia County. Organizations such as "Vote Columbia" have led efforts to have New York City residents, who live in a Democratic Party-controlled area, re-register to vote in their part-time residence of Columbia County, thus influencing the demographic of a populated area, home to an increasing number of people in weekend houses or retirement.
Local residents have expressed dismay that voters who stay in the county only on the weekends are influencing its politics and decisions over development and other issues. The rise in the number of Democrats has resulted in a virtual tie among the number of Democrats and non-affiliated voters in Columbia County. In the 2007 election cycle, Democrats came within two seats of taking control of the county Board of Supervisors. In the 2009 local elections, the Republicans increased their majority on the Board of Supervisors through the defeat of longtime Kinderhook Supervisor Doug McGivney; as Supervisor of the largest Town in the County, McGivney had the largest weighted vote on the Board of Supervisors. The Board of Supervisors is now led by Supervisor Pat Grattan. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 648 square miles, of which 635 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Columbia County is in the southeast central part of New York State, southeast of Albany
Albany County, New York
Albany County is a county in the state of New York, in the United States. Its northern border is formed by the Mohawk River, at its confluence with the Hudson River, on the east; as of the 2010 census, the population was 304,204. The county seat is the state capital of New York; as established by the English government in the colonial era, Albany County had an indefinite amount of land, but has had an area of 530 square miles since March 3, 1888. The county is named of Albany, who became James II of England. Albany County constitutes the central core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area. After England took control of the colony of New Netherland from the Dutch, Albany County was created on November 1, 1683, by New York Governor Thomas Dongan, confirmed on October 1, 1691; the act creating the county vaguely defined its territory "to containe the Towns of Albany, the Collony Rensselaerwyck and all the villages and Christian Plantaçons on the east side of Hudson River from Roelef's Creek, on the west side from Sawyer's Creek to the Sarraghtoga."
The confirmation declared in 1691 was similar but omitted the Town of Albany, substituted "Mannor of Ranselaerswyck" for "Collony Rensselaerwyck", stated "to the uttermost end of Sarraghtoga" instead of just "to Sarraghtoga". Livingston Manor was annexed to Albany County from Dutchess County in 1717. Albany's boundaries were defined more as state statutes would add land to the county, or more subtract land for the formation of new counties. In 1772 with the creation of Tryon and Charlotte counties, Albany gained definitive boundaries and included what are now Albany, Rensselaer and Schenectady counties; the city of Albany was the first municipality within this large county, founded as the village of Beverwyck by the Director-General of New Amsterdam, Pieter Stuyvesant, who established the first court in Albany. Albany was established as a city in 1686 by Governor Dongan through the Dongan Charter after the English took over the colony. Schenectady to the west was given a patent with some municipal rights in 1684 and became a borough in 1765.
The Manor of Rensselaerswyck was created as a district within the county in 1772, divided into two districts, one on each side of the Hudson River in 1779. The west district included all of what is now Albany County other than lands were in the city of Albany at the time. Though the Manor of Rensselaerswyck was the only district in what is today Albany County, it was not the only district in what was Albany County at the time. Pittstown in 1761, Duanesburgh in 1764, were created as townships, but when districts were created in 1772, those townships were incorporated into new districts, Pittstown in Schaghticoke and Duanesburgh into the United Districts of Duanesburgh and Schoharie. Schenectady was made from a borough to a district in 1772. Other districts established in 1772 were Hoosick, Cambridge, Halfmoon, Kings, Great Imboght, the Manor of Livingston. In a census of 1697, there were 1,452 individuals living in Albany County. By the end of the war in 1698, the population had dropped to 1,482, but rebounded and was at 2,273 by 1703.
By 1723, it had increased to 6,501 and in 1731 to 8,573, less than the population of the city of New York in the same year. In 1737, the inhabitants of Albany County would outnumber those of New York County by 17 people. In 1774, Albany County, with 42,706 people, was the largest county in colonial New York. According to the first Federal Census in 1790, Albany County reached 75,921 inhabitants and was still the state's largest county. On March 7, 1788, the state of New York divided the entire state into towns eliminating districts as administrative units by passing New York Laws of 1788, Chapters 63 and 64. Albany County was one of the original twelve counties created by the Province of New York on November 1, 1683. At the time, it included all of New York state north of Dutchess and Ulster counties, all of what is now Bennington County in Vermont, theoretically west to the Pacific Ocean. On May 27, 1717, Albany County was adjusted to gain an indefinite amount of land from Dutchess County and other non-county lands.
On October 7, 1763, King George III, as part of his Proclamation of 1763, created the new province of Quebec, implicitly setting the northern limit of New York at the parallel of 45 degrees north latitude from the Atlantic-St. Lawrence watershed westward to the St. Lawrence River, implicitly setting the northern limit of Albany County, but it was never mapped. On July 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts and south of the parallel of 45 degrees north latitude. Albany County implicitly gained present-day Vermont. Although disputes broke out this line became the boundary between New Hampshire and Vermont, has remained unchanged to the present; when New York refused to recognize land titles through the New Hampshire Grants, dissatisfied colonists organized in opposition, which led to the creation of independent Vermont in 1777. On July 3, 1766, Cumberland County was partitioned from Albany County to cover all territory to the northern and eastern limits of the colony, including Win
New York's 19th congressional district
United States House of Representatives, New York District 19 is located in New York's Hudson Valley and Catskills regions. District 19 lies in the northernmost region of the New York metropolitan area and south of Albany, it is represented by Democrat Antonio Delgado. After redistricting in 2012, the 19th district comprises all of Columbia, Greene, Schoharie and Ulster counties, parts of Broome, Dutchess and Rensselaer counties. President Obama won the new district by 6.2% in 2012. The current 19th District is a merger between the former 20th and 22nd Congressional Districts. From 2003 to 2013, the 19th was composed of parts of Dutchess, Orange and Westchester Counties, in addition to the entirety of Putnam County. Much of this district is now the 18th District, while the current 19th is the successor of the former 20th District. Sitting 19th district representative Nan Hayworth opted to follow most of her constituents into the new 18th, but was defeated by Democrat Sean Patrick Maloney, a former advisor to President Bill Clinton.
Most of the old 19th district is now part of the 18th district. Meanwhile, sitting 20th district representative Chris Gibson ran for re-election in the new 19th and won. On January 5, 2015, per his pledge when first elected not to serve more than four terms, Gibson announced that he would not run for re-election in 2016. In 2016, Democrat Zephyr Teachout was defeated by Republican John Faso in the November 8 election. Faso was defeated after only one term by Delgado. 1873-1875: Montgomery1913-1983: Parts of Manhattan1983-1993: Parts of Bronx, Westchester1993-2003: All of Putnam Parts of Dutchess, Westchester2003–2013: All of Putnam Parts of Dutchess, Rockland, Westchester2013–present: All of Columbia, Greene, Schoharie, Ulster Parts of Broome, Montgomery, RensselaerVarious New York districts have been numbered "19" over the years, including areas in New York City and various parts of upstate New York. The 19th District was a Manhattan-based district until 1980, it was the Bronx-Westchester seat now numbered the 17th District.
The present 19th District was the 21st District prior to the 1990s, prior to, the 25th District. Note that in New York State electoral politics there are numerous minor parties at various points on the political spectrum. Certain parties will endorse either the Republican or Democratic candidate for every office, hence the state electoral results contain both the party votes, the final candidate votes. List of United States congressional districts New York's congressional districts United States congressional delegations from New York United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 2018 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2004 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 2002 House election data " 2000 House election data " 1998 House election data " 1996 House election data "
Catskill (village), New York
Catskill is a village in Greene County, New York, United States. The population was 4,081 at the 2010 census, down from 4,392 at the 2000 census; the village is in the northeast part of the town of Catskill. Catskill is the county seat of Greene County. Most of the village land was purchased from the natives in 1684. At the end of the American Revolution there were only ten houses in the community; the village was incorporated in 1806. Catskill is one of only twelve villages in New York still incorporated under a charter, the other villages having incorporated or re-incorporated under the provisions of Village Law. Martin van Buren was married in the village. John Adams, congressman from New York, died here. Thomas Cole, founder of the Hudson River School of painting, was a longtime resident; the historic Cole House has tours available. It is located near the approach for the Rip Van Winkle Bridge. George Decker and Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army during the Kennedy Administration, was born in Catskill.
Catskill is located in eastern Greene County at 42°13′N 73°52′W, in the northeastern part of the town of Catskill. The village is on the west side of the Hudson River. New York State Route 385 passes through the center of the village as Bridge Street and Spring Street, ending in the western part of the village at an intersection with U. S. Route 9W. Route 385 crosses Route 23 at the northern border of the village and continues northeast 4 miles to Athens and 10 miles to Coxsackie. US 9W passes through the western part of Catskill village as Maple Avenue, leading north 17 miles to Ravena and south 11 miles to Saugerties. NY Route 23 crosses the northern corner of Catskill village, crossing the Hudson on the Rip Van Winkle Bridge into the town of Greenport, leading west 2 miles to Interstate 87 at Exit 21. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.9 square miles, of which 2.3 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles, or 20.26%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,081 people, 1,565 households, 1,026 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,962.0 people per square mile. There were 2,048 housing units at an average density of 914.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 60.40% White, 30.73% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.48% from other races, 3.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.22 of the population. There were 1,765 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.9% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.99. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,075, the median income for a family was $34,635. Males had a median income of $32,857 versus $21,578 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,169. About 16.6% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Voters in Catskill tend to be more liberal than the rest of Greene County's voters, it is somewhat of a battleground area but it has emerged Democratic by small margins in many of the past elections. Greene County remains a solidly Republican county. Notable current and former residents of Catskill include: Mickey Brantley, Major League Baseball player with the Seattle Mariners and batting coach for several MLB teams Thomas Cole, 19th-century painter Jennifer Connelly, actress George Q. Daley and stem cell research scientist.
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties; the lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy; the river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, after whom Hudson Bay in Canada is named.
It had been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlements of the colony clustered around the Hudson, its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony. During the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, an American pastoral style, as well as the concepts of environmentalism and wilderness; the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet. However, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream; the river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake. From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River; the U. S. Geological Survey uses this cartographical definition; the longest source of the Hudson River as shown on the most detailed USGS maps is the "Opalescent River" on the west slopes of Little Marcy Mountain, originating two miles north of Lake Tear of the Clouds, several miles, past the Flowed Lands, to the Hudson River. And a mile longer than "Feldspar Brook", which flows out of that lake in the Adirondack Mountains. Popular culture and convention, more cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source. Using river names as seen on maps, Indian Pass Brook flows into Henderson Lake, the outlet from Henderson Lake flows east and meets the southwest flowing Calamity Brook.
The confluence of the two rivers is. South of the outlet of Sanford Lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson; the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties. In the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties; the river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake. Shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake, it next goes through Hudson Falls. At this point the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties. Here the river has an elevation of 200 feet. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties; the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River. Shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford; the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, marking an impoundment of the river. At an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River. South of the Federal Dam, the Hudson River begins to widen considerably; the river enters the Hudson Valley, flowing along the west bank of Albany and the east bank of Rensselaer. Interstate 90 crosses the Hudson into Albany at this point in the river; the Hudson leaves the Capital District, forming the boundary between Greene and Columbia Counties. It meets its confluence with Schodack Creek, widening at this point.
After flowing by Hudson, the river forms the boundary between Ulster and Columbia Counties and Ulster and Dutchess Counties, passing Germantown and Kingston. The Delaware and Hudson Canal meets the river at t
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c