ESPN on ABC
ESPN on ABC is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised on the American Broadcasting Company in the United States. The broadcast network retains its own sports division. ABC broadcasts use ESPN's production and announcing staff, incorporate elements such as ESPN-branded on-screen graphics, SportsCenter in-game updates, the BottomLine ticker; the ABC logo is used for identification purposes as a digital on-screen graphic during sports broadcasts on the network, in promotions to disambiguate events airing the broadcast network from those shown on the ESPN cable channel. The broadcast network's sports event coverage carried the ABC Sports brand prior to September 2, 2006; when ABC acquired a controlling interest in ESPN in 1984, it operated the cable network separately from its network sports division. The integration of ABC Sports with ESPN began after The Walt Disney Company bought ABC in 1996; the branding change to ESPN on ABC was made to better orient ESPN viewers with event telecasts on ABC and provide consistent branding for all sports broadcasts on Disney-owned channels.
Despite its name, ABC's sports coverage is supplemental to ESPN and not a simulcast of programs aired by the network, although ESPN and ESPN2 will carry ABC's regional broadcasts that otherwise would not air in certain markets. Like its longtime competitors CBS Sports and NBC Sports, ABC Sports was part of the news division of the ABC network, after 1961, was spun off into its own independent division; when Roone Arledge came to ABC Sports as a producer of NCAA football games in 1960, the network was in financial shambles. The International Olympic Committee wanted a bank to guarantee ABC's contract to broadcast the 1960 Olympics. At the time, Edgar Scherick served as the de facto head of ABC Sports. Scherick had joined the fledgling ABC television network when he persuaded it to purchase Sports Programs, Inc. in exchange for the network acquiring shares in the company. Scherick had formed the company after he left CBS, when the network would not make him the head of its sports programming unit.
Before ABC Sports became a formal division of the network, Scherick and ABC programming chief Tom Moore pulled off many programming deals involving the most popular American sporting events. While Scherick was not interested in "For Men Only," he recognized the talent. Arledge realized; the lack of a formal organization would offer him the opportunity to claim real power when the network matured. With this, he signed on with Scherick as an assistant producer, with Arledge ascending to a role as executive producer of its sports telecasts. Several months before ABC began broadcasting NCAA college football games, Arledge sent Scherick a remarkable memo, filled with youthful exuberance, television production concepts which sports broadcasts have adhered to since. Network broadcasts of sporting events had consisted of simple set-ups and focused on the game itself. In his memo, Arledge not only offered another way to broadcast the game to the sports fan, but recognized that television had to take fans to the game.
In addition, he had the forethought to realize that the broadcasts needed to attract, hold the attention of female viewers, as well as males. On September 17, 1960, the then-29-year-old Arledge put his vision into reality with ABC's first NCAA college football broadcast from Birmingham, between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Georgia Bulldogs which Alabama won, 21–6. Despite the production values he brought to NCAA college football, Scherick wanted low-budget sports programming that could attract and retain an audience, he hit upon the idea of broadcasting field events sponsored by the Amateur Athletic Union. While Americans were not fans of track and field events, Scherick figured that Americans understood games. In January 1961, Scherick called Arledge into his office, asked him to attend the annual AAU board of governors meeting. While he was shaking hands, Scherick said, "if the mood seemed right, might he cut a deal to broadcast AAU events on ABC?" It seemed like a tall assignment, however as Scherick said years "Roone was a gentile and I was not."
Arledge came back with a deal for ABC to broadcast all AAU events for $50,000 per year. Next and Arledge divided up their NCAA college football sponsor list, they telephoned their sponsors and said in so many words, "Advertise on our new sports show coming up in April, or forget about buying commercials on NCAA college football this fall." The two persuaded enough sponsors to advertise on the broadcasts, though it took them to the last day of a deadline imposed by ABC's programming operations to do it. Wide World of Sports – an anthology series featuring a different sporting event each broadcast, which premiered on the network on April 29, 1961 – suited Scherick's plans exactly. By exploiting the speed of jet transportation and flexibility of videotape, Scherick was able to undercut NBC and CBS's advantages in broadcasting live sporting events. In that era, with communications nowhere near as universal as they are in the present day, ABC was able to safely record events on
Super Bowl XXXV
Super Bowl XXXV was an American football game between the American Football Conference champion Baltimore Ravens and the National Football Conference champion New York Giants to decide the National Football League champion for the 2000 season. The Ravens defeated the Giants by the score of 34–7, tied for the seventh largest Super Bowl margin of victory with Super Bowl XXXVII; the game was played on January 2001 at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida. The Ravens, who posted a 12–4 regular season record, became the third wild card team to win the Super Bowl and the second in four years; the city of Baltimore had its first Super Bowl title since the Baltimore Colts' triumph thirty years prior and became the first city to win major professional football championships with four franchises, the others being the Colts, the 1985 Baltimore Stars of the United States Football League and the 1995 Baltimore Stallions of the Canadian Football League. The Giants entered the game seeking to go 3–0 in Super Bowls after finishing the regular season with a 12–4 record.
Baltimore allowed only 152 yards of offense by New York, recorded 4 sacks, forced 5 turnovers. All 16 of the Giants' possessions ended with punts or interceptions, with the exception of the last one, which ended when time expired in the game. New York's lone touchdown, a 97-yard kickoff return, was answered by Baltimore on an 84-yard touchdown return on the ensuing kickoff; the Giants became the first team since the Cincinnati Bengals in Super Bowl XXIII to not score an offensive touchdown and the fifth overall Baltimore linebacker Ray Lewis, who made 3 solo tackles, 2 assists, blocked 4 passes, was named Super Bowl MVP. NFL owners awarded Super Bowl XXXV to Tampa during their 1996 meeting in New Orleans. Tampa became the fourth metropolitan area to host the game at least three times, joining New Orleans and Los Angeles. Other cities under consideration at the meeting were Miami and Los Angeles. Owners planned on selecting only two hosts, but decided to name three after strong showings by the respective delegations.
Tampa was promised a Super Bowl after committing to the construction of a new stadium. Miami and Tampa were selected to host XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, respectively; the Ravens entered the game with the second-best defense in allowing yards in the league, with the fewest points allowed and the fewest rushing yards allowed during the regular season. At the time, they were the only team to hold the opposition to under 1,000 yards rushing in a season since the NFL adopted a 16-game schedule in 1978. Baltimore's 165 points allowed broke the record set by the 1986 Chicago Bears, who had given up 187 points; the Ravens' defense had held their opponents to 10 or fewer points in 11 games, including four shutouts. The defense was led by a trio of outstanding linebackers: Peter Boulware, Jamie Sharper, Ray Lewis. During the regular season, Boulware recorded 7 sacks, while Sharper forced 5 fumbles and made one interception. Lewis was named the NFL Defensive Player of the Year by recording 3 sacks, making 138 tackles, intercepting 2 passes.
Pro Bowl defensive tackle Sam Adams and veteran Tony Siragusa anchored the defensive line, along with defensive ends Rob Burnett and Pro Bowler Michael McCrary. Baltimore had an outstanding corps of defensive backs led by Pro Bowl veteran safety Rod Woodson, who along with Kim Herring, Duane Starks, Chris McAlister combined for 17 interceptions. On offense, the Ravens' main strength was led by rookie Jamal Lewis and Priest Holmes. Tight end Shannon Sharpe recorded 67 receptions for 810 yards and 5 touchdowns. Receiver Qadry Ismail added 49 receptions for four touchdowns; the offensive line was anchored by tackle Jonathan Ogden, named to the Pro Bowl for the 4th consecutive season. On special teams, Jermaine Lewis ranked second in the NFL with 36 punt returns for 578 yards and two touchdowns, while catching 19 passes for 161 yards and another score. Kicker Matt Stover led the NFL in field goals made and attempted, while ranking 7th in field goal percentage and second in scoring. However, the Baltimore offense was mediocre, ranking only 13th in the league in scoring, 16th in total yards, 23rd in passing yards.
The team had a lot of trouble scoring, at one point they went through five games without scoring an offensive touchdown. But they managed to regroup, as head coach Brian Billick forbade anyone to use the "P-word" until the team played in it; the Ravens' outspoken defensive lineman, Tony Siragusa, did utter the word "playoffs" on two separate occasions and was fined, albeit a measly sum of $500. Since the fine were symbolic and playful, Billick explained himself by saying, "He got a $400 fine for doing it on national television and $100 for doing it on his radio show; the reason being because no one listens to his show anyway." In place of the "P-word", the word "Festivus" was used, the December 23 secular holiday featured in an episode of the popular American television sitcom Seinfeld (the Ravens organization played along with this theme for that year's playoffs by showing a clip
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, one of three held in Florida, with the annual championship showdown Ford EcoBoost 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami, it is one of the four restrictor plate races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series; the Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse. Championship points awarded, it is the series' first race of the year. Since 1995, U. S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing.
The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers. The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is sometimes known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing". Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February; the winner of the Daytona 500 is presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway. Denny Hamlin is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2019; the race is the direct successor of shorter races held on the Daytona Beach Road Course. This long square was on the sand and on the highway near the beach. Earlier events featured 200-mile races with stock cars.
A 500-mile stock car race was held at Daytona International Speedway in 1959. It was the second 500-mile NASCAR race, following the annual Southern 500, has been held every year since. By 1961, it began to be referred to as the Daytona 500, by which it is still known. Daytona International Speedway is 2.5 miles long and a 500-mile race requires 200 laps to complete. However, the race is considered official; the race has been shortened four times due to rain and once in response to the energy crisis of 1974. Since the adaptation of the green–white–checker finish rule in 2004, the race has gone past 500 miles on eight occasions. 1959: Lee Petty, patriarch of the racing family, won the inaugural Daytona 500 on February 22, 1959, defeating Johnny Beauchamp. 1960: Junior Johnson made use of the draft a little-understood phenomenon, to win while running a slower, year-old car in a field of 68 cars, most in Daytona 500 history through the present day. 1965: The first rain-shortened Daytona 500 was the 1965 event.
Fred Lorenzen was in the lead when the race was called on lap 133 of 200. 1966: Richard Petty becomes the first two-time winner, having won the 1964 race. Through 2015, only 11 drivers have won 2 or more Daytona 500s. 1967: Mario Andretti led 112 of the 200 laps including the last 33 to capture his first and only win in the Cup Series. 1968: For much of this race, both Cale Yarborough and LeeRoy Yarbrough traded the lead. With 5 laps to go, Cale made a successful slingshot pass on the third turn to take the lead from LeeRoy and never looked back as he won his first Daytona 500 by 1.3 seconds. 1969: Having learned from his unrelated surname-mate the previous year, LeeRoy Yarbrough would use the same sling-shot treatment out of turn 3 on Charlie Glotzbach, to score the victory on the final lap. 1971: Richard Petty becomes the first three-time winner, including the 1964 and 1966 races. Through 2015, only 5 drivers have won 3 or more Daytona 500s. 1972: A. J. Foyt cruised into the lead on lap 80 and stayed there through the 200 lap race, lapping the entire field.
Foyt beat second place Charlie Glotzbach by nearly two laps, with Jim Vandiver finishing 6 laps down in third. 1973: Richard Petty becomes the first four-time winner, including the 1964, 1966 and 1971 races. Through 2015, only Petty and Cale Yarborough have won 4 Daytona 500s. 1974: During the start of the 1974 NASCAR season, many races had their distance cut ten percent in response to the 1973 oil crisis. As a result, the 1974 Daytona 500 was shortened to 180 laps, as symbolically, the race "started" on lap 21. Richard Petty became the first of only 3 drivers to win consecutive Daytona 500s, while setting a mark of 5 total wins. 1976: In the 1976 race, Richard Petty was leading on the last lap when he was passed on the backstretch by David Pearson. Petty didn't clear Pearson; the contact caused the drivers to spin into the grass in the infield just short of the finish line. Petty's car didn't start, but Pearson was able to keep his car running and limp over the finish line for the win. Many fans consider this finish to be the greatest in the history of NASCAR.
1979: The 1979 race was the first Daytona 500 to be broadcast live on national television, airing on CBS, whose audience was
Loras College is a Catholic college in Dubuque, Iowa. It has an enrollment of 1,600 students and is the oldest post-secondary institution in the state of Iowa; the school offers graduate degree programs. It is one of four four-year post-secondary institutions in the City of Dubuque, one of four Catholic colleges in the Archdiocese of Dubuque, one of six Catholic colleges in the state of Iowa. Loras College, a liberal arts college, was founded in 1839 by the Most Rev. Bishop Mathias Loras, first bishop of Dubuque, who established Saint Raphael's Seminary to educate young men for the priesthood with the expressed intention of providing an opportunity for higher education to the citizens of the area. Loras became President of the college; the college has functioned under several different names: Saint Raphael's Seminary and Saint Raphael's Academy, Mount St. Bernard's College and Seminary, St. Joseph's College, Dubuque College, Columbia College; the present name was adopted during the school's centennial in 1939.
That same year, the national Catholic honor society, Delta Epsilon Sigma was founded at the college, by Father Fitzgerald. From the time of its founding, the college has devoted its faculty and facilities to an undergraduate program. In 1963, when The Catholic University of America decided to discontinue its branch program of graduate study on the Loras campus, Loras College, realizing the growing need in the locale for study beyond the baccalaureate degree, initiated its Graduate Division offering the Master of Arts degree in some fields; the College became coeducational in the fall of 1971. In 1973, the Associate of Arts and the Associate of Science degrees were introduced; the Division of Community Education was initiated in 1975. Both the Undergraduate College and the Graduate Division of Loras College are accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools; the teacher education program, both at the graduate and undergraduate level, is accredited by the Iowa Department of Education.
The undergraduate teacher education program is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. The American Chemical Society has approved the undergraduate chemistry program; the Council of Social Work Education has accredited the social work major at the baccalaureate level. Loras offers 49 majors, 11 stand-alone minors, nine pre-professional programs for undergraduates. Undergraduates can participate in summer classes, field experience, study abroad, much more. For graduate programs, Loras offers a Master of Arts in clinical or general psychology, school counseling, education STEM, a master's degree Business Administration with a focus on business analytics. Loras’ athletic teams are known as the Duhawks, a name bestowed upon the football team by a Detroit Free Press scribe in 1924 converging Dubuque and Hawks; the school fields 23 men’s and women’s varsity teams in the NCAA Division III. They are a member of the American Rivers Conference, Midwest Women's Lacrosse Conference, the Midwest Collegiate Volleyball League.
Loras’ colors are Purple, Rah Rah Gold, Metallic Gold. The men's soccer team has advanced to the NCAA Division III Final Four five times since 2007, once to the NCAA Division III Championship game in 2015. Denise Udelhofen serves as the Director of Athletics for the Duhawks and is assisted by head men's soccer coach and Director of Soccer Operations, Dan Rothert. Jim Naprstek serves as the Director of Athletic Communications for the Duhawks after his hiring in March 2014. Loras sits on a 65-acre campus located atop several hills in Dubuque; the grounds are bounded by Loras Boulevard on the south, Kirkwood Street on the north, Henion Street on the east, Alta Vista Street on the west. The campus is surrounded by residential neighborhoods on all sides, some of which are among the most historic in the city; the college consists of 23 buildings, 2 athletic fields, a stadium, 5 tennis courts. Because of its high location, several of the buildings provide excellent views of Downtown Dubuque and the Mississippi River.
Some of the more notable buildings include: Athletic Wellness Center: Built in 2007–2008, the athletic wellness center provides a home to the men's and women's basketball teams as well as the men's and women's volleyball team, as well as men's wrestling. In addition, a cardio-vascular center, upgraded weight room and training room, as well as state-of-the-art locker rooms makes the'AWC' a great improvement from "The Fieldhouse." Academic Resource Center: The ARC is home to the campus' main library, including some 355,000 items. The building includes the bookstore, other academic uses. Alumni Campus Center: At the center of campus, the Alumni Campus Center is a multi-function building, includes the student union, dining hall, meeting rooms. Christ the King Chapel: The main chapel on campus, built in 1946, is decorated in a pre-Vatican II Streamline Moderne architectural style; the chapel holds daily Mass, Thursday night Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament and Reconciliation, Mass Sunday night with student lectors, musicians, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, greeters and sacristans.
The building connects to Keane Hall via a skywalk between the two buildings. The chapel is the final resting place of Father Aloysius Schmitt, the first chaplain killed during World War II. Hoffmann Hall: Hoffmann Hall is Loras' oldest standing building, with parts of the building built in 1902, it includes a tall clock tower, houses various academic uses, a beautiful pre-Vatican II architectural-themed a
South Side, Chicago
The South Side is an area of the city of Chicago. It is the largest of the three Sides of the city that radiate from downtown—the others being the North Side and the West Side; the South Side is sometimes referred to as South Chicago, although that name can refer to a specific community area on the South Side. Much of the South Side came from the city's annexation of townships such as Hyde Park; the city's "sides" have been divided by the Chicago River and its branches. The South Side of Chicago was defined as all of the city south of the main branch of the Chicago River, but it now excludes the Loop; the South Side has a varied ethnic composition. It has great disparity in income and other demographic measures. Although it has a reputation for high levels of crime, the reality is much more varied; the South Side ranges from affluent to middle class to poor, just like other sections of large cities. South Side neighborhoods such as Armour Square, Back of the Yards and Pullman host more blue collar and middle-class residents, while Hyde Park, the Jackson Park Highlands District, Beverly, Mount Greenwood, west Morgan Park feature affluent and upper-middle class residents.
The South Side boasts a broad array of cultural and social offerings, such as professional sports teams, landmark buildings, educational institutions, medical institutions and major parts of Chicago's parks system. The South Side is served by numerous bus and'L' trains via the Chicago Transit Authority and several Metra rail commuter lines, it has several national highways. There is some debate as to the South Side's boundaries; the city's address numbering system uses a grid demarcating Madison Street as the East-West axis and State Street as the North-South axis. Madison is in the middle of the Loop; as a result, much of the downtown "Loop" district is south of Madison Street, but the Loop is excluded from the definition of the South Side. One definition has the South Side beginning at Roosevelt Road, at the Loop's southern boundary, with the community area known as the Near South Side adjacent. Another definition, taking into account that much of the Near South Side is in effect part of the commercial district extending in an unbroken line from the South Loop, locates the boundary south of 18th Street or Cermak Road, where Chinatown in the Armour Square community area begins.
Lake Michigan and the Indiana state line provide eastern boundaries. The southern border changed over time because of Chicago's evolving city limits; the South Side is larger in area than the West Sides combined. The exact boundaries dividing the Southwest and Southeast Sides vary by source. If racial lines are followed, the South Side can be divided into a White and Hispanic Southwest Side, a Black South Side and a smaller, more racially diverse Southeast Side centered on the East Side community area and including the adjacent community areas of South Chicago, South Deering and Hegewisch; the differing interpretations of the boundary between the South and Southwest Sides are due to a lack of a definite natural or artificial boundary. One source states that the boundary is Western Avenue or the railroad tracks adjacent to Western Avenue; this border extends further south to a former railroad right of way paralleling Beverly Avenue and Interstate 57. The Southwest Side of Chicago is a subsection of the South Side comprising white and Hispanic neighborhoods dominated by one of these races.
On the Southwest Side the northern portion has a high concentration of Hispanics, the western portion has a high concentration of whites, the eastern portion has a high concentration of blacks. Architecturally, the Southwest Side is distinguished by the tract of Chicago's Bungalow Belt, which runs through it. Archer Heights, a Polish enclave along Archer Avenue, which leads toward Midway Airport, is located on the Southwest Side of the city, as are Beverly and Morgan Park, home to a large concentration of Irish Americans. With its factories, steel mills and meat-packing plants, the South Side saw a sustained period of immigration which began around the 1840s and continued through World War II. Irish, Polish and Yugoslav immigrants, in particular, settled in neighborhoods adjacent to industrial zones; the Illinois Constitution gave rise to townships that provided municipal services in 1850. Several settlements surrounding Chicago incorporated as townships to better serve their residents. Growth and prosperity overburdened many local government systems.
In 1889, most of these townships determined that they would be better off as part of a larger city of Chicago. Lake View, Lake, Hyde Park Townships and the Austin portion of Cicero voted to be annexed by the city in the June 29, 1889 elections. After the Civil War freed millions of slaves, during Reconstruction black southerners migrated to Chicago and caused the black population to nearly quadruple from 4,000 to 15,000 between 1870 and 1890. In the 20th century, the numbers expanded with the Great Migration, as blacks left the agrarian South seeking a better future in the industrial North, including the South Side. By 1910 the black population in Chicago reached 40,000, with 78% residing in the Black Belt. Extending 30 blocks between 31st and 55th Streets, along State Street, but only a few blocks wide, it developed into a vibrant community dominated by black businesses, music and culture; as more blacks moved into