A plantation is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, tea, sugar cane, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, fruits. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located. A plantation house is the main house of a plantation a substantial farmhouse, which serves as a symbol for the plantation as a whole. Plantation houses in the Southern United States and in other areas are known as quite grand and expensive architectural works today, though most were more utilitarian, working farmhouses. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time.
Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners. Christmas trees are grown on plantations as well. In southern and southeastern Asia, teak plantations have replaced the natural forest. Industrial plantations are managed for the commercial production of forest products. Industrial plantations are large-scale. Individual blocks are even-aged and consist of just one or two species; these species can be indigenous. The plants used for the plantation are genetically altered for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pests and diseases in general and specific traits, for example in the case of timber species, volumic wood production and stem straightness. Forest genetic resources are the basis for genetic alteration. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. Wood production on a tree plantation is higher than that of natural forests.
While forests managed for wood production yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of fast-growing species yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually. In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the world's roundwood. In the first year, the ground is prepared by the combination of burning, herbicide spraying, and/or cultivation and saplings are planted by human crew or by machine; the saplings are obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries, which may specialize in selective breeding in order to produce fast growing disease- and pest-resistant strains. In the first few years until the canopy closes, the saplings are looked after, may be dusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides until established. After the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, tree growth is slowing due to competition; this stage is termed'pole stage'.
When competition becomes too intense, it is time to thin out the section. There are several methods for thinning, but where topography permits, the most popular is'row-thinning', where every third or fourth or fifth row of trees is removed with a harvester. Many trees are removed, leaving regular clear lanes through the section so that the remaining trees have room to expand again; the removed trees are delimbed, forwarded to the forest road, loaded onto trucks, sent to a mill. A typical pole stage plantation tree is 7–30 cm in diameter at breast height; such trees are sometimes not suitable for timber, but are used as pulp for paper and particleboard, as chips for oriented strand board. As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the thinning process is repeated. Depending on growth rate and species, trees at this age may be large enough for timber milling. Around year 10-60 the plantation is falling off the back side of its growth curve; that is to say, it is passing the point of maximum wood growth per hectare per year, so is ready for the final harvest.
All remaining trees are felled and taken to be processed. The ground is cleared, the cycle can be restarted; some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage because their leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not harm the mature trees. Many forestry experts claim that the establishment of plantations will reduce or eliminate the need to exploit natural forest for wood production. In principle this is true. Many point to the example of New Zealand, where 19% of the forest area provides 99% of the supply of industrial round wood, it has been estimated that the world's demand for fiber could be met by just 5% of the world fores
Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the interior walls of domestic and public buildings. It is sold in rolls and is applied onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come plain as "lining paper", with a regular repeating pattern design, or, much less today, with a single non-repeating large design carried over a set of sheets; the smallest rectangle that can be tiled to form the whole pattern is known as the pattern repeat. Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, gravure printing, silk screen-printing, rotary printing, digital printing. Wallpaper is made in long rolls. Patterned wallpapers are designed so that the pattern "repeats", thus pieces cut from the same roll can be hung next to each other so as to continue the pattern without it being easy to see where the join between two pieces occurs. In the case of large complex patterns of images this is achieved by starting the second piece halfway into the length of the repeat, so that if the pattern going down the roll repeats after 24 inches, the next piece sideways is cut from the roll to begin 12 inches down the pattern from the first.
The number of times the pattern repeats horizontally across a roll does not matter for this purpose. A single pattern can be issued in several different colorways; the main historical techniques are: hand-painting, woodblock printing and various types of machine-printing. The first three all date back to before 1700. Wallpaper, using the printmaking technique of woodcut, gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry; the social elite continued to hang large tapestries on the walls of their homes, as they had in the Middle Ages. These tapestries added color to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were expensive and so only the rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, large sheets of the paper were sometimes hung loosely on the walls, in the style of tapestries, sometimes pasted as today.
Prints were often pasted to walls, instead of being framed and hung, the largest sizes of prints, which came in several sheets, were mainly intended to be pasted to walls. Some important artists made such pieces - notably Albrecht Dürer, who worked on both large picture prints and ornament prints - intended for wall-hanging; the largest picture print was The Triumphal Arch commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and completed in 1515. This measured a colossal 3.57 by 2.95 metres, made up of 192 sheets, was printed in a first edition of 700 copies, intended to be hung in palaces and, in particular, town halls, after hand-coloring. Few samples of the earliest repeating pattern wallpapers survive, but there are a large number of old master prints in engraving of repeating or repeatable decorative patterns; these were intended as models for wallpaper makers, among other uses. England and France were leaders in European wallpaper manufacturing. Among the earliest known samples is one found on a wall from England and is printed on the back of a London proclamation of 1509.
It became popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe. Without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items, banned under the Puritan state. In 1712, during the reign of Queen Anne, a wallpaper tax was introduced, not abolished until 1836. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.
However this trade was disrupted in 1755 by the Seven Years' War and the Napoleonic Wars, by a heavy level of duty on imports to France. In 1748 the British Ambassador to Paris decorated his salon with blue flock wallpaper, which became fashionable there. In the 1760s the French manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon hired designers working in silk and tapestry to produce some of the most subtle and luxurious wallpaper made, his sky blue wallpaper with fleurs-de-lys was used in 1783 on the first balloons by the Montgolfier brothers. The landscape painter Jean-Baptiste Pillement discovered in 1763 a method to use fast colours. Hand-blocked wallpapers like these use hand-carved blocks and by the 18th century designs include panoramic views of antique architecture, exotic landscapes and pastoral subjects, as well as repeating patterns of stylized flowers and animals. In 1785 Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf had invented the first machine for printing coloured tints on sheets of wallpaper. In 1799 Louis-Nicolas Robert patented a machine to produce continuous lengths of paper, the forerunner of
Grey Towers Castle
Grey Towers Castle is a building on the campus of Arcadia University in Glenside, Pennsylvania, in Cheltenham Township, a suburb of Philadelphia, USA. The castle was designed by Horace Trumbauer and built starting in 1893 as the estate of William Welsh Harrison; the university purchased the estate in 1929 for $712,500, equal to $10,396,148 today. Classes were split between the two locations until 1962, when the school moved all of its operations to the Glenside area; the castle was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 for its architecture. In 1891, William Welsh Harrison, co-owner of the Franklin Sugar Refinery, purchased Rosedale Hall from J. Thomas Audenreid. By 1891, Harrison had expanded his estate to 138 acres and decided to expand the house and add a gate house and more adequate stables, he employed the skills of 23-year-old architect Horace Trumbauer, who completed the stables and gate house in 1892. In 1893, the main house of Rosedale Hall burned to the ground in a raging fire, during which the Harrison family fled to the stables for safety.
Afterward, the family moved into the gatehouse, while Trumbauer was again employed to build a new home on the site. By March 1893, Trumbauer presented Harrison with plans for a grandiose mansion, inspired by Alnwick Castle, the medieval seat of the Dukes of Northumberland; the new house would include all the most modern conveniences of the time, the cost was estimated at $250,000, equal to $6,971,296 today. Work was underway by the end of 1893; the construction took five years. Grey Towers Castle is designed in a eclectic yet elegant fashion, taking inspiration from a variety of styles and buildings; the house is built of grey stone quarried at nearby Chestnut Hill, Indiana limestone is used for exterior door and window trim, other elements, such as the various gargoyles. The interiors of the castle reflect various French styles ranging from Renaissance through Louis XV; the massive twin mantles in the Great Hall are interpretations of a Renaissance mantle in the Salle des Gardes, in the Francis I wing of Château de Blois.
The Library, now the President's office, the Dining room, both on the south side of the Great Hall, contain many elements reminiscent of French Renaissance decoration. The walnut cabinetry and plaster friezes in the Library and the columns and caryatids and strapwork ceiling in the Dining room are inspired by interiors of the Château de Fontainebleau. On the north side of the Great Hall lay the Mirror Room and the Drawing Room, now known as the Rose Room, it is thought that the entirety of the Mirror Room was ordered at the New York office of a French firm crafted in France and shipped to Glenside, along with workers, to be installed. The ceiling was painted by François Lafon, depicts the four seasons as women, accompanied by cupids, with the path of the Zodiac behind them. In the Great Hall, which rises three stories to a grand barrel vaulted and gilded ceiling, the Grand Staircase leads to a large landing, which contains the Music Room; the ceiling was painted in a Renaissance style, but all that remains is the painting in the spaces of the archway, through which the room is accessed.
Above the wainscoting of the Music Room, large tapestries depict the Muse of Music. All the tapestries in Grey Towers were provided by Inc. of New York City. On each floor there is a balcony which rings the Great Hall, tapestries line all of these spaces. Upon completion, Grey Towers was one of the largest homes in the country, with forty rooms; the eclectic and grandiose style attracted attention to the young Horace Trumbauer, who began a successful career, which included the construction of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and many other houses and buildings in the Philadelphia area. William Welsh Harrison died in 1927, in 1929 Beaver College located in Jenkintown, purchased the estate from his widow for $712,500. Classes were split between the two locations until 1962, when the college moved permanently to the Grey Towers property; the castle houses the Offices of Admissions, Enrollment Management, Financial Aid, the office of the president. The vast bedrooms on the second and third floors are used as housing for students.
The castle, designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985, is much-loved by the students and staff of the University. The student group "Society for Castle Restoration" is dedicated to preserving the landmark and its history. There are many myths surrounding the building and the Harrison family. According to legend, Mr. Harrison and his wife did not get along well, each lived in his own side of the house. Mr. Harrison was thought to have had relations with many different female servants. In one of the third-floor bedrooms, a mirror above the fireplace mantle had to be replaced because of a large crack. Yet, every time it is replaced it cracks soon after; the castle is rumored to have been built without the use of nails. There are a series of underground tunnels connecting the main home to the powerhouse of the estate, now Spruance hall; the tunnels from the Castle to Spruance hall became obstructed in 2010 during construction of a new commons. There remains one tunnel between the stables and the powerhouse and Spruance hall respectively.
From the time that the castle was built, there have been other buildings on the estate. These historic buildings that are still standing include Murphy Hall, Blankley Hall and Spruance Hall (p
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in
A porch is a term used in architecture to describe a room or gallery located in front of the entrance of a building forming a low front, placed in front of the facade of the building it commands. It can be defined more as a "projecting building that houses the entrance door of a building or as a vestibule, or hall; the porch exists in religious architecture as well as in secular architecture and is found in different forms and structures, built from various materials around the world. There are various styles of porches, many of which depend on the architectural tradition of its location, as well as various names used. Porches will allow for sufficient space for a person to comfortably pause before entering or after exiting a building, or to relax on. Many porches are opened on the outward side with balustrade supported by balusters that encircles the entire porch except where stairs are found; the word "porch" is exclusively used for a structure, outside the main walls of a building or house, with many different designs and roofs either under the same roof line or as towers and turrets, supported by simple porch posts or ornate colonnades and arches, such as found in Queen Anne style architecture, Victorian style houses Spanish Colonial Revival Style, or any of the American Colonial style buildings and homes.
Some porches are small covering just the entrance, or larger wrapping around the sides or running around the entire building. A porch can be part of the ground floor, or an upper floor, such as exampled by the Mrs. Lydia Johnson House built in 1895. Apadana: A veranda-shaped structure, open to the outside elements on one of its four sides. Peristyle: In Ancient Greek architecture. An Arizona room is a type of screened porch found in Arizona. A screened porch called a screened-in-porch, is a porch, built or altered to be enclosed with screens that creates an outdoor type room A sleeping porch is a porch, built or modified to be a type of semi-outdoor sleeping area. A sleeping porch can be an ordinary open porch, screened or with screened windows that can be opened. A rain porch is a type of porch with the roof and columns extended past the deck and reaching the ground; the roof may extend several feet past the porch creating a covered patio. A rain porch referred to as a Carolina porch, is found in the Southeastern United States.
A Portico is a porch style that utilizes columns or colonnades, arches, such as used in Italian modern and contemporary architecture. A Loggia is a covered exterior corridor or porch, part of the ground floor or can be elevated on another level; the roof is supported by columns or arches and the outer side is open to the elements. A Veranda style porch is large and may encompass the entire facade as well as the sides of a structure. An extreme example is the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, which has the longest porch in the world at 660 feet in length. A Lanai is a open-sided veranda, patio or porch originating in Hawaii. A sun porch, or sun room referred to as a Florida room, can be any room or separate structure enclosed with glass, but can be an enclosed porch.. A stoop is a landing small, at the top of stairs and when covered by a roof is a small porch. In northeastern North America, a porch is a small area unenclosed, at the main-floor height and used as a sitting area or for the removal of working clothes so as not to get the home's interior dirty, when the entrance door is accessed via the porch.
In the Southwestern United States, ranch-style homes use a porch to provide shade for the entrance and southern wall of the residence. In the Southern United States and Southern Ontario, Canada, a porch is at least as broad as it is deep, it may provide sufficient space for residents to entertain guests or gather on special occasions. Adobe-style homes in Santa Fe, New Mexico include large porches for entertainment called'portals,' which are not seen in the more traditional adobe homes. Older American homes those built during the era of Victorian architecture, or built in the Queen Anne style included a porch in both the front and the back of the home; the back porch is used as another sitting space. However, many American homes built with a porch since the 1940s have only a token one too small for comfortable social use and adding only to the visual impression of the building; the New Urbanism movement in architecture urges a reversal in this trend, recommending a large front porch, to help build community ties.
When spacious enough, a covered porch not only provides protection from sun or rain but comprises, in effect, extra living space for the home during pleasant weather — accommodating chairs or benches, tables and traditional porch furnishings such as a porch swing, rocking chairs, or ceiling fans. Some porches are screened in to exclude flying insects; the porch is architecturally unified with the rest of the house, using similar design elements. It may be integrated into upper storey. Many porch railings are designed with importance to the design of the building as well as curb appeal but local, state, or federal zoning laws mandate the height of the railing and spacing of balusters. There are exemptions for houses in historic districts or that are on the National Register of Historic Places; the National Park Service produced a brief concerning Preserving Historic Wood Porches. In Great Britain the projecting porch had come into common use
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,192, it is the 15th largest city in the Commonwealth, it lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 107 miles west of Philadelphia. Harrisburg is the anchor of the Susquehanna Valley metropolitan area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 571,903, making it the fourth most populous in Pennsylvania and 96th most populous in the United States. Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and the Pennsylvania Railroad allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States; the U. S. Navy ship USS Harrisburg, which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the city's economic fortunes fluctuated with its major industries consisting of government, heavy manufacturing and food services.
The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has been held there every early-to-mid January since then. Harrisburg hosts an annual outdoor sports show, the largest of its kind in North America, an auto show, which features a large static display of new as well as classic cars and is renowned nationwide, Motorama, a two-day event consisting of a car show, motocross racing, remote control car racing, more. Harrisburg is known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, near Middletown. In 2010 Forbes rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U. S. to raise a family. Despite the city's recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, the Harrisburg region landed at No. 7. The financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies.
Harrisburg's site along the Susquehanna River is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin", or "Paxtang", the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there; the first European contact with Native Americans in Pennsylvania was made by the Englishman, Captain John Smith, who journeyed from Virginia up the Susquehanna River in 1608 and visited with the Susquehanna tribe. In 1719, John Harris, Sr. an English trader, settled here and 14 years secured grants of 800 acres in this vicinity. In 1785, John Harris, Jr. made plans to lay out a town on his father's land, which he named Harrisburg. In the spring of 1785, the town was formally surveyed by William Maclay, a son-in-law of John Harris, Sr. In 1791, Harrisburg became incorporated, in October 1812 it was named the Pennsylvania state capital, which it has remained since.
The assembling here of the sectional Harrisburg Convention in 1827 led to the passage of the high protective-tariff bill of 1828. In 1839, Harrison and Tyler were nominated for President of the United States at the first national convention of the Whig Party of the United States, held in Harrisburg. Before Harrisburg gained its first industries, it was a scenic, pastoral town, typical of most of the day: compact and surrounded by farmland. In 1822, the impressive brick capitol was completed for $200,000, it was Harrisburg's strategic location. It was settled as a trading post in 1719 at a location important to Westward expansion; the importance of the location was. The Susquehanna River flowed west to east at this location, providing a route for boat traffic from the east; the head of navigation was a short distance northwest of the town, where the river flowed through the pass. Persons arriving from the east by boat had to exit at Harrisburg and prepare for an overland journey westward through the mountain pass.
Harrisburg assumed importance as a provisioning stop at this point where westward bound pioneers transitioned from river travel to overland travel. It was because of its strategic location that the state legislature selected the small town of Harrisburg to become the state capital in 1812; the grandeur of the Colonial Revival capitol dominated the quaint town. The streets were orderly and platted in grid pattern; the Pennsylvania Canal was coursed the length of the town. The residential houses were situated on only a few city blocks stretching southward from the capitol, they were one story. No factories were present but there were blacksmith shops and other businesses. During the American Civil War, Harrisburg was a significant training center for the Union Army, with tens of thousands of troops passing through Camp Curtin, it was a major rail center for the Union and a vital link between the Atlantic coast and the Midwest, with several railroads running through the city and spanning the Susquehanna River.
As a result of this importance, it was a target of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during its two invasions; the first time during the 1862 Maryland Campaign, when Lee planned to capture the city after taking Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, but was prevented from d