Keya Paha County, Nebraska
Keya Paha County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 824, its county seat is Springview. In the Nebraska license plate system, Keya Paha County is represented by the prefix 82. Keya Paha County was organized in 1884 of land partitioned from Brown County; the name "Keya Paha" is taken from the Dakota language. The Dakota name for a set of small hills was given to the county and to the Keya Paha River, which runs through it. Keya Paha County lies on the north line of Nebraska, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of South Dakota. The county's terrain consists of low rolling hills, whose level areas are used for agriculture, including center pivot irrigation; the Keya Paha River flows east-southeastward through the NE part of the county, while the Niobrara River flows eastward along the south county line. The county has a total area of 774 square miles, of which 773 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water.
Keya Paha County is located in Nebraska's Outback region. Niobrara National Scenic River As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 983 people, 409 households, 292 families in the county; the population density was 1.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 99.39% White, 0.20% Native American, 0.41% from two or more races. There were 409 households out of which 24.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.30% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.60% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.91. The county population contained 23.80% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 20.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $24,911, the median income for a family was $28,287. Males had a median income of $18,750 versus $19,107 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,860. About 22.40% of families and 26.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.30% of those under age 18 and 18.80% of those age 65 or over. As of 2008, Keya Paha County was the most Republican of all the counties in Nebraska, with 82.7% of its 707 registered voters registered as Republicans. The last Democratic Presidential candidate to win the county was Woodrow Wilson in 1916. In 1994, Ben Nelson was the last Democratic gubernatorial candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Keya Paha County, Nebraska
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Tripp County, South Dakota
Tripp County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,644, its county seat is Winner. The county was created in 1873, was organized in 1909, it is named for lawyer and diplomat Bartlett Tripp. Tripp County lies on the south line of South Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Nebraska. Its north boundary line is defined by the meanders of the White River, which flows eastward along the north edge of the county; the Keya Paha River flows east-southeasterly through the lower part of the county. The county terrain is composed of rolling hills carved by drainages; the county terrain slopes to the south and east, although its upper portion drops northward into the White River valley. The county's highest point is on the lower part of its west boundary line, at 2,552' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,618 square miles, of which 1,612 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. Beaulieu Lake State Game Production Area Brown State Game Production Area Covey Dam State Game Production Area Dog Ear Lake State Game Production Area George & Katherine Mann State Game Production Area Ideal Wetland State Game Production Area King Dam State Game Production Area Little Dog Ear Lake State Game Production Area McLaughlin State Game Production Area Rahm Lake State Game Production Area Roosevelt Lake State Game Production Area Snow Dam State Game Production Area Roosevelt Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 6,430 people, 2,550 households, 1,721 families in the county.
The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 3,036 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.48% White, 0.03% Black or African American, 11.20% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,550 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.50% were non-families. 29.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.08. The county population contained 27.70% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,333, the median income for a family was $36,219. Males had a median income of $22,588 versus $18,070 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,776. About 15.90% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.70% of those under age 18 and 17.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,644 people, 2,419 households, 1,509 families in the county; the population density was 3.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,072 housing units at an average density of 1.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 83.1% white, 14.0% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 46.8% were German, 10.8% were Irish, 7.7% were Czech, 6.2% were Dutch, 4.0% were American.
Of the 2,419 households, 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families, 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 45.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,221 and the median income for a family was $49,570. Males had a median income of $35,238 versus $25,323 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,192. About 12.1% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over. Colome Winner New Witten Hamill The county contains one area of unorganized territory: Gassman. Tripp County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate; the Democratic Party has not obtained forty percent of the county’s vote since Jimmy Carter in 1976.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Tripp County, South Dakota
Czech Americans, known in the 19th and early 20th century as Bohemian Americans, are citizens of the United States who are of Czech descent. Czechs originate from the Czech lands, a term which refers to the majority of the traditional lands of the Bohemian Crown, namely Bohemia and Czech Silesia; these lands over time have been governed by a variety of states, including the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Austrian Empire and the Czech Republic. Germans from the Czech lands who emigrated to the United States identified as German American, or, more as Americans of German Bohemian descent. According to the 2000 US census, there are 1,262,527 Americans of full or partial Czech descent, in addition to 441,403 persons who list their ancestry as Czechoslovak; the first documented case of the entry of Czechs to the North American shores is of Joachim Gans of Prague, who came to Roanoke, North Carolina in 1585 with an expedition of explorers organized by Sir Walter Raleigh. Augustine Herman was the first documented Czech settler.
He was a surveyor and skilled draftsman, successful planter and developer of new lands, a shrewd and enterprising merchant, a bold politician and effective diplomat, fluent in several languages. After coming to New Amsterdam he became one of the most influential people in the Dutch Province which led to his appointment to the Council of Nine to advise the New Amsterdam Governor Peter Stuyvesant. One of his greatest achievements was his celebrated map of Maryland and Virginia commissioned by Lord Baltimore on which he began working in earnest after removing to the English Province of Maryland. Lord Baltimore was so pleased with the map that he rewarded Herman with a large estate, named by Herman "Bohemia Manor", the hereditary title Lord. There was another Bohemian living in New Amsterdam at that time, Frederick Philipse, who became famous, he was a successful merchant who became the wealthiest person in the entire Dutch Province. Philipse was from Bohemia, from an aristocratic Protestant family who had to leave their native land to save their lives, after the Thirty Years' War.
The first significant wave of Czech colonists was of the Moravian Brethren who began arriving on the American shores in the first half of the 18th century. Moravian Brethren were the followers of the teachings of the Czech religious reformer and martyr Jan Hus, Petr Chelčický and Bishop John Amos Comenius, they were true heirs of the ancient "Unitas fratrum bohemicorum" - Unity of the Brethren, who found a temporary refuge in Herrnhut in Lusatia under the patronage of Count Nikolaus Zinzendorf. Because of the worsening political and religious situation in Saxony, the Moravian Brethren, as they began calling themselves, decided to emigrate to North America; this group started coming in 1735, when they first settled in Savannah, in Pennsylvania, from which they spread to other states after the American Revolution Ohio. The Moravians established a number of settlements, such as Bethlehem and Lititz in Pennsylvania and Salem in North Carolina. Moravians made great contributions to the growth and development of the US.
Cultural contributions of Moravian Brethren from the Czech lands were distinctly notable in the realm of music. The trumpets and horns used by the Moravians in Georgia are the first evidence of Moravian instrumental music in America. In 1776, at the time of the Declaration of Independence, more than two thousand Moravian Brethren lived in the colonies. President Thomas Jefferson designated special lands to the missionaries to civilize the Indians and promote Christianity; the free uncultivated land in America encouraged immigration throughout the nineteenth century. The first major immigration of Czechs occurred in 1848 when the Czech "Forty Eighters" fled to the United States to escape the political persecution by the Austrian Habsburgs. During the American Civil War, Czechs served in both the Confederate and Union army, but as with most immigrant groups, the majority fought for the Union. Immigration reached a peak in 1907, when 13,554 Czechs entered the eastern ports. Unlike previous immigration, new immigrants were predominantly Catholic.
Although some of the anticlericalism among Czechs in Europe did come to the United States, on the whole Czech Americans are much more to be practicing Catholics than Czechs in Europe. By 1910, the Czech population was 349,000, by 1940 it was 1,764,000; the U. S. Bureau of the Census reported that nearly 800,000 Czechs were residing in the U. S. in 1970. Since this figure did not include Czechs, living in the U. S. for several generations, it is reasonable to assume. The top 50 U. S. communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Czech ancestry are: Conway, ND 55.2% West, TX 40.9% Oak Creek NE 38.2% Wilber, NE 37.3% Shiner, TX 32.1% Montgomery, MN 30.9% Lonsdale, MN 30.5% Wheatland, MN 29.9% Tyndall, SD 29.5% David City, NE 28.0% Montgomery, MN 26.3% Franklin, WI 26.1% Lanesburgh, MN 25.2% Granger, TX 25.1% Port Costa, CA 24.0% Schulenburg, TX 23.7% New Prague, MN and Erin, MN 23.5% Wahoo, NE 22.7% Carlton, WI 22.4% Wallis, TX 22.0% Hallettsville, TX 21.5% Hale, MN 20.8% Montpelier, WI 19.7% Flatonia, TX 19.5% West Kewaunee, WI 19.2% Schuyler, NE and Webster, NE 19.0% Gibson, WI 18.9% Hillsboro, WI 18.4% Kossuth, WI 18.2% Lexington, MN 18.1% Mishicot, WI 16.9% Kewaunee, WI and North Bend, NE 16.7% Franklin, WI 15.9% Oak Grove, WI and Caldwell, TX 15.7% Lake Mary, MN 15.4% Solon, IA 15.2% Mishicot, WI 15.0% Helena, MN 14.9% Marietta, N
Boyd County, Nebraska
Boyd County is a county in the State of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,099, its county seat is Butte. The county was named after James E. Boyd, the Nebraska Governor at the time. In the Nebraska license plate system, Boyd County is represented by the prefix 63. In the 2010 United States Census, three incorporated villages had populations of fewer than 10 people: Anoka, population 6, population 2, Monowi, population 1. Monowi was the only incorporated city in the United States with only one resident at the 2010 census. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 545 square miles, of which 540 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. Boyd County is in Nebraska's Outback region. U. S. Highway 281 Nebraska Highway 11 Nebraska Highway 12 Charles Mix County, South Dakota - northeast Knox County - southeast Holt County - south Rock County - southwest Keya Paha County - west Gregory County, South Dakota - northwest Karl E. Mundt National Wildlife Refuge Missouri National Recreational River As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 2,438 people, 1,014 households, 670 families in the county.
The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 1,406 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.89% White, 0.57% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.37% from two or more races. 0.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 45.2% were of German, 10.0% American, 9.3% Czech, 7.8% Irish, 6.9% English and 5.9% Swedish ancestry. There were 1,014 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.40% were married couples living together, 3.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.90% were non-families. 32.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.98. The county population contained 25.00% under the age of 18, 5.40% from 18 to 24, 21.20% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 24.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,075, the median income for a family was $32,000. Males had a median income of $20,859 versus $17,688 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,840. About 12.90% of families and 15.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.60% of those under age 18 and 11.20% of those age 65 or over. Baker Doty Mankato Rosedale National Register of Historic Places listings in Boyd County, Nebraska Nuclear Nebraska
German Americans are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey; the group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world. None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia. Immigration continued in large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000. There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.
S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, others for the chance to start fresh in the New World; the arrivals before 1850 were farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities. German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America; the great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and can hardly be distinguished by the untrained eye.
German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Milwaukee, San Antonio, St. Louis; the Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing cultural values. Lutherans and Catholics opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs, they opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I. On the other hand, there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; the first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer.
He was followed in 1608 by three carpenters or house builders. The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, founded near Philadelphia on October 6, 1683. Large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination, they migrated to America for a variety of reasons. Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, military conscription. Immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants. Large sections of Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia attracted Germans. Most were German Reformed. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812. In 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of poverty, traveling first to Rotterdam and to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped; the trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus.
Many immigrants children, died before reaching America in June 1710. The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River in work camps. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans occupied a strip some 12 miles long along both sides of the Mohawk River; the soil was excellent. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats", they kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm owner