Texas's 1st congressional district
Texas's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the First District contained 651,619 people, it consists of three small East Texas metropolitan areas—Lufkin-Nacogdoches, Longview-Marshall, Tyler. The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas. For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana, but in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin and Longview were added in its place; the district was predominantly rural for much of its history, thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans.
The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. Indeed, the 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction. Proving just how Republican the reconfigured 1st is, Gohmert has been reelected five times with no less than 68 percent of the vote; the district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years — the second-longest tenure of any Texan in Congress. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years; the 2012 redistricting process changed the district's northern section. All of Marion County, Cass County, most of Upshur County were removed from the district.
To compensate, the eastern half of Wood County was added. Election results from recent races: Population: 651,619 Under 18: 26.2% Over 65: 14.1% Married 58.7% Non-Hispanic White: 71% Black: 18% Hispanic: 9% Asian: 1% Foreign born: 5.3% Language other than English: 9.8% Median household income: $33,461 Owner occupied housing: 71.9% Income above $200K: 1.4% List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Kilgore is a city in Gregg and Rusk counties in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Texas. Over three-fourths of the city limits is located in the remainder in Rusk County. Kilgore was the childhood residence from age six of the noted classical pianist Van Cliburn, the namesake for Van Cliburn Auditorium on the Kilgore College campus; the population was 12,975 at the 2010 census. Kilgore was founded in 1872 when the International–Great Northern Railroad completed the initial phase of rail line between Palestine and Longview; the rail company chose to bypass New Danville, a small community about 10 miles southeast of Longview, in lieu of a new townsite platted on 174 acres sold to the railroad by Constantine Buckley Kilgore, the town's namesake. That way the railroad gained the profits from development of these lands; the new town received a post office in 1873 and, with a station and transportation for getting commodity crops to market, soon began to draw residents and businesses away from New Danville.
By 1885, the population had reached 250, the community had two cotton gins, a church, its own school. The racially segregated Kilgore Independent School District was organized in 1910. By 1914 the town had two banks, several businesses, a reported population of 700; the 1920s showed continued steady growth, by 1929 Kilgore was home to an estimated 1,000 residents. Prosperity came to a halt, when Kilgore was dealt severe blows by a steep decline in cotton prices, the effects of the Great Depression. Businesses began to close and, by the middle of 1930, the population had fallen to 500. Black people joined the Great Migration out of the South to northern and western cities for work. Kilgore's fortunes changed on October 3, 1930, when wildcatter Columbus M. "Dad" Joiner struck oil near the neighboring town of Henderson. This well, known as the Daisy Bradford #3, marked the discovery of the vast East Texas Oil Field. Overnight Kilgore was transformed from a small farming town on the decline into a bustling boomtown.
The Daisy Bradford # 3 was subsequently followed by many others. By 1936, the population had increased to more than 12,000, Kilgore's skyline was crowded with oil derricks. Oil production continued at a breakneck pace throughout the early 1930s, with more than 1,100 producing oil wells within city limits at the height of the boom; the explosive growth left most civic services overwhelmed, as a result Kilgore was forced to incorporate in 1931. With the city flooded with male workers and roustabouts, law enforcement struggled to keep order among the shanties and ramshackle honky-tonks that crowded Kilgore's main streets. On one occasion, they had to summon help from the Texas Rangers to keep the peace. By the mid-1930s the oil boom had begun to subside, most of the small oil companies and wildcatters had sold out to major corporations; the boom was over by 1940. But oil production has remained central to the city's economy; the population, which fluctuated wildly throughout the 1930s, stabilized at around 10,000 in the 1950s.
A 2015 estimate placed it at just under 15,000 residents. Kilgore is located in southern Gregg County at 32°23′8″N 94°52′7″W, extends south into Rusk County. U. S. Route 259 passes through the east side of the city as a limited-access bypass, leading northeast 11 miles to Longview and south 17 miles to Henderson. Kilgore's city limits extend 3 miles north from the city center as far as Interstate 20, with access from Exits 583, 587, 589. I-20 leads east 69 miles to Shreveport and west 119 miles to Dallas. According to the United States Census Bureau, Kilgore has a total area of 15.7 square miles, of which 15.7 square miles are land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, are covered by water. Interstate 20 Highway 259 State Highway 31 State Highway 42 Texas State Highway 135 As of the census of 2000, 11,301 people, 4,403 households, 2,963 families resided in the city; the population density was 734.3 people per square mile. The 4,766 housing units averaged 309.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.22% White, 12.34% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.95% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 11.11% of the population. Of the 4,403 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were not families. About 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was distributed as 24.6% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,129, for a family was $61,765. Males had a median income of $45,995 versus $30,124 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,297. About 9.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 13.9% of those age 65 or over.
Kilgore is home to an annual summer repertory company. Founded in 1986, the Texas
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Texas Military Forces
The Texas Military Forces is the three-branch military of the U. S. state of Texas. It is composed of the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard, the Texas State Guard. All three branches are administered by the state adjutant general, an appointee of the Texas governor, fall under the command of the governor; the Texas military was first established by Stephen F. Austin on February 18, 1823, under the authorization of the emperor of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, who directed Austin "to organize the colonists into a body of the national militia, to preserve tranquility," as well as to make war on Native American tribes who were hostile to newly established Texas settlements. All of the Texan militias would come under the command of Sam Houston during the Texas War of Independence between Texas and Mexico beginning in 1835 and ending in 1836 after Texas secured its independence to become the new nation of the Republic of Texas. From 1836 to 1845, the Texas militias being a part of the Army of the Republic of Texas fell under the command of the President of the Republic of Texas.
After Texas became the 28th US state in 1845, the state military and its various branches have fallen under the command of the Texas governor. The Texas National Guard consists of the Joint Force Headquarters for Texas, the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard and the Domestic Operations Command; the Guard is administered by an appointee of the governor of Texas. The Constitution of the United States charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions; those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress; when National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-in-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed."
The Governor may call individuals or units of the Texas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." The Texas State Guard is a military entity authorized by both the State Code of Texas, U. S. Code and executive order. Additionally, the U. S. Constitution grants the states the right to organize a state militia; the Texas State Guard is the state's authorized militia and is composed of retired and former active and reserve military personnel. Other members include those with no prior military service plus selected professional persons who volunteer their time and talents in further service to Texas; the current adjutant general for the Texas National Guard is Major General Tracy R. Norris, she is the 52nd Adjutant General for the State of Texas and the first female to hold that post in Texas.
Formations of the Texas Army National Guard include the 36th Infantry Division, the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 36th Combat Aviation Brigade, the 71st Battlefield Surveillance Brigade, the 36th Sustainment Brigade, the 176th Engineer Brigade, the 136th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, the 136th Expeditionary Signal Battalion, the 136th Regiment. The current Assistant Adjutant General-Army, for Texas is Major General William L. Smith; the Texas Air National Guard is composed of the 149th Fighter Wing, the 136th Airlift Wing, the 147th Attack Wing, the 254th Combat Communications Group, the 272nd Engineering Installation Squadron, the 204th Security Forces Squadron. The 149th Fighter Wing prepares pilots for combat, the 136th Airlift Wing flies C-130s in-and out of theater and the 147th Reconnaissance Wing has acquired Predators to be the eyes in the hostile sky; the 136th Airlift Wing in Fort Worth flies C-130 cargo aircraft carrying personnel and equipment around the world.
The 531st Air Force Band is co-located with the 136th Airlift Wing. The 147th Attack Wing, headquartered in Houston on the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, provides a worldwide deployable dual-role fighter/attack capability while covering the Gulf Coast from Brownsville, Texas to New Orleans, Louisiana in the Air Sovereignty Alert mission; the 111th Attack Squadron is attached to the 147th Attack Wing. The Squadron flies the MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle; the 149th Fighter Wing is headquartered in San Antonio on Lackland Air Force Base. The fighter wing is assigned to the US Air Forces Air Education and Training Command and is one of the primary "school houses" for F-16 pilots; the 182nd Fighter Squadron is attached to the 149th Fighter Wing. The Squadron flies the Block 30 F-16C/D Fighting Falcon dual-role fighter; the 204th Security Forces Squadron is located at Fort Bliss, El Paso. They are the only security forces unit in the Air National Guard. Since September 11, 2001 attacks, members of the 204th SFS have seen duty in central and southwest Asia, in Africa and onboard ship in the Persian Gulf.
They have served on installations in several states in the U. S. and taught military base defense in Latin American countries. The unit still has members serving in the Iraq area of operations as par
Interstate 20 in Texas
Interstate 20 in Texas is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States, running east from a junction with Interstate 10 east of Kent, through the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex to the border with Louisiana near Waskom, Texas. The original distance of Interstate 20 was 647 miles from I-10 to the Louisiana border, reduced to the current distance of 636 miles with the rerouting of I-20 in the 1980s and 1990s. I-20 is known as the Ronald Reagan Memorial Highway within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Interstate 20 in Texas was designated in 1959, was to replace or run parallel to U. S. Route 80. Initial construction began from east to as bypass loops around larger cities. On October 1, 1964, I-20 was rerouted. By 1967, the highway was complete from the Louisiana border to the western side of Fort Worth on a route to the south of US 80, with slower construction in the lesser populated areas of West Texas concurrent with US 80. On December 2, 1971, I-20 was rerouted across the southern side of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, with the old section through downtown Dallas and Fort Worth being redesignated as Interstate 30.
In 1991, the entire concurrent designation of US 80 was removed from the I-10 interchange to Dallas. I-20 begins at a junction with I-10 in a desolate region of West Texas about 6 miles east of the town of Kent. I-20 leaves the interchange with I-10 with a speed limit of 80 until Milemarker 89. Interstate 20 generally heads to the east-northeast passing by the cities of Odessa and Midland while transitioning from the West Texas desert to the prairie. I-20 runs concurrently with the La Entrada al Pacífico corridor from its junction with US 385 in Odessa to its junction with FM 1788 near Midland International Airport. Near Sweetwater, I-20 begins to head east. In Abilene, I-20 curves towards the north and transverses the northern part of the city while forming the northern arc of the loop around the city. I-20 continues heading east from Abilene until the town of Eastland when I-20 takes a more northeasterly route towards Weatherford while transitioning from the West Texas prairie to the central plains of North Texas as the terrain grows hilly.
In Weatherford, I-20 again heads back towards the east as it heads towards the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. I-20 interchanges with I-30 west of Fort Worth with I-30 heading I-20 to the southeast. I-20 heads back towards the east when it interchanges with Interstate 820. I-20 forms the southern arc of the complete loop around the city of Fort Worth, serves as the southernmost west–east freeway in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Interchanging with I-35W south of downtown Fort Worth, I-20 heads east towards Dallas passing through Arlington, where it is known as the Ronald Reagan Memorial Highway. From Arlington, I-20 passes into Dallas County at Grand Prairie and heads east in to Dallas, interchanging with I-35E south of downtown and I-45 shortly after. I-20 intersects with I-635 on Dallas' southeast side before heading east towards East Texas; the interstate varies from 4 to 10 lanes from its I-30 junction near Weatherford to its US-80 junction near Terrell. I-20 leaves the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and heads to the east-southeast through East Texas.
I-20 begins heading to the east. The intersection of I-20 at US 69 in Lindale just north of Tyler is the highest traffic count intersection on I-20 east of Terrell to the Louisiana state line. From Lindale, I-20 continues east, going through the piney woods region of East Texas intersecting US 259 with Kilgore to the south and Longview to the north and US 59 future I-369 with Marshall just to the north and Texarkana further north along US 59 future I-369. I-20 leaves the state of Texas near Waskom and just west of the Shreveport, Bossier City, Louisiana area. Interstate 20 has one auxiliary route in Texas. Interstate 820 is a 35.2-mile loop around the city of Fort Worth. I-20 absorbed the southern section as part of its relocation to the south and I-30 being extended westward over the old alignment of I-20 through the center of town. All of the business loops within Texas are maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation. Interstate 20 has fifteen business loops in all located in western Texas.
Along I-20, TxDOT identifies each business route as Business Interstate 20 followed by an alphabetic suffix. Along Texas Interstates, the alphabetic suffixes on business route names ascend eastward and northward. There are gaps in the alphabetic values to allow for future system expansion; the alphabetic naming suffixes are included as small letters on the bottom of route shields. Texas State Loop 254 takes the place of a business route in Ranger and follows the original route of U. S. Route 80. I-20 business routes in Texas follow the path of the former US 80 through the central portions of towns now bypassed by the Interstate route. U. S. Roads portal Texas portal I-20 info page -- from dfwfreeways.info
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Harrison County, Texas
Harrison County is a county on the eastern border of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 65,631; the county seat is Marshall. The county was created in 1839 and organized in 1842, it is named for a lawyer and Texas revolutionary. Harrison County comprises the Marshall, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Longview–Marshall, TX Combined Statistical Area, it is located in the Ark-La-Tex region. Conservative whites in Harrison County have left the Democratic party for the Republican Party, as has happened across the South; the county is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Chris Paddie, a former Marshall mayor. Settlement by United States citizens began in present-day Harrison County during the 1830s. In 1835, the Mexican authorities granted a dozen land grants to immigrants from the United States. After the Texas Revolution, the Congress of the Texas Republic established Harrison County in 1839, formed from Shelby County. Harrison County was named for Texas Revolutionary Jonas Harrison.
The county was organized in 1842. The county's area was reduced following the establishment of Panola and Upshur counties. Marshall was established in 1841, became the county seat in 1842; the area was settled predominately by planters from the Southern United States, who developed this area for cotton plantations and brought African-American slaves with them for labor, or purchased them at regional markets. The planters repeated much of their society here. East Texas was the location of most cotton plantations in the state and, correspondingly, of most of the enslaved African Americans. By 1850, landowners in Harrison County held more slaves than in any other county in Texas until the end of the Civil War; the census of 1860 counted 8,746 slaves in 59 % of the county's total population. In 1861, the county's voters overwhelmingly supported secession. Following defeat at the end of the war, the county was part of an area occupied by Federal troops under Reconstruction; the white minority in the county bitterly resented federal authority and giving the franchise to freedmen, who elected a bi-racial county government dominated by Republican Party officeholders.
Republican dominance in local offices continued in the county until 1880, but the conservative whites of the Democratic Party regained control of the state government before the official end of Reconstruction. In 1880, the Citizen's Party of Harrison County, amid charges of fraud and coercion, gained control of elected positions in the county government after winning on a technicality, which involved hiding a key ballot box, they retained such control of the county into the 1950s, aided by the state's disenfranchisement of blacks at the turn of the century. In the 1870s the county's non-agricultural sector increased when the Texas and Pacific Railway located its headquarters and shops in Marshall, it stimulated other industry and manufacturing in the county, aided the transportation of the important cotton crop to market. But from 1880 to 1930, Harrison County remained agricultural and rural, it had a 60 percent black majority through 1930. Most of the African Americans worked as tenant sharecroppers.
White violence against blacks rose during this period, as they struggled to maintain social dominance. Starting in 1870, this was the period of the most lynchings of African Americans throughout the South. Harrison County had a total of 14 such lynchings, most committed in the early 20th century in the 1910s when the county suffered economic hard times. Whites "did not lynch in lieu of ineffective courts, but instead demonstrated to the black majority that legal protection and rights were inaccessible to blacks". Blacks accused of violence against law enforcement or from outside the county were at risk; the Texas legislature disenfranchised most blacks in 1901 by requiring poll taxes and authorizing white primaries This disenfranchisement extended into the late 1960s, after national civil rights legislation was passed to enforce these citizens' civil rights. In 1928, oil was discovered in the county, its exploitation and processing made a significant contribution to the economy. The Great Depression of the 1930s hit decimating the agricultural sector.
World War II brought an end to the depression. As the defense industry built up in major cities and on the West Coast, from 1940 to 1970, more than 4.5 million blacks migrated from Harrison and other Texas counties as well as from Louisiana and other southern states. They moved to the West Coast in the second wave of the Great Migration, attracted to new jobs in the expanding defense industry; the population of the county declined until 1980. White population increases by migration from other areas has resulted in a majority-white population. White conservative voters have become overwhelmingly Republican in the realignment of parties in the South since the late 20th century. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 916 square miles, of which 900 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water; the northern and eastern parts of the county are drained to the Red River in Louisiana by Little Cypress Creek, Cypress Bayou, Caddo Lake. The other third of the county is drained by the Sabine River, which forms a part of its southern boundary.
These waterways were critical to early transportation in the county. Marion County Caddo Parish, Louisiana Panola County Rusk County Gregg County Upshur County The TTC-69 comp