The Bergamasque Alps or Bergamo Alps are a mountain range in the Italian Alps. They are named after the city Bergamo, south of the mountains. Within the Eastern Alps, the Alpine Club or AVE system places them within the Western Limestone Alps, while the SOIUSA system classifies them within the Southeastern Alps; the main peaks of the Bergamasque Alps are: The main mountain passes of the Bergamasque Alps are: Bergamasque Prealps
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres or more. There are 1,524 such peaks on Earth; some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s, his original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres of prominence. 1,515 Ultras have been identified above sea level: 637 in Asia, 353 in North America, 209 in South America, 119 in Europe, 84 in Africa, 69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica. Many of the world's largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Mont Blanc, Mount Olympus. On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland, the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya, Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia.
In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not have recognized names. Thirteen of the fourteen 8,000m summits are Ultras, there are a further 64 Ultras over 7,000 metres in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3,000 metres, but only 22 with more than 4,000 metres prominence. A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, Mount Siple, Gangkar Puensum being the most candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world. All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses; each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the 125 most prominent peaks worldwide. List of islands by highest point gives the 75 highest island highpoints, all of which are Ultras List of Alpine peaks by prominence List of non-Alpine European Ultras, including Atlantic islands and the Caucasus List of Ultras in West Asia List of Ultras in Central Asia List of Ultras of the Karakoram and Hindu Kush List of Ultras of the Himalayas, including Sino-Nepal Provinces List of Ultras of Tibet, East Asia and neighbouring areas, including India List of Ultras in Northeast Asia List of Ultras in Japan List of Ultras in Southeast Asia List of Ultras in the Philippines List of Ultras of Malay Archipelago List of African Ultras List of Ultras in Oceania, including the Southern Indian Ocean List of ultra-prominent summits of Australia List of ultra-prominent summits of Indonesian New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of New Zealand List of ultra-prominent summits of Papua New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of the Hawaiian Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Pacific Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Southern Indian Ocean List of Ultras in Antarctica, including South Atlantic islands List of Ultras in North America List of Ultras in Canada List of Ultras in the United States List of Ultras in Alaska List of Ultras in Greenland List of Ultras in Mexico List of Ultras in Central America List of Ultras in the Caribbean List of Ultras in South America List of mountain lists List of peaks by prominence Prominence
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Dongo is a comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy. It lies on the northwestern shore of Lake Como between Gravedona and Musso at the mouth of the Albano, it is about 40 kilometres northeast of Como. It was in Dongo, on 27 April 1945, that Benito Mussolini and other fascists, fleeing from Milan towards Valtellina, were captured by Urbano Lazzaro and other partisans. Dongo borders the following municipalities: Colico, Consiglio di Rumo, Germasino, Pianello del Lario, Stazzona; the Palazzo del Vescovo was erected in the 17th century by the family of the Marquis Cossoni. In 1854, Carlo Romanò, the Bishop of Como, acquired the building from the Cossoni family. In 1983 the Town of Dongo purchased the building; the citizens of Dongo, assisted financially by the Comunità Montana Alto Lario Occidentale, initiated the complete restoration of the Palazzo shortly thereafter. Still bearing its original name, the building houses the Civic Institute of Music "Alto Lario", since December 2003, the International Piano Academy Lake Como.
The Palazzo Manzi, facing across the main square on the lake front, now serves as the Municipio for the comune. Its ground floor houses the Museo della Fine della Guerra, reopened after refurbishment in April 2014 and known as the Museo della Resistenza; the museum provides audio and visual displays relating to the partisan movement in Dongo and the north Como area from the time of the Italian armistice in September 1943 up to the end of the war, more to the capture of Mussolini and other fascist leaders at Dongo in April 1945, their subsequent execution. Dongo is twinned with Arromanches-les-Bains in Normandy. Official website Website of the Museo della Fine della Guerra
Dorio is a comune in the Province of Lecco in the Italian region Lombardy, located on the upper eastern shore of Lake of Como, about 70 kilometres north of Milan and about 30 kilometres north of Lecco. Dorio borders the following municipalities: Colico, Introzzo, Pianello del Lario, Tremenico, Vestreno. Official website
Lecco is a city of 48,131 inhabitants in Lombardy, northern Italy, 50 kilometres north of Milan, the capital of the province of Lecco. It lies at the end of the south-eastern branch of Lake Como; the Bergamo Alps rise to the north and east, cut through by the Valsassina of which Lecco marks the southern end. The lake narrows to form the river Adda, so bridges were built to improve road communications with Como and Milan. There are four bridges crossing the river Adda in Lecco: the Azzone Visconti Bridge, the Kennedy Bridge and the Alessandro Manzoni Bridge and a railroad bridge, its economy used to be based on industry, but now it is tertiary. Lecco was Alpine Town of the Year 2013. Archaeological finds demonstrate the presence of Celtic settlement in the area before the arrival of the Romans; the latter made it an important road hub. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Lombards captured the town in the 6th century. Emperor Otto I spent a long time in Lecco, crushing the 964 AD revolt against the Holy Roman Empire led by Lecco's Count Attone.
It became a possession of the Milanese monastery of St. Ambrose. Conrad II stayed in Lecco, in the attempt to free it from the church, but as the result of the ensuing wars the city was subjected by Milan, it subsequently followed the history of the Duchy of Lombardy. In the early 16th century it was ruled by the condottiere Gian Giacomo Medici. A further halfway to the North Pole, Lecco is the northernmost city in Italy with a humid subtropical climate, only softer than Milan. Despite being in a parallel dominated by Dfb / Dwb climates; the territoryis well sheltered from the mountain ranges, from the climatic point of view, enjoys the beneficial influences of the lake's waters and the breath of the Tivano that blows from the Valtellina from the northeast all year round in the early hours of the morning. Your absence indicates bad weather. Breva is another wind that runs towards the lake, from the south to the north and indicator of good weather. Minor Basilica of San Nicolò Santa Marta, Lecco San Giovanni Battista Santi Materno e Lucia San Francesco d'Assisi Santi Gervasio e Protasio Chiesa di Castello San Giuseppe Madonna della Rovinata Santuario di Nostra Signora della Vittoria Santa Maria Gloriosa Palazzo delle Paure Ponte Azzone Visconti Villa Manzoni Memoriale ai Caduti Statua del Manzoni Monuments to Mario Cermenati and to Giuseppe Garibaldi The town's football team Calcio Lecco 1912 play in Serie D.
Their traditional rivalry with the team of the city of Como is marked by the so-called Derby del Lario which last took place in the 2009–2010 season when both teams were competing in Lega Pro Prima Divisione. The main sports facility of the city is the Rigamonti-Ceppi Stadium, where the soccer team trains and plays, it was built in 1922 in honor of the football player Mario Rigamonti and the ex president of the team Mario Ceppi. It can contain 5000 people. Lecco is the finish of the Giro di Lombardia cycling classic which includes the famous Madonna del Ghisallo hill. Alessandro Manzoni and novelist, author of I promessi sposi, belonged to an old family of Lecco. Antonio Stoppani and palaeontologist. Antonio Ghislanzoni, journalist and novelist. Carlo Mauri and explorer. Roberto Castelli, former Minister of Justice during the government of Silvio Berlusconi 2001–2006. Roberto Formigoni, a Catholic conservative politician. Antonio Rossi, a canoeist and five-time Olympic medalist in kayak flatwater canoeing.
Sandro Salsano, a businessman and philanthropist and president of Salsano Group. Alessandro Manzoni set the events in the first half of The Betrothed in Lecco, a town he knew since he had spent part of his childhood there. We voyaged by steamer down the Lago di Lecco, through wild mountain scenery, by hamlets and villas, disembarked at the town of Lecco, they said it was two hours, by carriage to the ancient city of Bergamo, that we would arrive there in good season for the railway train. We got an open barouche and a wild, boisterous driver, set out, it was delightful. We had a fast team and a smooth road. There were towering cliffs on our left, the pretty Lago di Lecco on our right, every now and it rained on us Mark Twain, Innocents Abroad, chapter 21. Lecco is twinned with: Mâcon, France since 1973 Overijse, Belgium since 1981 Igualada, Spain since 1990 Szombathely, Hungary since 1995 Mytishchi, Russia since 2005 Lecco railway station Alpine Town of the Year 2013 The official website of the city council Visitor attractions in Lecco, from the site of the Lecco APT, an official body for the promotion of tourism.
Pictures of Lecco railway bridge