The Grey Cup is the name of both the championship game of the Canadian Football League and the trophy awarded to the victorious team playing in the namesake championship of professional Canadian football. It is contested between the winners of the CFL's East and West Divisional playoffs and is one of Canadian television's largest annual sporting events; the Toronto Argonauts have the most Grey Cup wins since its introduction in 1909, while the Edmonton Eskimos have the most Grey Cup wins since the creation of the CFL in 1958. The latest, the 107th Grey Cup, took place in Calgary, Alberta, on November 24, 2019, when the Winnipeg Blue Bombers defeated the Hamilton Tiger-Cats 33–12; the Grey Cup game is Canada's largest annual sports and television event drawing a Canadian viewing audience of about 4 million. Two awards are given for play in the game, Most Valuable Player and the Dick Suderman Trophy as most valuable Canadian player; as a member of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Andrew Harris is the only player to win both the Dick Suderman Trophy and the Grey Cup Most Valuable Player the same year, which he did in 2019.
The trophy was commissioned in 1909 by the Earl Grey Canada's governor general, who hoped to donate it for the country's senior amateur hockey championship. After the Allan Cup was donated for that purpose, Grey instead made his trophy available as the "Canadian Dominion Football Championship" of Canadian football; the trophy has a silver chalice attached to a large base on which the names of all winning teams and executives are engraved. The Grey Cup has been broken on several occasions, stolen twice, held for ransom, it survived a 1947 fire. The Grey Cup was first won by the University of Toronto Varsity Blues. Play was suspended in 1919 due to a rules dispute; the game has been contested in an east versus west format since the 1920s. The game was always since 1969 has always been on a Sunday. Held in late November, in outdoor stadiums, the Grey Cup has been played in inclement weather at times, including the 1950 "Mud Bowl", in which a player came close to drowning in a puddle the 1962 "Fog Bowl", when the final minutes of the game had to be postponed to the following day due to a heavy fog, the 1977 "Ice Bowl", contested on the frozen-over artificial turf at Montreal's Olympic Stadium.
Most in the 2017 game snow fell, at times throughout the game. The Edmonton Eskimos formed the Grey Cup's longest dynasty, winning five consecutive championships from 1978 to 1982. Competition for the trophy has been between Canadian teams, except for a three-year period from 1993 to 1995, when an expansion of the CFL south into the United States resulted in the Baltimore Stallions winning the 1995 championship and taking the Grey Cup south of the border for the only time in its history. While the Stanley Cup was created in 1893 as the Canadian amateur hockey championship, professional teams were competing for the trophy by 1907. Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, the Governor General of Canada, planned to donate a new trophy to serve as the senior amateur championship. Grey instead offered an award for the Canadian amateur rugby football championship beginning in 1909, he failed to follow through on his offer. The first Grey Cup game was held on December 4, 1909, between two Toronto clubs: the University of Toronto Varsity Blues defeated the Parkdale Canoe Club 26–6 before 3,800 fans.
The trophy was not ready for presentation following the game, the Varsity Blues did not receive it until March 1910. They retained the trophy in the following two years, defeating the Hamilton Tigers in 1910 and the Toronto Argonauts in 1911; the University of Toronto failed to reach the 1912 Grey Cup, won by the Hamilton Alerts over the Argonauts. The Varsity Blues refused to hand over the trophy on the belief they could keep it until they were defeated in a title game, they kept the trophy until 1914 when they were defeated by the Argonauts, who made the trophy available to subsequent champions. Canada's participation in the First World War resulted in the cancellation of the championship from 1916 to 1918, during which time the Cup was forgotten. Montreal Gazette writer Bob Dunn claimed that the trophy was rediscovered as "one of the family heirlooms" of an employee of the Toronto trust company where it had been sent for storage; the Grey Cup game was cancelled in 1919 due to a lack of interest from the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the intercollegiate unions, along with rules conflicts between the Canadian Rugby Union and the western union.
Competition resumed in 1920 with the 8th Grey Cup game, won 16–3 by the Varsity Blues over the Argonauts. It was the University of Toronto's fourth, final, championship. Competition for the Grey Cup was limited to member unions of the CRU, the champions of which petitioned the league body for the right to challenge for the national championship; the Western Canada Rugby Football Union was formed in 1911, but the CRU did not come to a participation agreement with it until 1921, allowing the Edmonton Eskimos of the WCRFU to challenge. Facing the Argonauts in the 9th Grey Cup, the Eskimos became the first western team – and the first from outside Toronto or
The Jarmulowsky Bank Building is a 12-story building housing the Jarmulowsky Bank on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, New York City. Located at Canal Street and Orchard Street, the Jarmulowsky Bank Building was built by architects Rouse & Goldstone in 1912, in Beaux-Arts style; the building is faced with limestone at its lower section and architectural terracotta on its higher section. Sender Jarmulowsky established his bank in 1873; when World War I broke out two years after the bank building was completed, there was a run on the bank, as German investors withdrew funds to send to relatives abroad, the bank failed. Until 1990, the building featured a massive tempietto rising 50 feet to a dome ringed by eagles; the building was renovated in 1990 by the tempietto destroyed. In 2014, a proposal to build a replica of this structure was approved by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; this was completed and unveiled by the beginning of 2020. The building is now used for commercial purposes.
In 2013 the building was slated for conversion into luxury hotel. National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan below 14th Street List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan below 14th Street Media related to Jarmulowsky Bank Building at Wikimedia Commons
Sauder Woodworking Company is a furniture manufacturing business that started in 1934 making kitchen cabinets. Erie J. Sauder started the company at the age of 30 in a barn located behind. A year due to the success of his company, he moved to a larger facility in Archbold, the same town where he was born. At that time he had five employees, his main customer base was the nearby area. In 1937 the business expanded again manufacturing church pews. From the scrap wood of the church pews he began manufacturing low-priced wooden tables; the "leftovers" however were expensive quality wood. In 1940 a couple of traveling salesmen noticed these inexpensive tables of oak and walnut while at Sauder's business, they were captivated by this concept of using leftovers to produce low-priced tables. They asked. Soon afterwards they came back, with an order for 25,000 tables, he obtained a loan from a local bank and doubled the size of his manufacturing business to accommodate the order. An idea came up from the Federal Department Store chain that if Sauder could come up with "knock-down" furniture that would lie flat in a box it would reduce shipping and inventory storage costs and increase profits.
From that idea, he conceived a "snap together" knock-down table in a box that customers could put together at home. To save customers money, he developed a set of wooden parts of the tables he manufactured that were unassembled as furniture in a box; these parts would be boxed in a flat package ready for the customer to take home and assemble themselves—thus saving on labor costs of a factory assembled unit. This knock-down table concept he created in 1951 and patented a year where it became the start of the ready-to-assemble furniture industry; the snap-together furniture was a type of ready-to-assemble furniture, which along with the church furniture, sold well under the name of Foremost Furniture. In the 1980s the name of the products was changed to Sauder Woodworking. Erie J. Sauder's first snap-together furniture piece was an occasional table created in 1951; the style of furniture became the first patented ready-to-assemble furniture design and started the industry. The knock-down table was filed for patent on July 1, 1952, received final patent approval August 25, 1953.
This patent was the basis for Sauder Woodworking Company to become the largest maker of ready-to-assemble furniture in the country. Sauder's snap-together furniture is made of panels made of particle board; the panels are laminated to make them appear like real wood. They are drilled and grooved to accept the hardware furnished; the customer assembles the furniture themselves at home with screwdrivers, a hammer. Media related to Sauder ready-to-assemble furniture at Wikimedia Commons