Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Giovanni Gabrieli was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms. Gabrieli was born in Venice, he was one of five children, his father came from the region of Carnia and went to Venice shortly before Giovanni's birth. While not much is known about Giovanni's early life, he studied with his uncle, the composer Andrea Gabrieli, employed at St Mark's Basilica from the 1560s until his death in 1585. Giovanni may indeed have been brought up by his uncle, as is implied by the dedication to his 1587 book of concerti, in which he described himself as "little less than a son" to his uncle. Giovanni went to Munich to study with the renowned Orlando de Lassus at the court of Duke Albert V. Lassus was to be one of the principal influences on the development of his musical style. By 1584 he had returned to Venice, where he became principal organist at St Mark's Basilica in 1585, after Claudio Merulo left the post.
After his uncle's death he began editing much of the older man's music, which would otherwise have been lost. Gabrieli's career rose further when he took the additional post of organist at the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, another post he retained for his entire life. San Rocco was the most prestigious and wealthy of all the Venetian confraternities, second only to San Marco itself in splendor of its musical establishment; some of the most renowned singers and instrumentalists in Italy performed there and a vivid description of its musical activity survives in the travel memoirs of the English writer Thomas Coryat. Much of his music was written for that location,although he composed more for San Marco. San Marco had a long tradition of musical excellence and Gabrieli's work there made him one of the most noted composers in Europe; the vogue that began with his influential volume Sacrae symphoniae was such that composers from all over Europe from Germany, came to Venice to study. Evidently he made his new pupils study the madrigals being written in Italy, so not only did they carry back the grand Venetian polychoral style to their home countries, but the more intimate style of madrigals.
The productions of the German Baroque, culminating in the music of J. S. Bach, were founded on this strong tradition. Gabrieli was ill after about 1606, at which time church authorities began to appoint deputies to take over duties he could no longer perform, he died in 1612 of complications from a kidney stone. Though Gabrieli composed in many of the forms current at the time, he preferred sacred vocal and instrumental music. All of his secular vocal music is early. Among the innovations credited to him – and while he was not always the first, he was the most famous to do these things – were the use of dynamics. Like composers before and after him, he would use the unusual layout of the San Marco church, with its two choir lofts facing each other, to create striking spatial effects. Most of his pieces are written so that a choir or instrumental group will first be heard on one side, followed by a response from the musicians on the other side. While this polychoral style had been extant for decades Gabrieli pioneered the use of specified groups of instruments and singers, with precise directions for instrumentation, in more than two groups.
The acoustics were and are such in the church that instruments positioned, could be heard with perfect clarity at distant points. Thus instrumentation which looks strange on paper, for instance a single string player set against a large group of brass instruments, can be made to sound, in San Marco, in perfect balance. A fine example of these techniques can be seen in the scoring of In Ecclesiis. Gabrieli's first motets were published alongside his uncle Andrea's compositions in his 1587 volume of Concerti; these pieces echo effects. There are low and high choirs and the difference between their pitches is marked by the use of instrumental accompaniment; the motets published in Giovanni's 1597 Sacrae Symphoniae seem to move away from this technique of close antiphony towards a model in which musical material is not echoed, but developed by successive choral entries. Some motets, such as Omnes Gentes developed the model to its limits. In these motets, instruments are an integral part of the perform
Domenico Allegri was an Italian composer and singer of the early Baroque Roman School. He was the second son of the Milanese coachman Costantino Allegri, who lived in Rome with his family, was a younger brother of the more famous Gregorio Allegri. Costantino sent three sons, Gregorio and Bartolomeo, to study music at San Luigi dei Francesi, under the maestro di capella Giovanni Bernardino Nanino, brother of Giovanni Maria Nanino; the little boy had as schoolmate his elder brother Gregorio and Antonio Cifra, Domenico Massenzio and Paolo Agostini. In 1606, Allegri was maestro di cappella of the church of Santa Maria at Spello, from September 1609 until April 1610 served in the same role at the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome. From 3 April 1610 until his death, he held the same position at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, where he was buried. Allegri is famous as being one of the first to include specific instrumental accompaniments to sacred vocal music on a small scale. While much of his music is lost, one piece which has survived is the Modi quos expositis in choris of 1617 which has accompaniments to the voices by two violins.
Alberto Cametti, La scuola dei «pueri cantus» di S. Luigi dei francesi in Roma e i suoi principali allievi: Gregorio, Domenico e Bartolomeo Allegri, Antonio Cifra, Orazio Benevoli, Fratelli Bocca, 1915. Sergio Durante,'Domenico Allegri', in Dizionario enciclopedico universale della musica e dei musicisti, Torino, UTET, 1983–1999, ISBN 88-02-05345-6. Saverio Franchi, Annali della stampa musicale romana dei secoli XVI-XVIII, Vol. 1/I, IBIMUS, Roma, 2006, ISBN 978-88-88627-03-8. Antonella Nigro, Domenico Massenzio. A new biography with unpublished documents, in Domenico Massenzio Opera omnia, Critical Edition by Claudio Dall'Albero e Mauro Bacherini, Vol. 1, Rugginenti, 2008, ISMN M-52013-013-4. Alberto Pironti,'Domenico Allegri', in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani. Colin Timms,'Domenico Allegri', in New Grove Dictionary, ISBN 0-333-60800-3
Andrea Adami da Bolsena
Andrea Adami da Bolsena was an Italian castrato and secretary to Cardinal Ottoboni. He was born in Bolsena; until 1690, he served the former queen Christina I of Sweden, alongside violinist Archangelo Corelli and cellist Filippo Amadei. They performed in operas by Flavio Carlo Alessandro Stradella. Through the influence of and as a favorite of Cardinal Ottoboni, he was appointed master of the papal choir in 1700, he left a history of this institution, with portraits and memoirs of the singers, under the title of "Osservazioni per ben regolare il coro dei cantori della Cappella Pontificia". He was highly esteemed by the Romans for his personal as well as his musical gifts, he helped his nephew. He died in Rome; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Book of Lamentations
The Book of Lamentations is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem. In the Hebrew Bible it appears in the Ketuvim, beside the Song of Songs, Book of Ruth and the Book of Esther, although there is no set order. Jeremiah's authorship is no longer accepted, although it is accepted that the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon in 586 BC forms the background to the poems; the book is a traditional "city lament" mourning the desertion of the city by God, its destruction, the ultimate return of the divinity, a funeral dirge in which the bereaved bewails and addresses the dead. The tone is bleak: God does not speak, the degree of suffering is presented as undeserved, expectations of future redemption are minimal; the book is traditionally recited on the fast day of Tisha B'Av, mourning the destruction of both the First Temple and the Second. Lamentations consists of corresponding to its five chapters; the first four are written as acrostics – chapters 1, 2, 4 each have 22 verses, corresponding to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet, the first lines beginning with the first letter of the alphabet, the second with the second letter, so on.
Chapter 3 has 66 verses, so that each letter begins three lines, the fifth poem is not acrostic but still has 22 lines. The purpose or function of this form is unknown. Unlike standard alphabetical order, the middle chapters in Lamentations have the letter Pe comes before Ayin; the first chapter uses standard alphabetical order. The book consists of five separate poems. In the first, the city sits as a desolate weeping widow overcome with miseries. In Chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with national acts of God. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God: the chastisement would only be for their good. Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation of the city and temple, but traces it to the people's sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people. Lamentations has traditionally been ascribed to Jeremiah on the grounds of the reference in 2 Chronicles 35:25 to the prophet composing a lament on the death of King Josiah, but there is no reference to Josiah in the book and no reason to connect it to Jeremiah.
The language fits an Exilic date, the poems originated from Judeans who remained in the land. Scholars are divided over. One clue pointing to multiple authors is that the gender and situation of the first-person witness changes – the narration is feminine in the first and second lamentation, masculine in the third, while the fourth and fifth are eyewitness reports of Jerusalem's destruction. Lamentations combines elements of the qinah, a funeral dirge for the loss of the city, the "communal lament" pleading for the restoration of its people, it reflects the view, traceable to Sumerian literature of a thousand years earlier, that the destruction of the holy city was a punishment by God for the communal sin of its people. Beginning with the reality of disaster, Lamentations concludes with the bitter possibility that God may have rejected Israel. Sufferers in the face of grief are not urged to a confidence in the goodness of God; the poet acknowledges that this suffering is a just punishment, still God is held to have had choice over whether to act in this way and at this time.
Hope arises from a recollection of God's past goodness, but although this justifies a cry to God to act in deliverance, there is no guarantee that he will. Repentance will not persuade God to be gracious, since he is free to give or withhold grace as he chooses. In the end, the possibility is that God has rejected his people and may not again deliver them: if God is predictable God is just a tool of humans, it affirms confidence that the mercies of Yahweh never end, but are new every morning. The Book of Lamentations is recited annually by Jews on Tisha b'Av, the anniversary of the destruction of both of the Jewish Temples. In Western Christianity, readings and choral settings of the book are used in the Lenten religious service known as the Tenebrae. In the Church of England, readings are used at Morning and Evening Prayer on the Monday and Tuesday of Holy Week, at Evening Prayer on Good Friday. In the Coptic Orthodox Church, the book's third chapter is chanted on the twelfth hour of the Good Friday service, that commemorates the burial of Jesus.
Berlin, Adele. Lamentations: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664229740. Clines, David J. A.. "Lamentations". In Dunn, James D. G.. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110. Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W.. Lamentations. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664237547. Hayes, John H.. "The Songs of Israel". In McKenzie, Steven L.. The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524. Hillers, Delbert R.. "Lamentations of Jeremiah". In Metzger, Bruce M.. The
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position, he chose to stay in the capital. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, portions of the Requiem, unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35; the circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music, he is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music.
Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years". Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg; this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptised the day at St. Rupert's Cathedral in Salzburg; the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" as an adult, but his name had many variants. Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
Four years he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son's birth, Leopold published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success; when Nannerl was 7, she began keyboard lessons with her father, while her three-year-old brother looked on. Years after her brother's death, she reminisced: He spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was striking, his pleasure showed that it sounded good.... In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier.... He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, keeping in time.... At the age of five, he was composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down; these early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch. There is some scholarly debate about whether Mozart was four or five years old when he created his first musical compositions, though there is little doubt that Mozart composed his first three pieces of music within a few weeks of each other: K. 1a, 1b, 1c.
In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught academic subjects. Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught, his first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative, came as a surprise to Leopold, who gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident. While Wolfgang was young, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies; these began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, at the Imperial Courts in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour followed, spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Paris, The Hague, again to Paris, back home via Zurich and Munich. During this trip, Wolfgang met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers.
A important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom he visited in London in 1764 and 1765. When he was eight years old, Mozart wrote his first symphony, most of, transcribed by his father; the family trips were difficult, travel conditions were primitive. They had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility, they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold both children; the family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. After one year in Salzburg and Wolfgang set off for Italy, leaving Anna Maria and Nannerl at home; this tour lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a maturing composer. Wolfgang met Josef Mysliveček and Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna, was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance, in the Sistine Chapel, wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, performed with success. This led to further oper