Grenada is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island, it is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres, it had an estimated population of 112,200 in July 2018. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops; the national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove. Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island. Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century.
On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued until 1974. From 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an associated state. Independence as a sovereign state was granted on 7 February 1974, without breaking formal ties with the Commonwealth, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a popular bloodless coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government, headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister. Bishop was executed by military hardliners, prompting a U. S.-led invasion in October 1983. Since democratic governance has been restored and the island has remained politically stable; the origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the Andalusian city of Granada.
By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use. On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary, it is said that he may have named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, it became accepted that he named Tobago "Assumpción" and Grenada "La Concepción". In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", it appeared on maps this way for around the next 20 years. In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo Los Granadillos after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo was replaced by "Granada" on Spanish maps. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
After French settlement and colonisation in 1652, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris; the British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time. Grenada was first populated by peoples from South America during the Caribbean Archaic Age, although definitive evidence is lacking; the earliest potential human presence comes from proxy evidence of lake cores, beginning ~3600 BC. Less ephemeral, permanent villages began around ~AD 300; the population peaked between AD 750-1250, with major changes in population afterwards the result of regional droughts and/or the "Carib Invasion", although the latter rests on circumstantial evidence. It is thought that Christopher Columbus was the first European to see Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage, naming it'Concepción'; the Spanish did not follow up on this and it was the English who were the first to attempt to colonise the island in 1609.
In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique led by Jacques Dyel du Parquet founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. The French signed a peace treaty with the Carib chief Kairouane, but within months conflict broke out between the two communities; this lasted until 1654 when the island was subjugated by the French. The indigenous peoples who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada, where they disappeared during the 1700s. Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; the French named their new colony La Grenade, the economy was based on sugar cane and indigo, worked by African slaves. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal. To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby French islands had a natural harbour to compare with that of Fort Royal; the British captured Grenada during the Seven Years' War in 1762.
Grenada was formally ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The French re-captured the island during
On Green Dolphin Street is an album by saxophonist Archie Shepp recorded in 1977 for the Japanese Denon label. AllMusic stated: "The fact that Shepp is playing against such a conventional acoustic jazz backdrop gives On Green Dolphin Street its unique tension; the accompanists are a tamer group, working closer to the framework the songs provide. Still, Joe Chambers, Sam Jones, Walter Bishop, Jr. are a sophisticated rhythm section managing to balance this with an adept flexibility. Shepp's unique voice breathes new life into these standards. All compositions by Archie Shepp except. "On Green Dolphin Street" – 7:58 "Enough" – 6:39 "The Scene Is Clean" – 6:32 "In a Mellow Blues" – 11:19 "I Thought About You" – 9:36 Archie Shepp – tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone Walter Bishop Jr. – piano Sam Jones – bass Joe Chambers – drums
The Princess Margaret Bridge, sometimes called the Princess Margaret Rose Bridge or shortened to just PMB, is a two-lane highway bridge crossing the Saint John River at Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. It is named after Countess of Snowdon. Constructed as a steel truss structure, the bridge measures 1,097 m in length and has a navigation clearance of 23 m in the centre, it opened in 1959 as part of the Route 2 Trans-Canada Highway bypass project around Fredericton. Following a realignment of Route 2 in 2001, the bridge now carries Route 8, the primary Fredericton-Miramichi highway; the northern approach follows the old Trans-Canada Highway alignment toward Barker's Point, but travellers wanting to continue on Route 8 must exit on a ramp after leaving the bridge, while maintaining another sharp turning radius to pass back under the roadway and follow the Route 8 alignment to Marysville. This interchange is envisioned to be replaced by a straightened alignment of Route 8 onto the Marysville Bypass with a newly designed interchange with Route 105.
During the summer of 2010, again in the summer of 2011, the bridge was closed for extensive repairs to the deck, concrete piers, steel structure. The province of New Brunswick is investing $80 million for the repairs, which when complete will extend its life for another 50 years. Safety concerns have precipitated many construction projects on the bridge in the 1980s and 1990s, due in part to the narrow width of the roadway and to high traffic volume; the bridge deck is prone to severe icing conditions in winter, leading to motor vehicle accidents. The bridge's narrow, two-lane span poses a hazard for motorists travelling at speeds over the posted speed limit of 70 km/h; the approaches to the bridge on both sides are of concern: The southern approach descends a steep grade while transiting from a four-lane divided freeway to two-lane suburban/rural arterial road. Pedestrians from a St. Thomas University residence on the east side of the bridge take a shortcut at grade across the highway up the hill from the bridge to follow the contour of the hill while en route to the university's main campus.
The southern approach contains an interchange with Forest Hill Road with tight turning radius on exit and entrance ramps. Northbound travellers must negotiate a sharp incline and a 30-degree turning radius to access the bridge. On three occasions, tractor trailers have failed to negotiate the turn, instead crashing through the guard rail and either dangling over the edge or falling into the river entirely. In early May 2009, concerns were raised after a 10-kilogram chunk of concrete fell from the bridge onto the roadway underneath, narrowly missing a passing motorist's vehicle; the bridge underwent a major refurbishment in the years that followed