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A grenade is an explosive weapon thrown by hand, but can refer to projectiles shot out of grenade launchers. A grenade consists of an explosive charge, a detonating mechanism, firing pin inside the grenade to trigger the detonating mechanism. Once the soldier throws the grenade, the safety lever releases, the striker throws the safety lever away from the grenade body as it rotates to detonate the primer; the primer ignites the fuze. The fuze burns down to the detonator. There are several types of grenades like the fragmentation, high explosive concussion and smoke grenades. Fragmentation grenades are the most common in modern armies, they are missiles designed to disperse shrapnel on detonation. The body is made of a hard synthetic material or steel, which will provide limited fragmentation through sharding and splintering, though in modern grenades a pre-formed fragmentation matrix inside the grenade is used; the pre-formed fragmentation may be spherical, wire or notched wire. Most anti-personnel grenades are designed to detonate either on impact.

When the word grenade is used colloquially, it is assumed to refer to a fragmentation grenade. Stick grenades have a long handle attached to the grenade directly, providing leverage for longer throwing distance, at the cost of additional weight and length; the term "stick grenade" refers to the German Stielhandgranate style stick grenade introduced in 1915 and developed throughout World War I. A friction igniter was used. Grenades are round-shaped with a "pineapple" or "baseball"-style design, or an explosive charge on a handle, referred to as a "stick grenade"; the stick grenade design has been considered obsolete since the Cold War period. They saw extensive use in World War I and in World War II; the WWI and WWII era "stick grenade" was used in trench and built-up warfare by the Central Powers and Nazi Germany, while the Triple Entente and Allied powers used some improvised earlier grenades or round-shaped fragmentation grenades. The word "grenade" is derived from Old French pomegranate and influenced by Spanish granada, as the bomb is reminiscent of the many-seeded fruit, together with its size and shape.

Its first use in English dates from the 1590s. Rudimentary incendiary grenades appeared in the Eastern Roman Empire, not long after the reign of Leo III. Byzantine soldiers learned that Greek fire, a Byzantine invention of the previous century, could not only be thrown by flamethrowers at the enemy but in stone and ceramic jars. Glass containers were employed; the use of Greek fire spread to Muslim armies in the Near East, from where it reached China by the 10th century. In China, during the Song Dynasty, weapons known as Zhen Tian Lei were created when Chinese soldiers packed gunpowder into ceramic or metal containers. In 1044, a military book Wujing Zongyao described various gunpowder recipes in which one can find, according to Joseph Needham, the prototype of the modern hand grenade; the mid-14th-century book Huolongjing, written by Jiao Yu, recorded an earlier Song-era cast iron cannon known as the "flying-cloud thunderclap cannon". The manuscript stated that: The shells are made of cast iron, as large as a bowl and shaped like a ball.

Inside they contain half a pound of'divine fire'. They are sent flying towards the enemy camp from an eruptor, when they get there a sound like a thunder-clap is heard, flashes of light appear. If ten of these shells are fired into the enemy camp, the whole place will be set ablaze... The first cast iron bombshells and grenades appeared in Europe in 1467. A hoard of several hundred ceramic hand grenades was discovered during construction in front of a bastion of the Bavarian city of Ingolstadt, Germany dated to the 17th century. Many of the grenades igniters. Most the grenades were intentionally dumped in the moat of the bastion prior to 1723. In 1643, it is possible that "Grenados" were thrown amongst the Welsh at Holt Bridge during the English Civil War; the word "grenade" originated during the events surrounding the Glorious Revolution in 1688, where cricket ball-sized iron spheres packed with gunpowder and fitted with slow-burning wicks were first used against the Jacobites in the battles of Killiecrankie and Glen Shiel.

These grenades were not effective and, as a result, saw little use. Grenades were used during the Golden Age of Piracy: pirate Captain Thompson used "vast numbers of powder flasks, grenade shells, stinkpots" to defeat two pirate-hunters sent by the Governor of Jamaica in 1721. Improvised grenades were used from the mid-19th century, being useful in trench warfare. In a letter to his sister, Colonel Hugh Robert Hibbert described an improvised grenade, employed by British troops during the Crimean War: We have a new invention to annoy our friends in their pits, it consists in filling empty soda water bottles full of powder, old twisted nails and any other sharp or cutting thing we can find at the time, sticking a bit of tow-in for a fuse lighting it and throwing it into our neighbors’ pit where it bursts

The Latebirds

The Latebirds are a rock band from Helsinki, Finland. The band was formed in 2000 by drummer Janne Haavisto, bass player Mikko Mäkelä, singer/songwriter Markus Nordenstreng and guitarist Miikka Paatelainen. Guitarist Jussi Jaakonaho replaced Miikka Paatelainen in 2004. Organ player Matti Pitsinki from Finnish instrumental rock group Laika & The Cosmonauts was added to the line-up in 2005; the Latebirds music has been described as alternative country, alternative rock, folk rock and power pop. The band's influences include artists and groups such as The Band, Neil Young, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Townes Van Zandt, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, The Who, Elvis Costello, Wilco, MC5 and Johnny Cash; the Latebirds have released three albums to date. Fortune Cookies was recorded in Finland with producer Lasse Kurki and it included a special guest appearance by well-known American guitarist Marc Ribot; the band's second album, Radio Insomnia was co-produced by Ken Coomer and Charlie Brocco. The album was recorded in upstate New York and it included guest appearances by MC5-guitarist Wayne Kramer, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers' organ player Benmont Tench, Ken Stringfellow from The Posies and Wilco's John Stirratt and Pat Sansone.

The Latebirds recorded their third album titled Last Of The Good Ol' Days with Grammy-winning producer Jim Scott in Los Angeles. The album was released in 2011 /2012; the guest's on the new album include Benmont Tench, Wilco-guitarist Nels Cline and singer/actress Minnie Driver. The Latebirds recorded an EP with The Band's Levon Helm at his barn studio in Woodstock. Singer legend Kris Kristofferson sings on one of these new recordings; the band has toured in the USA and Europe with artists including Patti Smith, The Posies, Mumford & Sons. and The Jayhawks. In 2006 The Latebirds were invited to support Wilco on their US tour; the tour included a date at Nashville's Ryman Auditorium known as the original Grand Ole Opry. This marked the first time. Markus Nordenstreng - Lead vocals, piano Janne Haavisto - Drums, percussion Mikko Mäkelä - Bass, vocals Jussi Jaakonaho - Lead guitar Matti Pitsinki - Farfisa organ, guitar Miikka Paatelainen - guitar Fortune Cookies Radio Insomnia Last Of The Good Ol' Days Official website Grandpop Records The Latebirds on Ultra Band List Stranded In Stereo Review of Radio Insomnia Latebirds article on Absolute Power Pop Music Export Finland website


Midukki was a 2013-2013 Indian reality television series in a beauty pageant style, aired on the Mazhavil Manorama channel. The first season of the show was hosted by Mollywood actress Rima Kallingal. Sneha Unnikrishnan was declared as the winner of the show. Popular choreographer Sajna Najam did the choreography for the contestants' performances, it was replaced by Uggram Ujjwalam. Mazhavil Manorama announced the new season of the show in early September 2017, it was launched in a different manner only with a mega grand finale. The show aimed to find the smartest women of Kerala; the show consisted of four permanent judges: Ambika Pillai, Dr. Piyush, Dr. Zaileshya and Shalini, it was hosted by the Mollywood actress Rima Kallingal. It consisted of 20 contestants across Kerala who were aged 18–25. Sneha Unnikrishnan won the first prize in Midukki. Remya Menon and Reba Monica John won 1st 2nd runner-up respectively. Midukki 2017 show is aimed to find out most beautiful, most smart, most intelligent model from 14 districts of Kerala.

Most aspiring models are aiming to win title of Midukki 2017 as it will give them great exposure to film industry. Auditions were held in famous colleges across Kerala and the selected top 14 contestants participated in the Grand Finale. Television personality Pearle Maaney hosted the finale episode along with RJ Mathukkutty. Actress Shobhana was the chief judge along with Prayaga Martin and Deepti Sati. Shruthi Paul was titled "Midukki". Mintu Shruthi Aadithya Shamil Namitha Merlin Anna


Krishnagiri is a city in the state of Tamil Nadu, it serves as the administrative headquarters of Krishnagiri District formed in 2004. It is located at the bottom of Syed Basha Hills, the town is surrounded by hill rocks, it is located 45 km from Hosur and 40 km from Dharmapuri. Krishnagiri is known as "Mango Capital of India" as mangoes are cultivated as the main crop, the land here is fertile with rich access to fresh water making it amenable to growing crops. Krishnagiri is a growing town and is the site of significant business and residential development; the Krishnagiri Dam was built in 1967. Krishnagiri is undergoing expansion and a variety of small-scale industry zones are being set up; as of 2011, the town had a population of 199,657. The Krishnagiri district has a prehistoric importance. Archeological sources confirm the presence of habitats of mankind during Paleolithic and Mesolithic Ages. Various rock paintings and rock carvings of Indus Valley civilization and Iron Age seen in this district support the historical significance of this district.

Krishnagiri region is a part of Chera country. It was ruled by Kongu and Chera rulers; the region came under Cholas, Gangas, Hoysalas, Vijaya Nagar and Bijapur emperors, Wodeyars of Mysore and Nayaks of Madurai. This region of Krishnagiri served as "Gateway of Tamil Nadu" and the protective barrier for the southern region defending onslaughts from invaders with motives of imperialism and exploitation. Krishnagiri Fort become the foremost defensive place; the majestic fortress, built on Krishnagiri hill by the Vijaya Nagar emperors, stands as testimony still now. During Mysore war I, the British troops passed through Krishnagiri to attack Hyder Ali's Forces at Kaveripattinam. British army was defeated here. In Mysore war II after the "Treaty of Srirangapattinam" entire region of Salem and Barah Mahal were surrendered to the British. In 1792 AD, Captain Alexander Reed became the first District Collector of this region. Under the diplomacy of Robert Clive, the Governor of Madras Presidency, Krishnagiri became the headquarters of Bara Mahal.

A mint was established at Krishnagiri in 1794 AD. Gold and copper coins were forged here. Many soldiers from Krishnagiri region lost their lives. Dr. C. Rajagopalachari hailed from a small village in this district rose to the highest position in the nation as the first Governor General of independent India, leader of the Congress Party, as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu; the historical importance and potential growth in education and tourism of present Krishnagiri made it necessary to create a separate district. Krishnagiri was formed as 30th district by the Government of Tamil Nadu. Krishnagiri district was carved out of Dharmapuri district on 9 February 2004 with five taluks and ten blocks. Krishnagiri experiences tropical climate during the summer; the summers are much rainier than the winters in Krishnagiri. This climate is considered to be Aw according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification; the temperature here averages 26.5 °C. Precipitation here averages 794 mm. Monsoon season brings substantial amount of rainfall to this region and Krishnagiri experiences a long monsoon.

Winters are pleasant and comfortable. This is the best time. There are three distinct seasons. Summer is from the months of March to June. During this time temperatures are warm and mercury rise up to around 38 °C and dipping a minimum of 32 °C. April and May are the hottest months of the year and the heat could be uncomfortable. Monsoon season is from the months of July to November. During this time temperatures are pleasant. Heavy rainfall can be expected in short intervals. Monsoon season is a good time to visit as there are breaks in the rainfall. December to February constitutes the winter months and the temperature falls to 13 °C It is the best time to visit the place. According to 2011 census, Krishnagiri had a population of 71,323 with a sex-ratio of 1,015 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 7,748 were under the age of six, constituting 3,689 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 10.64% and.18% of the population respectively.

The average literacy of the town was 76.79%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The town had a total of 16386 households. There were a total of 24,559 workers, comprising 187 cultivators, 99 main agricultural labourers, 640 in house hold industries, 22,230 other workers, 1,403 marginal workers, 10 marginal cultivators, 42 marginal agricultural labourers, 207 marginal workers in household industries and 1,144 other marginal workers; as per the religious census of 2011, Krishnagiri had 71.37% Hindus, 24.7% Muslims, 3.77% Christians, 0.05% Sikhs, 0.07% Jains, 0.03% following other religions and 0.01% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference. Tamil is the major language spoken in Krishnagiri. Telugu and Kannada are spoken here, due to the proximity towards Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states; the national fruit of India is mango. The major crop of Krishnagiri district with 300.17 km² area of cultivation is mango. The district produces 300,000 tones annually and in Tamil Nadu Krishnagiri District is the First Place in The Production of Mango.

20% of the mango varieties like ‘Thothapuri’ and ‘Alphonso’ that are produced in this district, are processed into pulp. In addition to mango pulp processing, tonnes of mangoes are processed into juice every year in this district. A large-scale mango export zone has been approved

Werder (woreda)

Werder is one of the woredas in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, named after its administrative center, Werder. Part of the Werder Zone Werder is bordered on the southwest by the Korahe Zone, on the north by Danot, on the east by Geladin; the average elevation in this woreda is 943 meters above sea level. As of 2008, Werder has any community roads. Before 1960, the only water available during the dry season in Werder woreda were the Werder wells and those in its vicinity: Welwel, Afyerado, Wafdug and Yo'ub. Ogaden, Dhulbahante and Habar Yoonis pastoralists watered from these wells. In the years after 1960 the construction of private birkas, which increased after 1970. While this allowed the area, grazed in the wet season to now be grazed throughout the dry season, it has led to a serious decline in the native species most favored for fodder and grazing in this woreda; the woreda was affected by Ethiopian military actions. According to Human Rights Watch, in late May and June 2007, the Ethiopian army and Regional authorities forced the inhabitants of numerous villages within a 60-kilometer radius of the administrative center, including Aado, Daratoole, Dhurwaa-Hararaf, Neef-Kuceliye, Ubatale, Wa’di, Wafdug and Yo'ub.

Over the following weeks, many of these villages were burned: Daratoole in mid-June. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this woreda has a total population of 58,035, of whom 32,743 are men and 25,292 women. While 9,211 or 15.87% are urban inhabitants, a further 13,493 or 23.25% are pastoralists. 99.24 % of the population said. This woreda is inhabited by the Makahiil Darood clan; the Ogaaden inhabit the northern parts wheres the Dhulbahante and Majerteen inhabit the eastern and southern parts of the woreda. The 1997 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 98,699, of whom 55,320 were men and 43,379 were women; the largest ethnic group reported in Werder was the Somali 98,447


WCIL is a radio station broadcasting a News Talk format as a simulcast of WJPF. Licensed to Carbondale, United States, the station serves the Marion-Carbondale area; the station is owned by Max Media. WCIL signed on the air in 1946 as a daytime-only station with personalities such as Jim Bowen, Bluegrass Roy and others in a second floor studio at about 215 W. Main St. in Carbondale. At that time, to get the AM license, they were pressured by the FCC to sign on an FM station, they kept the FM on the air for about a year and signed it off the air since, at the time, nobody listened to FM. WCIL moved the studios to a house at a location, now the parking lot for the First United Methodist Church in Carbondale. In 1964 WCIL moved again, this time to new studios at 211 W. Main in Carbondale, right across the street from the church. Paul F. McRoy, the station's owner, reapplied for an FM license; the license was approved and WCIL-FM signed on in 1968 and allowed broadcasting after local sunset when WCIL was required to sign off.

WCIL simulcast programming during this time. The format was easy listening news. A year or so before CIL-FM was born, Top 40 music was played at night after 10pm; the FCC required. So, plans were made to split WCIL AM and FM; the AM and FM split programming and became separate stations on August 16, 1976. McRoy would go on to sell both WCIL-FM and AM to Dennis Lyle, now the President of the Illinois Broadcasters Association. In 1997, Lyle sold the stations to the Zimmer Radio Group. Soon after the sale, WCIL became a daytime-only simulcast of News/Talk WJPF. In 2004, Zimmer Radio Group sold their stations in southern Illinois, along with Cape Girardeau, Poplar Bluff and Sikeston, Missouri to Mississippi River Radio, a subsidiary of Max Media, LLC. WCIL is Illinois. In December 2003, Mississippi River Radio, acting as Max Media LLC, reached an agreement to purchase WCIL, WCIL-FM, WJPF, WOOZ-FM, WUEZ, WXLT, KCGQ-FM, KEZS-FM, KGIR, KGKS, KJEZ, KKLR-FM, KLSC, KMAL, KSIM, KWOC, KZIM from the Zimmer Radio Group.

The reported value of this 17 station transaction was $43 million. Query the FCC's AM station database for WCIL Radio-Locator Information on WCIL Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WCIL History of WCIL