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Greenland

Greenland is the world's largest island, located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. It is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors migrated from Alaska through Northern Canada settling across the island by the 13th century. Nowadays, the population is concentrated on the southwest coast, while the rest of the island is sparsely populated. Greenland is divided into five municipalities — Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata, it has two unincorporated areas -- the Thule Air Base. The last one if under Danish control, is administered by the United States Air Force. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world.

About a third of the population lives in the capital and largest city. The Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada. Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland; these Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1261; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador.

In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government.

Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing. It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.

The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tr

Kamenitza

Kamenitza is one of the top-selling Bulgarian beer companies, based in the city of Plovdiv. It was established in 1881 and is owned by the multinational Molson Coors; the brewery has a wide variety of dark beers. Its slogan is "Mazhete znayat zashto" which translates to "Men know why." Kamenitza had an 18% share of the Bulgarian beer market in 2005 according to data from ACNielsen. The company is a sponsor of the Bulgaria national football team. Kamenitza has six brands: Light, non-alcoholic and Fresh. In 1881 three Swiss entrepreneurs built a brewery in Plovdiv on a hill called Kamenitza and used the name as their brand; the drink of choice for most Bulgarians at the time was lager, but Kamenitza broke new ground by producing the first dark beer for the market. By the 1890s they won awards including Brussels and Chicago; the communist regime nationalised Kamenitza: first, in 1947, as part of the state-owned Alcoholic Beverages in 1952 as part of Vinprom. The Belgian multinational company InBev bought the Bulgarian breweries Kamenitza and Burgasko Pivo in 1995 and added Plevensko Pivo in 1997.

During 1997 to 2005, InBev invested 86.3 million leva in Bulgaria, in 2005 Kamenitza sold 800,000 hectoliters, making it the best-selling domestic beer. In mid October 2009, private equity fund CVC Capital Partners bought all of Anheuser–Busch InBev's holdings in Central Europe for €2.23 billion. They renamed the operations StarBev. Since the early 2010s, Kamenitza bottles have pull-off caps. Kamenitza.bg – official website

Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo

D. Cristóvão de Moura e Távora was a Portuguese nobleman who led the Spanish party during the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, he was the son of D. Luís de Moura, Chief Equerry to Infante Duarte, his wife, D. Brites de Távora, daughter of Cristóvão de Távora, 2nd Lord of the Majorat of Caparica, his wife, Francisca de Sousa. Established in Spain since 1554, famous for his intelligence, Cristóvão de Moura was put in charge of diplomacy among the Portuguese nobility by Philip II of Spain, fuelling the political rivalry between the Prior of Crato and the Duke of Braganza, gathering sympathisers to the cause of the Spanish monarch among the crust of Portuguese society and government. After Philip II's accession to the Portuguese throne, Cristóvão de Moura was made part of the Council of Portugal, a five-member body that advised the sovereign on the government of the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonial empire. Among other privileges, the King rewarded his services with the post of Comptroller of the Exchequer and, granted him the title of 1st Count of Castelo Rodrigo.

The king's son and successor, Philip III of Spain, made him the first Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo. This king named Cristóvão de Moura Viceroy of Portugal, he went on to serve as Viceroy in three separate occasions: first from 29 January 1600 to 1603, again in 1603, from February 1608 to 1612. The government of the Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo was not well-liked by the Portuguese. Cristóvão de Moura married Margarida Corte-Real, heiress of the Captaincy of Angra, in Terceira Island, Azores, in 1581; the marriage contract stipulated. Of his wife, Margarida Corte-Real D. Manuel de Moura Corte Real, 2nd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo, who married D. Leonor de Melo, daughter of D. Nuno Álvares Pereira de Melo, 3rd Count of Tentúgal. D. Margarida Coutinho, who married D. Manrique de Silva, 1st Marquis of Gouveia, having no offspring. D. Maria de Mendonça, who married D. Afonso de Portugal, 5th Count of Vimioso and 1st Marquis of Aguiar. D. Beatriz de Moura, who married Fernando Enríquez, Duke of Alcala de los Gazules, Viceroy of CataloniaOf Ana Afonso: Inês Afonso de Moura Media related to Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo at Wikimedia Commons