Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Page County, Virginia
Page County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,042, its county seat is Luray. Page County was formed in 1831 from Shenandoah and Rockingham counties and was named for John Page, Governor of Virginia from 1802 to 1805. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 314 square miles, of which 311 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. The highest point in Page County is Hawksbill Mountain, located along the border with Madison County within Shenandoah National Park. Shenandoah County – northwest Warren County – north Rappahannock County – east Madison County – southeast Greene County – southeast Rockingham County – south George Washington National Forest Shenandoah National Park As of the census of 2000, there were 23,177 people, 9,305 households, 6,634 families residing in the county; the population density was 74 people per square mile. There were 10,557 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.65% White, 2.61% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,305 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 25.30% from 45 to 64, 15.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,359, the median income for a family was $39,005.
Males had a median income of $27,199 versus $19,821 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,321. About 10.10% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 14.70% of those age 65 or over. US 211 US 340 Skyline Drive Luray Shenandoah Stanley Arthur William Aleshire was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Edward Mallory "Ned" Almond was a controversial United States Army general best known as the commander of the Army's X Corps during the Korean War. Floyd Wilson Baker was a third baseman in Major League Baseball who played for the St. Louis Browns, Chicago White Sox, Washington Senators, Boston Red Sox and Philadelphia Phillies. William Randolph Barbee was an American sculptor recognized for creating idealized, sentimental classical figures. Herbert Barbee was an American sculptor. Peter Bouck Borst was an active participant in the mid-19th century development of Page County, serving as a lawyer, county delegate to Virginia's Secession Convention of 1861, president of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad.
Patrick Henry Brittan was quartermaster general of Alabama and 10th Secretary of State for Alabama. Wayne Comer is a former Major League Baseball player. Charles Frederick Crisp was a United States political figure. A Democrat, he was elected as a Congressman from Georgia in 1882, served until his death in 1896. From 1890 until his death, he was leader of the Democratic Party in the House, as either the House Minority Leader or the Speaker of the House, he was the father of Charles R. Crisp who served in Congress. William Alexander Harris, Sr. was a U. S. Representative from Virginia, father of William A. Harris. William Alexander Harris was Senator from Kansas. Benjamin Franklin Huffman was a catcher in Major League Baseball. Thomas Jordan was a Confederate general and major operative in the network of Confederate spies during the American Civil War. A West Point graduate and career soldier in the armies of three nations, he fought in numerous wars and rebellions in the United States and Cuba. Jordan was a newspaper editor and author.
Donald Edward Keyhoe was an American Marine Corps naval aviator, writer of many aviation articles and stories in a variety of leading publications, manager of the promotional tours of aviation pioneers of Charles Lindbergh. Robert Franklin Leedy was a lawyer and Virginia state legislator. William Milnes, Jr. was a nineteenth-century congressman and industrialist from Virginia and Pennsylvania. George Quaintance was an artist from Virginia. Kenneth R. Plum is a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. Henry Ruffner was an educator and Presbyterian minister, who served as president of Washington College. Bethany Veney known as Aunt Betty, was an African-American sl
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Madison County, Virginia
Madison County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,308, its county seat is Madison. Madison County was established in December 1792, created from Culpeper County; the county is named for the Madison family. President James Madison is a descendant of that family. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 322 square miles, of which 321 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. A significant portion of western Madison County is within Shenandoah National Park, including Hawksbill Mountain, the highest point in both the park and in Madison County, Old Rag Mountain, one of the park's most popular tourist destinations, Rapidan Camp, the presidential retreat built by Herbert Hoover. Hoover's Camp was built between 1929 and 1932; the camp consisted of 13 buildings with the main one being "The Brown House". In 2017, only three of these houses are still standing; the camp was built where two streams merge to form the Rapidan River because fishing was Hoover's favorite pastime.
Hoover made sure that the camp was built at an elevation where mosquitos would not be a nuisance while fishing. The camp was donated to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1932 so other presidents could use it and in December 1935 it became a part of Shenandoah National Park. Page County, Virginia – northwest Rappahannock County, Virginia – north Culpeper County, Virginia – east Orange County, Virginia – southeast Greene County, Virginia – southwest Shenandoah National Park US 15 US 29 SR 230 SR 231 As of the census of 2000, there were 12,520 people, 4,739 households, 3,521 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 5,239 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.71% White, 11.41% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,739 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families.
21.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 95.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.60 males. There are more cows in Madison County than people; the median income for a household in the county was $39,856, the median income for a family was $44,857. Males had a median income of $30,805 versus $24,384 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,636. About 6.90% of families and 9.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.70% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Madison County Public Schools has around 2000 students in four schools. Madison Primary School has around 370 students.
Waverly Yowell Elementary School has grades 3 -- around 410 students. William Wetsel Middle School has around 415 students. Madison County High School has around 665 students. All statistics based on 2007–2008 VA DOE statistics, it is home to Woodberry Forest School, a private, all-male boarding school. Madison County High School is the county's only High School. Grades 9–12 attend MCHS; the total number of students at MCHS was 584 for 2013–2014. Madison County's nickname have two main logos. One is an inked drawing of a Mountaineer standing on a mountain. In the background, a caravan of people and covered wagons can be seen being led by the Mountaineer; the second main logo is a "M" with a "C" offset and connected to it standing for Madison County, the name of both the county and high school. The colors are white. MCHS fields athletic teams in football, soccer, wrestling, cross country, golf and softball. Swimming was added as a sport in 2011. Cheerleading teams are fielded for football and basketball games.
Madison is home to the 2012 Group A, Division 1 state champions in Forensics. MMCHS offers AP courses and dual enrollment courses through Germanna Community College. MCHS has full accreditation from the Virginia Department of Education with Virginia Standards of Learning passing rates ranging from 94 percent on the history to 86 percent on the science. MCHS graduates more than 90% of its students per year. Madison Brightwood National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Virginia Official Madison County Website Official Madison County Map Madison County Historical Society Madison County Chamber of Commerce
Shenandoah National Park
Shenandoah National Park is a national park that encompasses part of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the U. S. state of Virginia. The park is long and narrow, with the broad Shenandoah River and Valley on the west side, the rolling hills of the Virginia Piedmont on the east. Although the scenic Skyline Drive is the most prominent feature of the park 40% of the land area 79,579 acres has been designated as wilderness and is protected as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; the highest peak is Hawksbill Mountain at 4,051 feet. The park encompasses parts of eight counties. On the west side of Skyline Drive they are, from northeast to southwest, Page and Augusta counties. On the east side of Skyline Drive they are Rappahannock, Madison and Albemarle counties; the park stretches for 105 miles along Skyline Drive from near the town of Front Royal in the northeast to near the city of Waynesboro in the southwest. The park headquarters are located in Luray. Shenandoah National Park lies along the Blue Ridge Mountains in north-central Virginia.
These mountains form a distinct highland rising to elevations above 4,000 feet. Local topographic relief between the Blue Ridge Mountains and Shenandoah Valley exceeds 3,000 feet at some locations; the crest of the range divides the Shenandoah River drainage basin, part of the Potomac River drainage, on the west side, from the James and Rappahannock River drainage basins on the east side. Some of the rocks exposed in the park date to over one billion years in age, making them among the oldest in Virginia. Bedrock in the park includes Grenville-age granitic basement rocks and a cover sequence of metamorphosed Neoproterozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Swift Run and Catoctin formations. Columns of Catoctin Formation metamorphosed basalt can be seen at Compton Peak. Clastic rocks of the Chilhowee Group are of early Cambrian age. Quaternary surficial deposits cover much of the bedrock throughout the park; the park is located along the western part of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium, a regional-scale Paleozoic structure at the eastern margin of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt.
Rocks within the park were folded, faulted and metamorphosed during the late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. The rugged topography of Blue Ridge Mountains is a result of differential erosion during the Cenozoic, although some post-Paleozoic tectonic activity occurred in the region. Legislation to create a national park in the Appalachian mountains was first introduced by new Virginia congressman Henry D. Flood in 1901, but despite the support of President Theodore Roosevelt, failed to pass; the first national park was Yellowstone, in Wyoming and Idaho. It was signed into law in 1872. Yosemite National Park was created in 1890; when Congress created the National Park Service in 1916, additional parks had maintained the western pattern. Grand Canyon and Acadia were all created in 1919 during the administration of Virginia-born president Woodrow Wilson. Acadia broke the western mold, becoming the first eastern national park, it was based on donations from wealthy private landowners. Stephen Mather, the first NPS director, saw a need for a national park in the southern states, solicited proposals in his 1923 year-end report.
In May 1925, Congress and President Calvin Coolidge authorized the NPS to acquire a minimum of 250,000 acres and a maximum of 521,000 acres to form Shenandoah National Park, authorized creation of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. However, the legislation required that no federal funds would be used to acquire the land. Thus, Virginia needed to raise private funds, could authorize state funds and use its eminent domain power to acquire the land to create Shenandoah National Park. Virginia's Democratic gubernatorial candidate, Harry F. Byrd supported creation of Shenandoah National Park, as did his friend William E. Carson, a businessman who had become Virginia's first chairman of the Commission on Conservation and Development. Development of the western national parks had assisted tourism, which produced jobs, which Byrd and local politicians supported; the land that became Shenandoah park was scenic and had lost about half of its trees to the Chestnut blight. However, it had been held as private property for over a century, so many farms and orchards existed.
After Byrd became governor and convinced the legislature to appropriate $1 million for land acquisition and other work and his teams tried to figure out who owned the land. They found that it consisted of more than 5,000 parcels, some of them inhabited by tenant farmers or squatters; some landowners, including wealthy resort owner George Freeman Pollock and Luray Realtor and developer L. Ferdinand Zerkel, had long wanted the park created and had formed the Northern Virginia Park Association to win over the national park selection committee. However, many local families who had lived in the area for generations did not want to sell their land, some refused to sell at any price. Carson promised that if they sold to the state, they could still live on their homesteads for the rest of their lives. Carson lobbied the new president Herbert
Orange County, Virginia
Orange County is a county located in the Central Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,481, its county seat is Orange. Orange County is home to Montpelier, the 2,700-acre estate of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States and oft-hailed "Father of the Constitution." The county celebrated its 275th anniversary in 2009. The area was inhabited for thousands of years by various cultures of indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, the Ontponea, a sub-group of the Siouan-speaking Manahoac tribe, lived in this Piedmont area; the first European settlement in what was to become Orange County was Germanna, formed when Governor Alexander Spotswood settled 12 immigrant families from Westphalia, Germany there in 1714. Orange County, as a legal entity, was created in August 1734 when the Virginia House of Burgesses adopted "An Act for Dividing Spotsylvania County." Unlike other counties whose boundaries had ended at the Blue Ridge Mountains, Orange was bounded on the west "by the utmost limits of Virginia" which, at that time, stretched to the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.
The colony of Virginia claimed the land, but little of it had yet been occupied by any English. For this reason, some contend that Orange County was at one time the largest county that existed; this situation lasted only four years. The expansiveness of the county boundaries was to encourage settlement further westward as well as to contend against the French claim to the Ohio Valley region. No battles of the American Revolution were fought in Orange County. However, two companies of 50 men each were recruited from Orange county to the Culpeper Minutemen. One was led by Col. Lawrence Taliaferro. In December 1775, this company fought in the Battle of Great Bridge Orange County's Committee of Safety was active in providing money, horses, guns and other supplies to Continental forces. Orange County prospered with the development of several railroad routes through Orange and Gordonsville in the 1840s and 1850s, they succeeded the plank road between Fredericksburg and Orange, which connected with two important roads: the Richmond Road between the state capital and the Shenandoah Valley and a stage coach route to Charlottesville and points south.
The Orange and Alexandria Railroad and Virginia Central Railroad helped foster a diversified agricultural economy in Orange County, bringing produce and timber to markets in Richmond, Washington D. C. and Norfolk as well as more industrial products. The final adjustment of the county's boundaries occurred in 1838, when Greene County was created from the western portion of Orange; the Town of Orange was established in 1834 and had served as the county seat for nearly a century. During the Civil War, the towns of Orange and Gordonsville continued as important railroad hubs and hospital centers for the Confederacy. Confederate military companies recruited from the county included three companies of the 13th Virginia Infantry, the Gordonsville Grays, two artillery companies, one cavalry company, many soldiers in the 7th Virginia Infantry, Wise Artillery, 6th Virginia Cavalry. General Robert E. Lee rode through the county and wintered the Army of Northern Virginia in Orange County during 1863-64, the Rapidan River becoming a defensive line.
Cavalry raids against the railroad supply lines occurred, including several at Rapidan on the border with Culpeper County. Troops crossed the Rapidan River at Germanna Ford near Locust Grove. After Fredericksburg fell to Union forces, Mosby's Rangers were formed and conducted some operations in Orange County; the 1863 Battle of Mine Run and the 1864 Battle of the Wilderness both occurred in eastern Orange County, as Union troops drove toward the Confederacy's capitol. The latter became a significant turning point in the war. Following Virginia's readmission to the Union in 1870, the railroads were rebuilt; the county was divided into Barbour, Madison and Gordon townships, named after important prewar citizens. The agricultural economy resumed despite the loss of slave labor, with more livestock and dairy farming both because such required less physical labor and because the railroads could deliver those agricultural products to larger markets quickly and cheaply. Virginia Governor James L. Kemper moved from Madison County to near Orange.
Agriculture and manufacturing continued to expand into the twentieth century, with a peak of 1279 farms and 20 manufacturing companies located within the county as of 1929. A manufacturing survey taken during the Great Depression noted that Orange County's economy remained healthy due to its accessibility; the county's population fluctuated following the Civil War up through the 1930s. From that point forward, the population continued to grow representing an 300% increase through the 2010 Census. In 1991, the Virginia Landmarks Register designated 31,200 acres in the county's western portion as the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District; the largest such district in the Commonwealth includes James Madison's Montpelier, James Barbour's Thomas Jefferson-designed Barboursville mansion, several plantations, portions of the Mon