2005 United Kingdom general election
The 2005 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 5 May 2005, to elect 646 members to the House of Commons. The Labour Party led by Tony Blair won its third consecutive victory, with Blair becoming the only Labour leader beside Harold Wilson to form three majority governments. However, its majority now stood at 66 seats compared to the 160-seat majority it had held; as of 2019, it remains the last general election victory for the Labour Party. The Labour campaign emphasised a strong economy. Despite this, Labour retained its leads over the Conservatives in opinion polls on economic competence and leadership, Conservative leaders Iain Duncan Smith and Michael Howard struggled to capitalise on Blair's unpopularity, with the party trailing Labour in the polls throughout the 2001-5 Parliament; the Conservatives campaigned on policies, such as immigration limits, improving poorly-managed hospitals and reducing high crime rates, all under the slogan "Are you thinking what we're thinking?".
The Liberal Democrats, led by Charles Kennedy, were opposed to the Iraq War, given that there had been no second UN resolution, collected votes from disenchanted Labour voters. Tony Blair was returned as Prime Minister, with Labour having 355 MPs, but with a popular vote of 35.2%. In terms of votes, it was only narrowly ahead of the Conservatives, but still had a comfortable lead in terms of seats; the Conservatives returned 198 MPs, with 32 more seats than they had won at the previous general election, won the popular vote in England, while still ending up with 91 fewer MPs in England than Labour. The Liberal Democrats saw their popular vote increase by 3.7% and won the most seats of any third party since 1923, with 62 MPs. Anti-war activist and former Labour MP George Galloway was elected as the MP for Bethnal Green and Bow under the Respect – The Unity Coalition banner. In Northern Ireland, the Ulster Unionist Party, the more moderate of the main unionist parties, which had dominated Northern Irish politics since the 1920s, was reduced from six MPs to one, with party leader David Trimble himself being unseated.
The more hardline Democratic Unionist Party became the largest Northern Irish party, with nine MPs elected. Following the election, Conservative leader Michael Howard resigned and was succeeded by future Prime Minister David Cameron. Blair resigned as both Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party in June 2007, was replaced by then-Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown; the election results were broadcast live on the BBC, presented by Peter Snow, David Dimbleby, Jeremy Paxman and Andrew Marr. The governing Labour Party, led by Tony Blair, was looking to secure a third consecutive term in office and to retain a large majority; the Conservative Party was seeking to regain seats lost to both Labour and the Liberal Democrats since the 1992 general election, move from being the Official Opposition into government. The Liberal Democrats hoped to make gains from both main parties, but the Conservative Party, with a "decapitation" strategy targeting members of the Shadow Cabinet; the Lib Dems had wished to become the governing party, or to make enough gains to become the Official Opposition.
In Northern Ireland the Democratic Unionist Party sought to make further gains from the Ulster Unionist Party in unionist politics, Sinn Féin hoped to overtake the Social Democratic and Labour Party in nationalist politics.. The pro-independence Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru stood candidates in every constituency in Scotland and Wales respectively. Many seats were contested by other parties, including several parties without incumbents in the House of Commons. Parties that were not represented at Westminster, but had seats in the devolved assemblies and/or the European Parliament, included the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, the UK Independence Party, the Green Party of England and Wales, the Scottish Green Party, the Scottish Socialist Party; the Health Concern party stood again. A full list of parties which declared their intention to run can be found on the list of parties contesting the 2005 general election. All parties campaigned using such tools as party manifestos, party political broadcasts and touring the country in what are referred to as battle buses.
Local elections in parts of England and in Northern Ireland were held on the same day. The polls were open for fifteen hours, from 07:00 to 22:00 BST; the election came just over three weeks after the dissolution of Parliament on 11 April by Queen Elizabeth II, at the request of the Prime Minister, Tony Blair. Following the death of Pope John Paul II on 2 April, it was announced that the calling of the election would be delayed until 5 April. Thanks to eight years of sustained economic growth Labour could point to a strong economy, with greater investment in public services such as education and health; this was overshadowed, however, by the issue of the controversial 2003 invasion of Iraq, which met widespread public criticism at the time, would dog Blair throughout the campaign. The Chancellor, G
2017 United Kingdom general election
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June 2017, having been called just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed in cabinet. Each of the 650 constituencies elected one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons; the governing Conservative Party remained the largest single party in the House of Commons but lost its majority, resulting in the formation of a minority government with a confidence-and-supply arrangement with the Democratic Unionist Party of Northern Ireland. The Conservative Party was defending a working majority of 17 seats against the Labour Party, the official opposition led by Jeremy Corbyn. Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 a general election had not been due until May 2020, but a call by Prime Minister Theresa May for a snap election was ratified by the necessary two-thirds vote in a 522–13 vote in the House of Commons on 19 April 2017. May said that she hoped to secure a larger majority in order to "strengthen hand" in the forthcoming Brexit negotiations.
Opinion polls had shown strong leads for the Conservatives over Labour. From a 21-point lead, the Conservatives' lead began to diminish in the final weeks of the campaign. In a surprising result, the Conservative Party made a net loss of 13 seats with 42.4% of the vote, whereas Labour made a net gain of 30 seats with 40.0%. This was the closest result between the two major parties since February 1974, their highest combined vote share since 1970; the Scottish National Party and the Liberal Democrats, the third- and fourth-largest parties, both lost vote share. The SNP, which had won 56 of the 59 Scottish seats at the previous general election in 2015, lost 21 seats; the Liberal Democrats made a net gain of four seats. UKIP, the third-largest party in 2015 by number of votes, saw its share of the vote reduced from 12.6% to 1.8% and lost its only seat. Plaid Cymru gained one seat; the Green Party saw its share of the vote reduced. In Northern Ireland, the Democratic Unionist Party won 10 seats, Sinn Féin won seven, Independent Unionist Sylvia Hermon retained her seat.
The Social Democratic and Labour Party and Ulster Unionist Party lost all their seats. The Conservatives were narrowly victorious and remained in power as a minority government, having secured a confidence and supply deal with the DUP. Negotiation positions following the UK's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union in March 2017 to leave the EU were expected to feature in the campaign, but did not; the campaign was interrupted by two major terrorist attacks in Manchester and London, with national security becoming a prominent issue in the final weeks of campaigning. Each parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom elects one MP to the House of Commons using the "first past the post" system. If one party obtains a majority of seats that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition.
The Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies was not due to report until 2018, therefore this general election took place under existing boundaries, enabling direct comparisons with the results by constituency in 2015. To vote in the general election, one had to be: on the Electoral Register. Individuals had to be registered to vote by midnight twelve working days before polling day. Anyone who qualified as an anonymous elector had until midnight on 31 May to register. A person who has two homes may be registered to vote at both addresses, as long as they are not in the same electoral area, but can vote in only one constituency at the general election. On 18 May, The Independent reported that more than 1.1 million people between 18 and 35 had registered to vote since the election was announced on 18 April. Of those, 591,730 were under the age of 25; the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 introduced fixed-term Parliaments to the United Kingdom, with elections scheduled every five years since the general election on 7 May 2015.
This removed the power of the Prime Minister, using the royal prerogative, to dissolve Parliament before its five-year maximum length. The Act permits early dissolution if the House of Commons votes by a supermajority of two-thirds of the entire membership of the House. On 18 April 2017, the Prime Minister Theresa May announced she would seek an election on 8 June, despite ruling out an early election. A House of Commons motion to allow this was passed on 19 April, with 522 votes for and 13 against, a majority of 509; the motion was supported by the Conservatives, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens, while the SNP abstained. Nine
Joseph Edmund Johnson is a British Conservative politician. Johnson became the Member of Parliament for Orpington in 2010. In 2013 David Cameron made him Director of the Number 10 Policy Unit, in 2014 Minister of State for the Cabinet Office. Johnson served as Minister for Universities and Science from 2015 to 2018, Minister for Transport and London from January to November 2018, when he resigned Johnson is the youngest of four children born to former Conservative MEP Stanley Johnson and artist Charlotte Johnson Wahl, the daughter of Sir James Fawcett, a prominent barrister and president of the European Commission of Human Rights, he is the brother of the former Foreign Secretary. Johnson first attended the European School in Uccle, before attending The Hall School in Hampstead, Ashdown House School in East Sussex, Eton College. In 1991, he went to Oxford, to read Modern History, he was a Scholar at Balliol, edited Isis, the Oxford University student magazine, was awarded a First Class degree in both Honour Moderations and Finals.
While at Oxford, he was a member of the Bullingdon Club together with Harry Mount, Nat Rothschild and George Osborne, with whom he remains a close friend. A fluent French speaker, he did postgraduate study in mainland Europe and has degrees from two further European universities, gaining a licence spéciale with distinction in 1995 from the Institut d'études européennes at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, where he was a Wiener-Anspach Fellow, an MBA from INSEAD in 2000. After graduating from the Université libre de Bruxelles, in 1995 Johnson joined Deutsche Bank as an investment banker. In 1997, he joined the Financial Times. After a sabbatical in 1999/2000 during which he gained an MBA from INSEAD, he returned to become Paris correspondent, as South Asia bureau chief based in New Delhi. On return to London he became an associate editor of the Financial Times and head of the Lex Column, one of the most influential positions in British financial journalism. Previous'Heads of Lex' include Nigel Lawson, former Chancellor of the Exchequer, Martin Taylor, former chief executive of Barclays Bank, Richard Lambert, director-general of the Confederation of British Industry.
Johnson left the Lex column in April 2010. He received awards for his journalism from a range of organisations, including the Foreign Press Association, the Society of Publishers in Asia and The Indian Express's Excellence in Journalism Awards. Johnson's books include the co-authored The Man Who Tried To Buy the World, about the French businessman Jean-Marie Messier; this was serialised in The Guardian and published in France as Une faillite française by Albin Michel in 2002. He co-edited, with India: Ideas for an Enhanced Partnership, he commentated on radio and television, spoke in public on the rise of India, as well as on the UK political economy and financial affairs. He was selected as the Conservative parliamentary candidate for the safe seat of Orpington in the London Borough of Bromley from a shortlist of six contenders, he retained the seat, tripling the Conservative majority of his predecessor John Horam to over 17,000 at the 2010 general election. His majority increased again in the general election of 2015, to 19,979.
Against the national trend, he increased the Conservative share of the vote in the constituency by 5.5% points to 62.9% at the general election in June 2017, although his majority declined to 19,453. On 25 April 2013, he was appointed Head of the Number 10 Policy Unit by David Cameron to help develop the 2015 Conservative manifesto; as a junior Cabinet Office minister, he headed the Policy Unit in the Prime Minister's Office, chaired a newly created Conservative Parliamentary advisory board, known as the Prime Minister's Policy Board, consisting of Conservative MPs. Johnson's appointment to head up the Downing Street policy unit was viewed as surprising by The Guardian as he was perceived as being more pro-European and left-leaning than most Conservatives. On 11 May 2015, it was announced that Johnson had been appointed Minister for Universities and Science at the Department for Business and Skills. Writing about Johnson's appointment for Times Higher Education, John Morgan said: "Mr Johnson's reputation as a pro-European is to please vice-chancellors, many of whom are concerned by the Tories' pledge to hold an in-out referendum on EU membership by 2017.
Universities UK pointed out that British higher education institutions benefit from around £1.2 billion in European research funding each year."In this role, Johnson introduced the Higher Education and Research Act 2017, which the Times Higher Education described as the most significant legislation in 25 years. This overhauled the regulatory framework for English universities, replaced the Higher Education Funding Council for England with a new regulator, the Office for Students, established mechanisms to hold universities more accountable for the quality of teaching and student outcomes; the Act created a new single national strategic research body, UK Research and Innovation, bringing together the UK's fragmented research funding bodies. On 9 January 2018 Johnson left his role as Minister for Universities and accepted a new position as Minister of Transport and Minister for London. On 9 November 2018, J
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Treasurer of the Household
The Treasurer of the Household is a member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. The position is held by one of the government deputy Chief Whips in the House of Commons; the Treasurer was a member of the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. The position had its origin in the office of Keeper of the Wardrobe of the Household and was ranked second after the Lord Steward. On occasion the office was vacant for a considerable period and its duties undertaken by the Cofferer; the office was staffed by the promotion of the Comptroller and was held by a commoner. The Treasurer was automatically a member of the privy council; the role is held by Christopher Pincher. John Tiptoft, 1st Baron Tiptoft 1406–1408 Roger Leche 1413–1416 Walter Beauchamp 1421–1430 Sir John Tyrrell of Heron May 1431 – April 1437 John Popham 1437–1439 Sir Roger Fiennes 1439–1446 John Stourton, 1st Baron Stourton 1446–1453 Sir Thomas Tuddenham 1458 Sir John Fogge 1461–1468 Sir John Howard 1468–1474 Sir John Elrington 1474–1483 Sir William Hopton 1483–1484 Sir Richard Croft 1484–1488 vacant 1488 on: office performed by cofferers: John Payne 1488–1492 William Fisher 1492–1494 William Cope 1494-?1508 Sir Andrew Windsor 1513 Sir Thomas Lovell 1502 -c. 1519 Sir Edward Poynings 1519–1521 Sir Thomas Boleyn 1521–1525 Sir William FitzWilliam 1525–1537 Sir William Paulet 1537–1539 Sir Thomas Cheney 1539–1558 Sir Thomas Parry 1559–1560 vacant 1560–1570 Sir Francis Knollys 1570–1596 The Lord North 1596–1600 vacant 1600–1602 Sir William Knollys 1602–1616 The Lord Wotton 1616–1618 Sir Thomas Edmonds 1618–1639 Sir Henry Vane 1639–1641 The Viscount Savile 1641–1649 Sir Frederick Cornwallis 1660–1663 The Viscount Fitzhardinge 1663–1668 Sir Thomas Clifford 1668–1672 The Lord Newport 1672–1686 The Earl of Yarmouth 1686–1689 The Earl of Bradford 1689–1708 The Earl of Cholmondeley 1708–1712 The Lord Lansdown 1712–1714 The Earl of Cholmondeley 1714–1725 Paul Methuen 1725–1730 The Lord Bingley 1730–1731 The Lord De La Warr 1731–1737 The Earl FitzWalter 1737–1755 The Lord Berkeley of Stratton 1755–1756 The Viscount Bateman 1756–1757 The Earl of Thomond 1757–1761 The Earl of Powis 1761–1765 Lord Edgcumbe 1765–1766 John Shelley 1766–1777 The Earl of Carlisle 1777–1779 The Lord Onslow 1779–1780 Viscount Cranborne 1780–1782 The Earl of Effingham 1782–1783 Charles Francis Greville 1783–1784 The Earl of Courtown 1784–1793 Viscount Stopford 1793–1806 Lord Ossulston 1806–1807 Viscount Stopford 1807–1812 Viscount Jocelyn 1812 Lord Charles Bentinck 1812–1826 Sir William Henry Fremantle 1826–1837 The Earl of Surrey 1837–1841 Hon. George Byng 1841 Earl Jermyn 1841–1846 Lord Robert Grosvenor 1846–1847 Lord Marcus Hill 1847–1852 Lord Claud Hamilton 1852 The Earl of Mulgrave 1853–1858 Lord Claud Hamilton 1858–1859 Viscount Bury 1859–1866 Lord Otho FitzGerald 1866 Lord Burghley 1866–1867 Hon. Percy Egerton Herbert 1867–1868 The Lord de Tabley 1868–1872 The Lord Poltimore 1872–1874 The Lord Monson 1874 Earl Percy 1874–1875 Lord Henry Thynne 1875–1880 The Earl of Breadalbane 1880–1885 Viscount Folkestone 1885–1886 The Earl of Elgin 1886 Viscount Folkestone 1886–1891 Lord Walter Gordon-Lennox 1891–1892 The Earl of Chesterfield 1892–1894 Arthur Brand 1894–1895 The Marquess of Carmarthen 1895–1896 Viscount Curzon 1896–1900 Victor Cavendish 1900–1903 The Marquess of Hamilton 1903–1905 Sir Edward Strachey, Bt 1905–1909 William Dudley Ward 1909–1912 Hon. Frederick Edward Guest 1912–1915 James Hope 1915–1916 James Craig 1916–1918 vacancy January–June 1918 Robert Sanders 1918–1919 Bolton Eyres-Monsell 1919–1921 George Gibbs 1921–1924 Thomas Griffiths 1924 George Gibbs 1924–1928 George Hennessy 1928–1929 Ben Smith 1929–1931 George Hennessy 1931 Sir Frederick Charles Thomson, Bt 1931–1935 Sir Frederick Penny, Bt 1935–1937 Sir Lambert Ward 1937 Arthur Hope 1937–1939 Charles Waterhouse 1939 Hon. Robert Grimston 1939–1942 Sir James Edmondson 1942–1945 George Mathers 1945–1946 Arthur Pearson 1946–1951 Cedric Drewe 1951–1955 Tam Galbraith 1955–1957 Hendrie Oakshott 1957–1959 Hon. Peter Legh 1959–1960 Edward Wakefield 1960–1962 Michael Hughes-Young 1962–1964 Sydney Irving 1964–1966 John Silkin 1966 Charles Grey 1966–1969 Charles Richard Morris 1969–1970 Humphrey Atkins 1970–1973 Bernard Weatherill 1973–1974 Walter Harrison 1974–1979 John Stradling Thomas 1979–1983 Anthony Berry 1983 John Cope 1983–1987 David Hunt 1987–1989 Tristan Garel-Jones 1989–1990 Alastair Goodlad 1990–1992 David Heathcoat-Amory 1992–1993 Greg Knight 1993–1996 Andrew MacKay 1996–1997 George Mudie 1997–1998 Keith Bradley 1998–2001 List of Treasurers to British royal consorts 1484–1649: Green Cloth Officeholders 1660–1837: Officeholders database Whips 1970–1997 </ref>*1513
Robinson College, Cambridge
Robinson College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Founded in 1977, Robinson is one of the newest Oxbridge colleges and is unique in having been intended, from its inception, for both undergraduate and graduate students of both sexes. Despite this, it retains many of the same traditions and institutions of other Cambridge colleges, including formal hall, Latin grace, a chapel and porters' lodge, it was founded through a significant donation from the 20th century British businessman and philanthropist, Sir David Robinson. The college was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1981 with both undergraduate and graduate students in attendance; the college was founded after the British philanthropist Sir David Robinson offered the university £17 million to establish a new college in Cambridge. Robinson gave his college another £1 million on the occasion of its official opening; the first graduate students and fellows joined the college in 1977. Undergraduates were first admitted in 1979, but significant numbers only began arriving the following year.
The college was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II in May 1981. Despite maintaining many Cambridge traditions, such as Formal Hall, the college has avoided others: for example, it is one of the few colleges that allows its students to walk on the grass in the college gardens. Robinson is less formal and traditional than other Cambridge colleges like St. John's College, Emmanuel College, Selwyn College, Trinity College; the arms of the college are described as follows:'Azure in base two Bars wavy Argent over all a Pegasus rampant Or gorged with a Crown rayonny Gules.' The Latin grace is read before the start of formal hall. Latin: Benedic, nobis et donis tuis, per Jesum Christum dominum nostrum. Amen. Lord, bless your gifts, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Designed by the Scottish architectural firm Gillespie, Kidd & Coia, Robinson's main buildings are distinctive for the use of red bricks in their construction. In November 2008 the college was included in the "50 most inspiring buildings in Britain" by The Daily Telegraph.
Of particular note are the library and chapel, the latter with stained-glass windows designed by John Piper. The college is located a ten-minute walk west of the city centre, behind the University Library, near the science buildings in West Cambridge and the arts faculties on the university's Sidgwick Site, it stands on a 12.5-acre wooded site noted for its horticultural interest. Within its grounds are Thorneycreek House and Cottage, the Crausaz Wordsworth Building, the Maria Björnson outdoor theatre and gardens through which flows Bin Brook, which once supplied water to the Hospital of St John. Robinson owns a number of houses on Adams Road and Sylvester Road adjoining the main college site, which it uses for student accommodation. A number of graduate students live in college-owned accommodation elsewhere in Cambridge, consisting of a terrace of six houses off the city's Mill Road as well as a single house on Mill Road itself; the main entrance to the college is via a drawbridge-like ramp, accessible to wheelchair users, there are some special facilities for those with physical or visual disabilities.
The Needham Research Institute is located within the college grounds. As one of Cambridge's most important conference centres, Robinson hosts a number of conferences during the summer vacation when the undergraduate students are absent. Robinson has a purpose-built conference centre, twenty miles west of Cambridge at Wyboston on the border with Bedfordshire, used both for occasional and regular events such as the annual conference of the Association of Business Psychologists. Students of the college are represented by the Robinson College Students' Association, or RCSA, headed by a President, with members of the college elected into positions on the RCSA committee every year. Politically, Robinson is seen as liberal. Robinson has supplied a large number of Green Officers to the Cambridge University Students' Union in recent years and in 2008 was judged the most environmentally friendly college in Cambridge. Like other colleges, Robinson provides its students with recreational facilities such as a JCR, MCR, TV room, art room, café and bar.
As a result of its other role as a conference centre, the college is equipped with two auditoria that are available for student use during term. There is a purpose-built party room, dedicated to hosting weekly college "bops" and other entertainment. Musical talents are catered for by CD library and chapel. There are several sports teams, covering most major sports: everything from water polo and cricket to rowing and rugby union. Robinson have become successful in hockey winning the Cambridge colleges league and colleges varsity match against Oriel College, Oxford, in 2009/10, in addition to becoming mixed cuppers champions by beating Churchill College, Cambridge. Joe Ansbro, Scottish international rugby union player Morwenna Banks, actress Matt Brittin, Vice-president at Google Nick Clegg, former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and former Leader of the Liberal Democrats Adrian Davies, Welsh international rugby union player Greg Hands, former Chief Secretary to the Treasury Charles Hart and musician Marko Attila Hoare, historian Konnie Huq, television presenter Rebecca John, television presenter and journalist Tim Lenton, climate scientist Anthony Lowe, chi
London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham is a London borough in West London and in South West London, forms part of Inner London. Traversed by the east-west main roads of the A4 Great West Road and the A40 Westway, many international corporations have offices in the borough; the local council is Fulham London Borough Council. The borough is amongst the four most expensive boroughs for residential properties in the United Kingdom, along with Kensington And Chelsea, City of Westminster and Camden; the borough is unique in London in having three professional football clubs, Chelsea and Queens Park Rangers. The borough was formed in 1965 by merging the Metropolitan Borough of Hammersmith and the much more ancient Metropolitan Borough of Fulham.. It was known as the "London Borough of Hammersmith" until its name was changed on 1 January 1979 by the borough council; the two had been joined together in the parish of Fulham until 1834 as the hamlet of Hammersmith had no church until much later. They were joined together again under the Fulham District from 1855 to 1886.
Fulham saw vigorous industrialisation and urbanisation from the start of the 19th-century, with the establishment of the world's first energy utility company, at Sands End in 1824, followed by rapid road and rail transport development to the east of the borough. Vacant land by the new railway sidings on the boundary with Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council led to the development of the internationally recognised Earls Court Exhibition Centre, visited by the reclusive Queen Victoria in 1879 when she attended Bill Cody's Wild West Show at West Brompton. There followed numerous international fairs and exhibitions for a century until the construction of Earls Court II in the borough in the 1980s; this was dismantled after the 2012 Olympics. Meanwhile, at the other end of today's borough, in 1908, the Franco-British Exhibition and Olympic Games were hosted in Hammersmith, at White City, but the site took many decades to be redeveloped. In 1960, the BBC opened the BBC Television Centre, in 2008, Westfield London, a large development with new transport links and a shopping centre completed the redevelopment after one hundred years.
The borough includes the areas: Brook Green Chelsea Harbour College Park East Acton Fulham Hammersmith Old Oak Common Parsons Green Sands End Shepherd's Bush Walham Green West Kensington White Citysee parks and open spaces in Hammersmith and Fulham Since 1964 political control of the council has been held by the following parties: According to the 2001 census Hammersmith and Fulham has a population of 165,242. 60% of the borough's population is White British, 20% white non-British, 5% black Caribbean, 8% black African with various other ethnicities making up the remaining 11 percent. The borough has the second-highest proportion of single adults of any borough in England and Wales, a higher than average proportion for the London area of young adults aged 20–29. Around 50% of households are owner–occupiers, 22% of households were listed as "other" – that is, not single persons living alone or families; these are two or more unrelated adults living together, such as students or cohabiting couples.
The borough comprises a patchwork of affluent as well as some less affluent neighbourhoods. The unemployment rate is well below average at under 5%, although of these, 29% were listed as long-term unemployed. See external links below for more census information from the borough. Virgin Group operates its headquarters at 50 Brook Green. Sony Mobile Communications has its headquarters in the borough. Iberia operates the Iberia House in the borough. All Nippon Airways operates the London Office on the fourth floor of Hythe House. South African Airways has its United Kingdom office in the South African Airways House. CE Europe, a subsidiary of Capcom, has its head office in the George House in Hammersmith in the borough; as of May 2011 it will be relocating to the Metro Building in Hammersmith. Iran Air's London offices are located in the borough; the airline moved there by Wednesday 4 January 2012. Coca-Cola, Disney and L'Oréal all have UK headquarters in Hammersmith, as well as a number of other major businesses.
For a 15-year period Air France had its Ireland office in Hammersmith. In 2006 the UK and Ireland office was moved to London Borough of Hounslow. TAP Portugal runs an administrative office in the Borough, near to Hammersmith Bus Station. Hammersmith & Fulham is administered by 46 councillors; the Labour Party won control of the borough at the 2014 council elections held on 22 May with 26 councilors to the Conservative Party's 20 councilors, following Conservative control of the council since the 2006 council election. The council leader is Stephen Cowan; the borough is divided into all bar two electing three councillors apiece. These are: Addison Askew Avonmore & Brook Green College Park & Old Oak Fulham Broadway Fulham Reach Hammersmith Broadway Munster North End Palace Riverside Parson's Green & Walham Ravenscourt Park Sands End Shepherd's Bush Green Town Wormholt & White CityFormer councillors for Hammer