In cooking, a syrup or sirup is a condiment, a thick, viscous liquid consisting of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. Its consistency is similar to that of molasses; the viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl groups. Syrups can be made by dissolving sugar in water or by reducing sweet juices such as cane juice, sorghum juice, maple sap or agave nectar. Corn syrup is made from corn starch using an enzymatic process. There are a range of syrups used in food production, including: Glucose syrup Corn syrup Maple syrup High fructose corn syrup used in the US Golden syrup, a by-product of refining crystallized sugar Cane syrup, made from sugar canes Agave syrup, made from agave stem A variety of beverages call for sweetening to offset the tartness of some juices used in the drink recipes. Granulated sugar does not dissolve in cold drinks or ethyl alcohol.
Since the following syrups are liquids, they are mixed with other liquids in mixed drinks, making them superior alternatives to granulated sugar. Simple syrup is a basic sugar-and-water syrup used by bartenders as a sweetener to make cocktails. Simple syrup is made by stirring granulated sugar into hot water in a saucepan until the sugar is dissolved and cooling the solution; the ratio of sugar to water is 1:1 by volume for normal simple syrup, but can get up to 2:1 for rich simple syrup. For pure sucrose the saturation limit is about 5:4 by volume. Syrup can be used as a sweetener. Combining Demerara sugar, a type of natural brown sugar, with water produces Demerara syrup. Sugar substitutes such as honey or agave nectar can be used to make syrups. Flavoured syrups are made by infusing simple syrups with flavouring agents during the cooking process. A wide variety of flavouring agents can be used in combination with each other, such as herbs, spices, or aromatics. For instance, syrupus aromaticus is prepared by adding certain quantities of orange flavouring and cinnamon water to simple syrup.
This type of syrup is used at coffee bars in the United States, to make flavoured drinks. Infused simple syrups can be used to create desserts, or, to add sweetness and depth of flavour to cocktails. Gomme syrup is an ingredient used in mixed drinks, it is commonly used as a sweetener for iced coffee in Japan. Like bar syrups, it has an added ingredient of gum arabic. Gomme syrup is made with the highest ratio of sugar to water possible, while the gum arabic prevents the sugar from crystallizing and adds a smooth texture. Media related to Syrups at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of syrup at Wiktionary "Syrup". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
The blackcurrant or black currant is a woody shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its berries. It is native to temperate parts of central and northern Europe and northern Asia where it prefers damp fertile soils and is cultivated both commercially and domestically, it is winterhardy, but cold weather at flowering time during the spring reduces the size of the crop. Bunches of small, glossy black fruit develop along the stems in the summer and can be harvested by hand or by machine; the raw fruit is rich in vitamin C and polyphenol phytochemicals. Blackcurrants can be eaten raw but are cooked in a variety of sweet or savoury dishes, they are used to make jams and syrups and are grown commercially for the juice market. The fruit is used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages and both fruit and foliage have uses in traditional medicine and the preparation of dyes; as a crop, the blackcurrant suffers from several pests and diseases. The most serious disease is reversion, caused by a virus transmitted by the blackcurrant gall mite.
Another is white pine blister rust which alternates between two unrelated hosts, one in the genus Ribes and the other a white pine. This fungus caused damage to forests when the fruit was first introduced into North America, where the native white pines have no genetic resistance to the disease; as a result, the blackcurrant has for most of the 20th century been subject to restrictions in parts of the United States as a disease vector. The effectiveness of these restrictions is questionable, since other Ribes species host the disease and are native to North America. Breeding is being undertaken in Scotland, Lithuania and New Zealand to produce fruit with better eating qualities and bushes with greater hardiness and disease resistance. Ribes nigrum, the blackcurrant, is a medium-sized shrub, growing to 1.5 by 1.5 metres. The leaves are alternate, simple, 3 to 5 cm broad and long with five palmate lobes and a serrated margin. All parts of the plant are aromatic; the flowers are produced in racemes known as "strigs" up to 8 cm long containing ten to twenty flowers, each about 8 mm in diameter.
Each flower has a hairy calyx with yellow glands, the five lobes of which are longer than the inconspicuous petals. There are five stamens surrounding the stigma and style and two fused carpels; the flowers open in succession from the base of the strig and are insect pollinated, but some pollen is distributed by the wind. A pollen grain landing on a stigma will germinate and send a slender pollen tube down the style to the ovule. In warm weather this takes about 48 hours but in cold weather it may take a week, by that time, the ovule may have passed the stage where it is receptive. If fewer than about 35 ovules are fertilised, the fruit may not be able to develop and will fall prematurely. Frost can damage both unopened and open flowers when the temperature falls below −1.9 °C. The flowers at the base of the strig are more protected by the foliage and are less to be damaged. In midsummer the strigs of green fruit ripen to edible berries dark purple in colour black, with glossy skins and persistent calyxes at the apex, each containing many seeds.
An established bush can produce about 4.5 kilograms of fruit each year. Plants from Northern Asia are sometimes distinguished as a separate variety, Ribes nigrum var. sibiricum, of which Ribes cyathiforme is considered a synonym. Blackcurrants can grow well on sandy or heavy loams, or forest soils, as long as their nutrient requirements are met, they prefer damp, fertile but not waterlogged ground and are intolerant of drought. Although the bushes are winter hardy, frosts during the flowering period may adversely affect the yield and cold winds may restrict the number of flying insects visiting and pollinating the flowers. A pH of about 6 is ideal for blackcurrants and the ground can be limed if the soil is too acidic. Planting is done in the autumn or winter to allow the plants to become established before growth starts in the spring, but container-grown stock can be planted at any time of year. Two-year-old bushes are planted but strong one-year-old stock can be used. Planting certified stock avoids the risk of introducing viruses.
On a garden scale the plants can be set at intervals of 1.5 to 1.8 metres or they can be set in rows with planting intervals of 1.2 metres and row separations of 2.5 metres or more. In the UK, young bushes are planted deeper than their initial growing level to encourage new stems to grow from the base; the blackcurrant requires a number of essential nutrients to be present to enable it to thrive. An annual spring mulch of well rotted manure is ideal and poultry manure can be used but needs prior composting with straw or other waste vegetable material. Spent mushroom compost can be used but care should be taken as it contains lime and blackcurrants prefer acidic soils; the blackcurrant is a gross feeder and benefits from additional nitrogen, phosphatic and potash fertilisers should be applied annually. A balanced artificial fertilizer can be used and a 10-10-10 granular product can be spread around the bushes at the rate of 100 to 240 g per pla
Allura Red AC
Allura Red AC is a red azo dye that goes by several names, including FD&C Red 40. It is used as a food dye and has the E number E129, it is supplied as its red sodium salt, but can be used as the calcium and potassium salts. These salts are soluble in water. In solution, its maximum absorbance lies at about 504 nm. Allura Red AC is a popular dye used worldwide. Annual production in 1980 was greater than 2.3 million kilograms. The European Union approves Allura Red AC as a food colorant, but EU countries' local laws banning food colorants are preserved. In the United States, Allura Red AC is approved by the FDA for use in cosmetics and food; when prepared as a lake it is disclosed as Red 40 Aluminum Lake. It is used in some tattoo inks and is used in many products, such as cotton candy, soft drinks, cherry flavored products, children's medications, dairy products, it is by far the most used red dye in the United States replacing amaranth and replacing erythrosine in most applications due to the negative health effects of those two dyes.
Allura Red has been studied by food safety groups in North America and Europe, remains in wide use. The UK FSA commissioned a study of six food dyes, sodium benzoate on children in the general population, who consumed them in beverages; the study found "a possible link between the consumption of these artificial colours and a sodium benzoate preservative and increased hyperactivity" in the children. The European regulatory community, with a stronger emphasis on the precautionary principle, required labelling and temporarily reduced the acceptable daily intake for the food colorings. However, in 2009 the EFSA re-evaluated the data at hand and determined that "the available scientific evidence does not substantiate a link between the color additives and behavioral effects" and in 2014 after further review of the data, the EFSA restored the prior ADI levels. In 2015, the EFSA found that the exposure estimates did not exceed the ADI of 7 mg/kg per day in any population; the US FDA did not make changes following the publication of the Southampton study, but following a citizen petition filed by the Center for Science in the Public Interest in 2008, requesting the FDA ban several food additives, the FDA commenced a review of the available evidence, still made no changes.
Allura Red AC was at one time banned in Denmark, Belgium and Switzerland, was banned in Sweden until the country joined the European Union in 1994. In Norway, Iceland, it was banned between 1978 and 2001, a period in which azo dyes were only used in alcoholic beverages and some fish products. Record in the Household Products Database of NLM UK Food Guide on E129 International Programme on Chemical Safety Some more details, other common names List of Foods and Drugs containing Red Dye #40
A cocktail is an alcoholic mixed drink, either a combination of spirits, or one or more spirits mixed with other ingredients such as fruit juice, flavored syrup, or cream. There are various types of cocktails, based on the kind of ingredients added; the origins of the cocktail are debated. The Oxford Dictionaries define cocktail as "An alcoholic drink consisting of a spirit or spirits mixed with other ingredients, such as fruit juice or cream". A cocktail can contain alcohol, a sugar, a bitter/citrus; when a mixed drink contains only a distilled spirit and a mixer, such as soda or fruit juice, it is a highball. Many of the International Bartenders Association Official Cocktails are highballs; when a mixed drink contains only a distilled spirit and a liqueur, it is a duo, when it adds a mixer, it is a trio. Additional ingredients may be sugar, milk and various herbs. Mixed drinks without alcohol that resemble cocktails are known as "mocktails" or "virgin cocktails"; the origin of the word cocktail is disputed.
The first recorded use of cocktail not referring to a horse is found in The Morning Post and Gazetteer in London, March 20, 1798: The Oxford English Dictionary cites the word as originating in the U. S; the first recorded use of cocktail as a beverage in the United States appears in The Farmer's Cabinet, April 28, 1803: Drank a glass of cocktail—excellent for the head... Call'd at the Doct's. found Burnham—he looked wise—drank another glass of cocktail. The first definition of cocktail known to be an alcoholic beverage appeared in The Balance and Columbian Repository May 13, 1806, it is said to be of great use to a democratic candidate: because a person, having swallowed a glass of it, is ready to swallow any thing else. Etymologist Anatoly Liberman endorses as "highly probable" the theory advanced by Låftman, which Liberman summarizes as follows: It was customary to dock the tails of horses that were not thoroughbred... They were called cocktailed horses simply cocktails. By extension, the word cocktail was applied to a vulgar, ill-bred person raised above his station, assuming the position of a gentleman but deficient in gentlemanly breeding....
Of importance is... the mention of water as an ingredient.... Låftman concluded that cocktail was an acceptable alcoholic drink, but diluted, not a "purebred", a thing "raised above its station". Hence the appropriate slang word used earlier about inferior horses and sham gentlemen. In his book Imbibe!, David Wondrich speculates that cocktail is a reference to a practice for perking up an old horse by means of a ginger suppository so that the animal would "cock its tail up and be frisky."Several authors have theorized that cocktail may be a corruption of cock ale. There is a lack of clarity on the origins of cocktails. Traditionally cocktails were a mixture of spirits, sugar and bitters, but by the 1860s, a cocktail included a liqueur. The first publication of a bartenders' guide which included cocktail recipes was in 1862 – How to Mix Drinks. In addition to recipes for punches, slings, shrubs, flips, a variety of other mixed drinks were 10 recipes for "cocktails". A key ingredient differentiating cocktails from other drinks in this compendium was the use of bitters.
Mixed drinks popular today that conform to this original meaning of "cocktail" include the Old Fashioned whiskey cocktail, the Sazerac cocktail, the Manhattan cocktail. The ingredients listed match the ingredients of an Old Fashioned, which originated as a term used by late 19th century bar patrons to distinguish cocktails made the "old-fashioned" way from newer, more complex cocktails. In the 1869 recipe book Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks, by William Terrington, cocktails are described as: Cocktails are compounds much used by "early birds" to fortify the inner man, by those who like their consolations hot and strong; the term highball appears during the 1890s to distinguish a drink composed only of a distilled spirit and a mixer. The first "cocktail party" thrown was by Mrs. Julius S. Walsh Jr. of St. Louis, Missouri, in May 1917. Walsh invited 50 guests to her home at noon on a Sunday; the party lasted an hour. The site of this first cocktail party still stands. In 1924, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis bought the Walsh mansion at 4510 Lindell Boulevard, it has served as the local archbishop's residence since.
During Prohibition in the United States, when alcoholic beverages were illegal, cocktails were still consumed illegally in establishments known as speakeasies. The quality of the liquor available during Prohibition was much worse than previously. There was a shift from whiskey to gin, which does not require aging and is therefore easier to produce illicitly. Honey, fruit juices, other flavorings served to mask the foul taste of the inferior liquors. Sweet cocktails were easier to drink an important consideration when the establishment might be raided at any moment. With wine and beer less available, liquor-based cocktails took their place becoming the centerpiece of the new cocktail party. Cocktails became less popular in the late 1960s and through the 1970s, until resurging in the 19
An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture. For example, in cooking, recipes specify. Many commercial products contain secret ingredients that are purported to make them better than competing products. In the pharmaceutical industry, an active ingredient is that part of a formulation that yields the effect expected by the customer. National laws require prepared food products to display a list of ingredients, require that certain additives be listed. In most developed countries, the law requires that ingredients be listed according to their relative weight in the product. If an ingredient itself consists of more than one ingredient that ingredient is listed by what percentage of the total product it occupies, with its own ingredients displayed next to it in brackets; the term constituent is chosen when referring to the substances that constitute the tissue of living beings such as plants and people, because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency, whereas the natural products present in living beings were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally.
Thus all ingredients are constituents. An artificial ingredient refers to an ingredient, artificial or man-made, such as: Artificial flavor Food additive Food coloring Preservative Sugar substitute, artificial sweetener Fake food Bill of materials Software Bill of Materials Identification of medicinal products
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C6H8O7. It occurs in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year, it is used as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent. A citrate is a derivative of citric acid. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; when part of a salt, the formula of the citrate ion is written as C6H5O3−7 or C3H5O3−3. Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have high concentrations of the acid; the concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes. Within species, these values vary depending on the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown. Industrial-scale citric acid production first began in 1890 based on the Italian citrus fruit industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime to precipitate calcium citrate, isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted sulfuric acid.
In 1893, C. Wehmer discovered. However, microbial production of citric acid did not become industrially important until World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports. In 1917, American food chemist James Currie discovered certain strains of the mold Aspergillus niger could be efficient citric acid producers, the pharmaceutical company Pfizer began industrial-level production using this technique two years followed by Citrique Belge in 1929. In this production technique, still the major industrial route to citric acid used today, cultures of A. niger are fed on a sucrose or glucose-containing medium to produce citric acid. The source of sugar is corn steep liquor, hydrolyzed corn starch or other inexpensive sugary solutions. After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by precipitating it with calcium hydroxide to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid, as in the direct extraction from citrus fruit juice.
In 1977, a patent was granted to Lever Brothers for the chemical synthesis of citric acid starting either from aconitic or isocitrate/alloisocitrate calcium salts under high pressure conditions. This produced citric acid in near quantitative conversion under what appeared to be a reverse non-enzymatic Krebs cycle reaction. In 2007, worldwide annual production stood at 1,600,000 tons. More than 50% of this volume was produced in China. More than 50% was used as an acidity regulator in beverages, some 20% in other food applications, 20% for detergent applications and 10% for related applications other than food, such as cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in the chemical industry. Citric acid was first isolated in 1784 by the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who crystallized it from lemon juice, it can exist either as a monohydrate. The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when citric acid is crystallized from cold water; the monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form at about 78 °C.
Citric acid dissolves in absolute ethanol at 15 °C. It decomposes with loss of carbon dioxide above about 175 °C. Citric acid is considered to be a tribasic acid, with pKa values, extrapolated to zero ionic strength, of 5.21, 4.28 and 2.92 at 25 °C. The pKa of the hydroxyl group has been found, by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy, to be 14.4. The speciation diagram shows that solutions of citric acid are buffer solutions between about pH 2 and pH 8. In biological systems around pH 7, the two species present are the citrate ion and mono-hydrogen citrate ion; the SSC 20X hybridization buffer is an example in common use. Tables compiled for biochemical studies are available. On the other hand, the pH of a 1 mM solution of citric acid will be about 3.2. The pH of fruit juices from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons depends on the citric acid concentration, being lower for higher acid concentration and conversely. Acid salts of citric acid can be prepared by careful adjustment of the pH before crystallizing the compound.
See, for example, sodium citrate. The citrate ion forms complexes with metallic cations; the stability constants for the formation of these complexes are quite large because of the chelate effect. It forms complexes with alkali metal cations. However, when a chelate complex is formed using all three carboxylate groups, the chelate rings have 7 and 8 members, which are less stable thermodynamically than smaller chelate rings. In consequence, the hydroxyl group can be deprotonated, forming part of a more stable 5-membered ring, as in ammonium ferric citrate, 5Fe2·2H2O. Citric acid can be esterified at one or more of the carboxylic acid functional groups on the molecule, to form any of a variety of mono-, di-, tri-, mixed esters. Citrate is an intermediate in the TCA cycle, a central metabolic pathway for animals and bacteria. Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation of oxaloacetate with acetyl CoA to form citrate. Citrate acts as the substrate for aconitase and is converted into aconitic acid.
The cycle ends with regeneration of oxaloacetate. This series