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Gregorio Pietro Agagianian

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His Eminence

Gregorio Pietro XV Agagianian
Patriarch emeritus of Cilicia; Cardinal
Agagianian 1958 (crop).jpg
Agagianian in 1958
SeeArmenian Catholic Patriarchate of Cilicia
Appointed13 December 1937
Term ended25 August 1962
PredecessorAvedis Bedros XIV Arpiarian
SuccessorIgnatius Bedros XVI Batanian
Other postsCardinal-Bishop of Albano
Ordination23 December 1917
Consecration21 July 1935
by Bartolomeo Cattaneo
Created cardinal18 February 1946
by Pope Pius XII
RankCardinal-Priest (1946–1970)
Cardinal-Bishop (1970–1971)
Personal details
Birth nameGhazaros Aghajanian
Born(1895-09-18)18 September 1895
Akhaltsikhe, Russian Empire (present-day Georgia)
Died16 May 1971(1971-05-16) (aged 75)
NationalityArmenian (ethnicity)
Lebanese (citizen)
Vatican (citizen)
Russian Empire (subject by birth)[a]
DenominationArmenian Catholic
ResidenceRome, Beirut[b]
Previous post
MottoIustitia et Pax ("Justice and Peace")
Styles of
Gregorio Pietro Agagianian
External Ornaments of a Cardinal Bishop.svg
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal

Gregorio Pietro XV Agagianian (anglicized: Gregory Peter;[2] Western Armenian: Գրիգոր Պետրոս ԺԵ. Աղաճանեան,[3] Krikor Bedros ŽĒ. Aghajanian; 18 September 1895 – 16 May 1971) was an Armenian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was the head of the Armenian Catholic Church (as Patriarch of Cilicia) from 1937 to 1962 and supervised the Catholic Church's missionary work for more than a decade, until his retirement in 1970, he was considered papabile on two occasions.

Educated in Tiflis and Rome, Agagianian first served as leader of the Armenian Catholic community of Tiflis before the Bolshevik takeover of the Caucasus in 1921, he then moved to Rome, where he first taught and then headed the Pontifical Armenian College until 1937 when he was elected to lead the Armenian Catholic Church, which he revitalized after major losses the church had experienced during the Armenian Genocide.

Agagianian was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946 by Pope Pius XII, he was Prefect of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Propaganda Fide) from 1958 to 1970. Theologically a moderate, a linguist, and an authority on the Soviet Union, he served as one of the four moderators at the Second Vatican Council and was twice considered a serious papal candidate, during the conclaves of 1958 and 1963.

Early life and priesthood[edit]

Agagianian[c] was born Ghazaros Aghajanian[d] on September 18, 1895 in the city of Akhaltsikhe, in the Tiflis Governorate of the Russian Empire—in present-day Samtskhe-Javakheti province of Georgia.[4] At the time, around 60% of city's 15,000 inhabitants were Armenians,[6] his family was part of the Catholic minority of Javakhk Armenians, most of whom were followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church. His ancestors came from Erzurum in the aftermath of a Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829. Fleeing Ottoman persecution, they sought refuge in the Russian Caucasus, he lost his father, Harutiun, at an early age.[7][4]

He attended the Russian Orthodox Tiflis Seminary and then the Pontifical Urban University in Rome in 1906,[8][9] his outstanding performance in the latter was noted by Pope Pius X, who told young Agagianian: "You will be a priest, a bishop, and a patriarch."[10] He was ordained priest in Rome on December 23, 1917.[11][12] Despite the upheaval bought by the Russian Revolution, he thereafter served as a parish priest in Tiflis and then as the head of the city's Armenian Catholic community from 1919,[4] he left for Rome in 1921 when Georgia was invaded by the Red Army and did not see his family until 1962, when his sister Elizaveta traveled to Rome through the intervention of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.[8]

In 1921, Agagianian became a faculty member and vice-rector of the Pontifical Armenian College (Pontificio Collegio Armeno) in Rome, he later served as rector of the college from 1932 to 1937. He was also a faculty member of the Pontifical Urban University from 1922 to 1932.[8][11]

Agagianian was appointed titular bishop of Comana di Armenia on July 11, 1935 and was ordained bishop on July 21, 1935 at the San Nicola da Tolentino Church in Rome, his episcopal motto was Iustitia et Pax ("Justice and Peace").[12]

Armenian Catholic Patriarch[edit]

On November 30, 1937, Agagianian was elected Patriarch of Cilicia by the synod of bishops of the Armenian Catholic Church, an Eastern particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church; the election received papal confirmation on December 13, 1937.[8][12] He took the name Gregory Peter (French: Grégoire-Pierre; Armenian: Krikor Bedros) and became the 15th patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church, which had some 100,000 adherents.[13] All Armenian Catholic Patriarchs have Peter (Petros/Bedros) in their pontifical name as an expression of allegiance to the church founded by Saint Peter.[14] According to Rouben Paul Adalian, the Armenian Catholic Church regained its stature in the Armenian diaspora under the "astute management" of Agagianian following the sizable losses in the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire.[15]

Agagianian reportedly played a key role in keeping the Armenian-populated village of Kessab within Syria when Turkey annexed the Hatay State in 1939 by intervening as a representative of the Vatican.[16] Agagianian inaugurated the Armenian Catholic church in Anjar, Lebanon in 1954[17] and founded a boarding house for orphaned boys there.[18]

He resigned the pastoral governance of the Armenian patriarchate on August 25, 1962 to focus on his duties at the Vatican.[12][8][19]


Agagianan was made Cardinal on February 18, 1946 by Pope Pius XII, he was appointed Cardinal-Priest of San Bartolomeo all'Isola on February 22, 1946.[12]

Propaganda Fide[edit]

Agagianian was appointed Pro-Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Propaganda Fide) on June 18, 1958 and Prefect on July 18, 1960;[12] as such he supervised the training of Catholic missionaries all over the world.[20] According to Lentz, Agagianian was "largely responsible for liberalizing the church's policies in developing nations."[11] He traveled extensively to the missionary areas for which he was responsible.[21]

In February 1959 Agagianian visited Taiwan to oversee missionary work in the island, he later entrusted Paul Yü Pin, Archbishop of Nanking, to reestablish the Fu Jen Catholic University.[22] He arrived in Japan for a two week long visit in May 1959, which included a meeting with Emperor Hirohito.[23] On December 10, 1959 he presided over the First Far East Conference of Bishops at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, Philippines with attendance of 100 prelates, 10 papal representatives, 16 archbishops, 79 bishops from almost every country in the Far East.[24]

His visit to the Republic of Ireland in June 1961 was the highlight of the Patrician Year. Agagianian received a great popular welcome there.[25] Conservative President of Ireland Éamon de Valera was famously pictured kissing Agagianian's ring.[26][27] In September 1963 he visited South Vietnam and met with Madame Nhu, the Catholic first lady.[28] On October 18, 1964 when the Uganda Martyrs where canonized by Pope Paul VI, Agagianian presided over the Holy Mass at Namugongo.[29] In November 1964 he traveled to Bombay, India to open the 38th Eucharistic Congress.[30]


As a cardinal, Agagianian participated in the papal conclaves of 1958 and 1963, during which he was considered to have been papabile.[e] According to J. Peter Pham, Agagianian was considered a "serious (albeit unwilling) candidate" for the papacy in both conclaves.[8] Contemporary news sources noted that Agagianian was the first serious non-Italian papal candidate in centuries.[31][9]

1958 conclave[edit]

According to Greg Tobin and Robert J. Wister, Agagianian, known to have been close to Pope Pius XII, was one of the favorites in the 1958 conclave,[32] his candidacy was widely discussed in the press.[33][34]

Even before the death of Pope Pius XII, The Milwaukee Sentinel wrote that some authoritative voices of Vatican affairs believe that Agagianian was "without question the leading candidate" to succeed Pope Pius XII.[35] On October 9, the day Pope Pius died, The Sentinel wrote that he is "considered by very responsible Vatican circles as the foremost choice" to succeed Pope Pius;[36] the Chicago Tribune wrote on October 25 that although Agagianian was popular amongst believers, the cardinals were expected to try first to agree on an Italian cardinal.[37] The election was seen as a struggle between Italian Angelo Roncalli (who was eventually elected and became Pope John XXIII) and non-Italian Agagianian.[f] Agagianian came in second according to Massimo Faggioli and contemporary press reports.[40][39] Three months after the conclave, Roncalli revealed that his name and that of Agagianian "went up and down like two chickpeas in boiling water" during the conclave.[41] Armenian-American journalist Tom Vartabedian suggests that it is possible that Agagianian might have been elected but declined the post.[42]

1963 conclave[edit]

According to John Whooley, an authority on the Armenian Catholic Church, Agagianian was considered "a strong contender, most 'papabile'" before the 1963 conclave and there was "much expectation" that he would be elected.[43] The conclave instead elected Giovanni Battista Montini, who became Pope Paul VI. According to the Armenian Catholic Church website, Agagianian was rumored to have been actually elected at this conclave but declined to accept.[44] According to speculations by Italian journalists Andrea Tornielli (1993)[45][7] and Giovanni Bensi (2013)[46] Italian intelligence services were involved in preventing Agagianian from being elected pope in 1963, they maintain that SIFAR (Servizio informazioni forze armate), the Italian military intelligence service, mounted a smear campaign against Agagianian prior to the conclave by disseminating the narrative that Agagianian's 70-year-old sister, Elizaveta—who had visited Rome a year earlier to meet him—had ties with the Soviet authorities.[7] The Tablet wrote in 1963 that their meeting, which was preceded by negotiations partly conducted by the Italian ambassador in Moscow, "must rank as one of the best-kept diplomatic secrets of all time".[47]


Thomas Rausch described him as "hardly a strict traditionalist."[48] According to Ralph M. Wiltgen, he was "regarded by the liberals as the most acceptable of the Curial cardinals" in the Second Vatican Council.[49] In 1963 Life magazine called him a liberal, cosmopolitan, and a moderate,[20][50] he was described as the Catholic Church's "topmost champion of the unity of the Christian churches under the Pope."[36] In 1950 he issued a pastoral letter in which he directly appealed to all Armenians (most of whom adhere the Armenian Apostolic Church) to accept the authority of the Catholic Church.[51]

Second Vatican Council[edit]

Agagianian sat on the Board of Presidency of the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), which took place from 1962 to 1965, he was appointed by Pope Paul VI as one of the four moderators who directed the course of the debates,[52] along with Leo Joseph Suenens, Julius Döpfner, and Giacomo Lercaro.[53] Agagianian was the only one of these four from the Curia,[52] and represented the Eastern Catholic Churches,[48] he had a special role in the preparation of the missionary decree Ad gentes and Gaudium et spes, the Constitution on the Church in the Modern World.[54][55]

On the Soviet Union[edit]

During his lifetime, Agagianian was considered the Catholic Church's leading expert on communism and the Soviet Union.[11][56] Norman St John-Stevas wrote 1955 that Agagianian is "uncommitted" in the Cold War.[57] In a January 1958 diplomatic report Marcus Cheke, UK Ambassador to the Holy See, wrote that Agagianian "believes that the best thing for the Western powers to do is to hang on, avoid war (and the more strongly armed and united they are, the less danger there is of Russia venturing on a war) and to wait for a transformation inside Russia, which he thinks will happen sooner or later."[7] In contrast, Agagianian called for a "heroically Christian" struggle against communism during his visit to Australia in 1959.[58]

Agagianian opposed the repatriation of Armenian Catholics from the Middle East to Soviet Armenia in 1946,[59] he noted that there was an intolerant environment in the Soviet Union towards religion and argued that "We [Armenian Catholics] are forced to remain as emigrants to preserve our church and faith."[60]

Reception in the Soviet Union

Agagianian's statements regarding repatriation of Armenians were received as defamation and hostile in the Soviet-controlled homeland.[60] In the early 1950s, Etchmiadzin, the Soviet-based official publication of the Armenian Apostolic Church, published articles severely criticizing Agagianian.[61][62] One article claimed that he was created cardinal in order to "damage the unity" and "disunite" the Armenian people, it also argued that Agagianian also held the "key to submitting the Oriental Orthodox churches of the Middle East (Coptic, Assyrian, Ethiopian, etc.) to the Catholic Church."[63] In another article, Agagianian was accused in "seek[ing] to bring Armenian believers under the control of the Vatican" and make them "anti-national [...] without an ideal and dignity [....] in short, a cosmopolitan crowd, which will serve the Turkish-American war machine."[64]

Retirement and death[edit]

Agagianian effectively retired when he resigned as prefect on October 19, 1970, and was appointed Cardinal-Bishop of the Suburbicarian Diocese of Albano on October 22.[12][g]

Agagianian died of cancer in Rome on May 16, 1971.[66][4] Pope Paul VI called him a "noble figure" upon Agagianian's death.[67] Vazgen I, head of the Armenian Apostolic Church, sent Pope Paul VI a letter mourning Agagianian's death,[68] his funeral took place on May 21 at St. Peter's Basilica.[3] He was buried in Rome's San Nicola da Tolentino Armenian church. There is a monument to Agagianian inside the church, flanked by the virgin martyr Hripsime and St. Vartan.[69]


The tomb of Agagianian at San Nicola da Tolentino, Rome

In 1966, Italian journalist Alberto Cavallari wrote that Agagianian is the "undisputed leader of non-European Catholicism, he is regarded by all as one of the most powerful cardinals in the Curia and is invested with autonomous powers equaled by none except the pope."[70] Upon his death, The New York Times wrote that "Despite his failure to win election from the Sacred College of Cardinals, [Agagianian] nevertheless made a major impact on the development of the [Catholic] church and its role in the newly developing nations."[9]

Agagianian has been called "the most celebrated Armenian Catholic in history."[42] He was the second Armenian Catholic churchman ever to be made cardinal, after Andon Bedros IX Hassoun in 1880.[7] Since Agagianian spent most of his adult life in Rome, he was "Romanized"[38] and reportedly spoke with a Roman accent.[31] Richard McBrien wrote that Agagianian was "regarded by some, including fellow Eastern-rite Catholics, as more Roman than the Romans."[71] Agagianian was considered to have been bi-ritual as he used both the Armenian and Latin rites.[72] Pope Pius XII, who had a "great interest in the Eastern churches," called on Agagianian to celebrate a pontifical Mass in the Armenian rite in the Sistine Chapel on March 12, 1946.[73]

Agagianian was a polyglot and renowned linguist,[1][11] he spoke fluent Armenian (his mother language),[1] Russian, Italian, French, English, and Latin and learned German, Spanish, classical Greek, Arabic,[9] he had "a working knowledge of the Slavic languages and [could] speak most of the languages of the Middle and Far East."[36] He was described as the College of Cardinals' "top linguist" in 1953.[74] Norman St John-Stevas wrote of him in 1955 as "a man of distinguished presence, a fine scholar."[57]

Honors and awards[edit]

Honorary degrees
State orders and awards


  • Agagianian, Gregorio Pietro (1970). Perché le missioni? Teologia della missione: studi e dibattiti (in Italian). Bologna: Ed. Nigrizia.
  • Agagianian, Gregorio Pietro (1962). L'unità della Chiesa dal punto di vista teologico (in Italian). Milan: Vita e Pensiero.
  • Agagianian, Gregorio Pietro (1950). La Romanità dell' Abbate Mechitar di Sebaste (in Italian). San Lazzaro degli Armeni.



  1. ^ "He was born a Russian subject [...] He now carries a Lebanese passport and will henceforth be a citizen of the Vatican."[1]
  2. ^ "he has been dividing his time between Beirut, Rome and visits to Armenian communities in many parts of the world"[1]
  3. ^ Agagianian is the italianized version of his Armenian last name. Particularly, the gh ʁ is replaced with a g ɡ and j is replaced with gi, both .
  4. ^ classical spelling: Ղազարոս Աղաջանեան, reformed: Ղազարոս Աղաջանյան,[4] Western Armenian: Ղազարոս Աղաճանեան, his first name is sometimes transliterated as Gazaros and anglicized as Lazarus.[5]
  5. ^ "He was mentioned as a possibility in the 1958 conclave which elected John XXIII and again in the 1963 conclave which elected the present pope."[31]
  6. ^ "The conclave had found itself choosing between the Armenian but Romanized Agagianian and the patriarch of Venice; it had chosen the latter: another Italian, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli..."[38] "The contest finally resolved itself, as so many people had predicted, into a straight-out issue between Italian Roncalli and non-Italian Agagianian."[39]
  7. ^ On February 11, 1965, Pope Paul VI decreed in his motu propio Ad Purpuratorum Patrum that Eastern Patriarchs who are elevated to the College of Cardinals would be made cardinal bishops and maintain their patriarchal see.[65] Since Agagianian was no longer patriarch, he remained a Cardinal-Priest with title to his titular church San Bartolomeo all'Isola, he only became Cardinal Bishop upon his appointment as the Cardinal-Bishop of Albano.


  1. ^ a b c d "Marked for Greatness: Gregory Peter XV Cardinal Agagianian". The New York Times. 19 June 1958.
  2. ^ "Religion: Pius' Patriarch". Time. 25 March 1946. ...soft-voiced, fierce-bearded Gregory Peter XV Agagianian (pronounced ah-gah-jahn-yan), Patriarch-Catholicos of Cilicia of the Armenians...
  3. ^ a b Manjikian, Asbed (11 June 2014). ""Ազդակ"` Ութսունեօթը Տարիներու Ծառայութեան Ընդմէջէն. Անբասիր Հոգեւորականը` Կարտինալ Գրիգոր Պետրոս Ժե. Աղաճանեան". Aztag (in Armenian). Beirut. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ()
  4. ^ a b c d e Mchedlov, M. (1974). "Աղաջանյան Գրիգոր–Պետրոս [Aghajanian Grigor-Petros]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume I (in Armenian). p. 246.
  5. ^ a b "The Patriarch of Cilicia". The Heights. Boston College. XXXIII (11). 11 January 1952.
  6. ^ "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России. Ахалцихский уезд – г. Ахалцих". Demoscope Weekly (in Russian).
  7. ^ a b c d e Sanjian, Ara (21 January 2015). "An Armenian As Pope? – A British Diplomatic Report on Cardinal Agagianian, 1958". Horizon Weekly. (originally published in Window Quarterly, Volume V, No. 3 & 4, 1995; pp 11–13) view online
  8. ^ a b c d e f Pham, John-Peter (2004). "Agagianian, Grégoire-Pierre XV". Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession. Oxford University Press. p. 231–232. ISBN 978-0-19-534635-0.
  9. ^ a b c d "Cardinal Agagianian Is Dead; Scholarly Mission Leader, 75". The New York Times. via Reuters. 17 May 1971.
  10. ^ Gregory Cardinal Peter XV Agagianian (January 1961). "The Dogma of the Assumption in the Light of the First Seven Ecumenical Councils". Marian Library Studies. University of Dayton (80).
  11. ^ a b c d e Lentz, Harris M. III (2009). "Agagianian, Gregory Peter XV". Popes and Cardinals of the 20th Century: A Biographical Dictionary. McFarland. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4766-2155-5.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Grégoire-Pierre XV (François) Cardinal Agagianian †". Archived from the original on 2017-10-27.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ()
  13. ^ "Cardinal Agagianian Succumbs". Times-News. via UPI. 15 May 1971.
  14. ^ Adalian 2010, p. 231.
  15. ^ Adalian 2010, p. 232.
  16. ^ Yengibaryan, G. (2012). "Քեսապի հայոց կաթոլիկ համայնքի պատմությունից [From the History of the Armenian Catholic Community in Kesap]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (4): 52.
  17. ^ "The Armenian Catholic Community of Anjar".
  18. ^ La Civita, Michael J.L. (3 March 2014). "Power of Grace". Catholic Near East Welfare Association.
  19. ^ "Armenian Patriarch Resigns". The New York Times. via AP. 26 August 1962.
  20. ^ a b "The 'Papabili': One May Become Pope—Great Princes of the Church". Life: 29–33. 14 June 1963. The Curia's foremost authority on Russia is liberal, cosmopolitan Gregory Cardinal Agagianian, master of eight languages. As prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, he supervises the training of Catholic missionaries all over the world.
  21. ^ Whooley 2004, p. 422.
  22. ^ Kuepers, Jac (2011). "The Re-establishment of Fu Jen University in Taiwan and the role of the SVD, in particular of Fr. Richard Arens" (PDF). Fu Jen Catholic University. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2017.
  23. ^ "Chronology for 1959". Nanzan University. p. 86. Archived from the original on 2017-06-03.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  24. ^ "The Government". Journal. American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines: 14.
  25. ^ "I remember Cardinal Agagianian. I remember when he came to visit Ireland; the people gave him a great welcome." – According to journalist Gerard O'Connell who conducted interviews for the following book: Arinze, Francis (2006). "The Student Years in Rome and Ordination into the Priesthood (1955–1960)". God's Invisible Hand: The Life and Work of Francis Cardinal Arinze. Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-1-58617-135-3.
  26. ^ Sweeney, Ken (5 March 2010). "1961. . . a whole year of saints and shamrocks". Irish Independent. (cached)
  27. ^ "Photograph of de Valera kissing the ring of Cardinal Gregory Peter XV Agagianian, Papal Legate to the Patrician Congress". University College Dublin Digital Library. 25 June 1961.
  28. ^ "No Audience With Pope". Ellensburg Daily Record. 23 September 1963. p. 2.
  29. ^ "Important Occasions". Basilica of the Uganda Martyrs (Kampala Archdiocese, Uganda). Archived from the original on 2017-05-11. Retrieved 2017-06-03.
  30. ^ "Cardinal Arrives In Bombay to Open Eucharist Meeting". The New York Times. 28 November 1964.
  31. ^ a b c "Cardinal Agagianian Dies at 75". Reading Eagle. via UPI. 17 May 1971.
  32. ^ Tobin, Greg; Wister, Robert J. (2009). Selecting the Pope: Uncovering the Mysteries of Papal Elections. Sterling Publishing Company. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-4027-2954-6. The favorites going in included the grandly named Cardinal Gregory Peter XV Agagianian, patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians, a bearded sixty-three-year-old known to be close to Pius XII.
  33. ^ Forcella, Enzo (11 October 1958). "Tre nomi di "papabili" Siri, Agagianian, Montini". La Stampa (in Italian).
  34. ^ "May Become Next Pope". Northern Star. Sydney. 12 March 1953. An Armenian Cardinal who, according to widespread speculation in Australia and overseass, may become the next Pope...
  35. ^ Casserly, John J. (27 June 1958). "Cardinal Agagianian—Next Pope?". The Milwaukee Sentinel.
  36. ^ a b c Casserly, John J. (9 October 1958). "Russian-born Cardinal Believed Top Choice as Pius XII Successor". The Milwaukee Sentinel.
  37. ^ Rue, Larry (28 October 1958). "Seal 2 Doors of Cardinals' Voting Area". Chicago Tribune.
  38. ^ a b Whooley 2004, p. 431.
  39. ^ a b "Papal Battle Voting Close". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 November 1958. The three other contenders named by observers in their order of polling:
    •Cardinal Agagianian...
  40. ^ Faggioli, Massimo (2014). John XXIII: The Medicine of Mercy. Liturgical Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-8146-4976-3. The runner-up was the Armenian cardinal Agagianian.
  41. ^ Hebblethwaite, Peter (2005). John XXIII: Pope of the Century. A & C Black. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-86012-387-3.
  42. ^ a b Vartabedian, Tom (6 February 2012). "The Armenian Cardinal and His Servant". Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ()
  43. ^ Whooley 2004, p. 423.
  44. ^ "Biography of Gregory Petros XV Agagianian". Armenian Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25.
  45. ^ "Move to Block Soviet Pope Revealed". The Buffalo News. 21 December 1993. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017.
  46. ^ Bensi, Giovanni (20 March 2013). "Le due chance perdute del papa armeno". East Journal (in Italian).; also published in Russian: Bensi, Giovanni (20 March 2013). "Операция "Конклав" (Operation "Conclave")". Nezavisimaya Gazeta (in Russian).
  47. ^ "Cardinal Agagianian Reunited with His Sister". The Tablet. 6 July 1963. p. 746.
  48. ^ a b Rausch, Thomas P. (2016). "Roman Catholicism since 1800". In Sanneh, Lamin; McClymond, Michael (eds.). The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to World Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 610. ISBN 978-1-118-55604-7.
  49. ^ Wiltgen, Ralph M. (1991). The Inside Story of Vatican II: A Firsthand Account of the Council's Inner Workings. TAN Books. ISBN 978-1-61890-639-7.
  50. ^ Kaiser, Robert B. (21 June 1963). "And Now the Search Begins for the New Pope". Life: 57. There is Gregory Peter Agagianian, 67, a bearded Armenian cardinal who has been a Roman by adoption since he left his home town when he was 11 year old. Agagianian is a moderate who has traveled widely in his capacity as head of all the Church's missionary activity. However, he holds no sympathy for the Church's revisionist theologians and biblical scholars, and this may prevent the more moderate cardinals from voting for him.
  51. ^ Tchilingirian, Hratch (9 June 2016). "L'Eglise arménienne pendant la guerre froide : la crise Etchmiadzine-Antelias" (PDF). Hebdo Nor Haratch (in French). Paris (265): 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2017.
  52. ^ a b Nolan, Ann Michele (2006). A Privileged Moment: Dialogue in the Language of the Second Vatican Council, 1962–1965. Peter Lang. p. 83. ISBN 978-3-03910-984-5.
  53. ^ Gaillardetz, Richard (2006). The Church in the Making: Lumen Gentium, Christus Dominus, Orientalium Ecclesiarum. Paulist Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-8091-4276-7.
  54. ^ "Agagianian XV, Gregory Peter". New Catholic Encyclopedia. Gale. 2003. He was a key figure at the Second Vatican Council, serving as a presiding officer and helping to draw up the missionary decree Ad Gentes.
  55. ^ Kalinichenko, E. V. (21 March 2008). "Агаджанян (Agadzhanyan)". Orthodox Encyclopedia (in Russian). Russian Orthodox Church. Участвовал в подготовке и проведении Ватиканского II Собора, на к-ром был одним из четырех модераторов (председатель сессии), ему принадлежит особая роль в подготовке Конституции о Церкви в совр. мире "Gaudium et spes" (Радость и надежда) и декрета о миссионерской деятельности "Ad gentes divinitus" (Народам по Промыслу Божию).
  56. ^ "Cardinal Dies; Was Authority on Communism". The Day. via AP. 17 May 1971.
  57. ^ a b Norman St John-Stevas (22 September 1955). "The Next Pope". The Spectator. pp. 11–12.
  58. ^ Duncan, Bruce (2001). Crusade Or Conspiracy?: Catholics and the Anti-Communist Struggle in Australia. UNSW Press. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-86840-731-9.
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Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Avedis Bedros XIV Arpiarian
Patriarch Catholicos of Cilicia
30 November 1937 – 25 August 1962
Succeeded by
Ignatius Bedros XVI Batanian
Preceded by
Pietro Fumasoni Biondi
Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
18 June 1958 – 19 October 1970
Succeeded by
Agnelo Rossi