The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
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The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs in Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.
The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.
Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.
Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at ti
Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An independent and autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; the region of Pokuttya was part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine; the original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. The names Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River. Dragoș was accompanied by his female hound called Molda; the dog's name would have been extended to the country. The old German Molde, meaning "open-pit mine" the Gothic Mulda meaning "dust", "dirt", referring to the river. A Slavic etymology, marking the end of one Slavic genitive form, denoting ownership, chiefly of feminine nouns.
A landowner named Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document as a local boyar in service to Yuriy II of Halych. In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia. Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Boğdan. See names in other languages; the name of the region in other languages include French: Moldavie, German: Moldau, Hungarian: Moldva, Russian: Молдавия, Turkish: Boğdan Prensliği, Greek: Μολδαβία. The inhabitants of Moldova were Christians. Archaeological works revealed the remains of a Christian necropolis at Mihălășeni, Botoșani county, from the 5th century; the place of worship, the tombs had Christian characteristics. The place of worship had a rectangular form with sides of seven meters. Similar necropolises and places of worship were found at Nicolina, in IașiThe Bolohoveni, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century; the chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev.
Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. Their ethnic identity is uncertain. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. Somewhere in the 11th century, a Viking named Rodfos was killed by Vlachs in the area of what will become Moldavia. In 1164, the future Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain.
Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In the 14th century, King Charles I of Hungary attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende. In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatar-Mongols; the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In 1353, Dragoș, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureș, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces of Mongols on the Siret River; this expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia. Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control.
His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by t
Transylvania is a historical region, located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains; the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, it contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Bistrița. The Western world associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. Historical names of Transylvania are: Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Russian: Ардял, translit. Ardjal, Трансильвания Transil'vanija Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, translit. Semyhorod, Залісся Zalissja, Трансильванія Transyl'vanija Serbian: Ердељ, translit. Erdelj, Трансилванија Transilvanija Croatian: Sedmogradska, Transilvanija Bulgarian: Седмоградско, translit.
Sedmogradsko, Трансилвания Transilvanija Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani: TransilvaniyaIn Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania. The earliest known reference to Transylvania appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest". Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania Transsylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve; that was used as an alternative name in German überwald and Ukrainian Залісся. The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven castles", after the seven Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region; this is the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско, Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород.
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this to the Hungarian name for Muntenia. Erdel, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well; the first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu. The Romanian Ardeal is derived from the Hungarian Erdély. Transylvania has been dominated by several different countries throughout its history, it was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia. In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Huns, Gepids and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania, it is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest. The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived; the Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. In 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, ruled by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, the region was attached to the Habsburg Empire; the Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separa
Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections and Oltenia. Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections. Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary, although the first mention of the territory of Wallachia west of the river Olt dates to a charter given to the voivode Seneslau in 1246 by Béla IV of Hungary. In 1417, Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia to form the United Principalities, which adopted the name Romania in 1866 and became the Kingdom of Romania in 1881. Following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the resolution of the elected representatives of Romanians in 1918, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș were allocated to the Kingdom of Romania, thereby forming the modern Romanian state.
The name Wallachia is an exonyme not used by Romanians themselves who used the denomination "Țara Românească/Rumânească” - Romanian Land. The term "Wallachia" is derived from the term walhaz used by Germanic peoples to describe Celts, romanized Celts and all Romance-speaking people. In Northwestern Europe this gave rise to Wales and Wallonia, among others, while in Southeast Europe it was used to designate Romance-speakers, subsequently shepherds generally. In the Early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi was used as a designation for its location; the term, translated in Romanian as "Ungrovalahia", remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia, in contrast to Thessalian or Great Vlachia in Greece or Small Wallachia in Serbia. The Romanian-language designations of the state were Muntenia, Țara Românească, România. For long periods after the 14th century, Wallachia was referred to as Vlaško by Bulgarian sources, Vlaška by Serbian sources, Voloschyna by Ukrainian sources and Walachei or Walachey by German-speaking sources.
The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is Havasalföld "Snowy Lowlands", the older form of, Havaselve, meaning "Land beyond the snowy mountains". In Ottoman Turkish, the term Eflâk Prensliği, or simply"Eflâk افلاق, appears. Arabic chronicles from the 13th century had used the name of Wallachia instead of Kingdom of Bulgaria, they gave the coordinates of Wallachia and specified that Wallachia was named al-Awalak and the dwellers ulaqut or ulagh. The area of Oltenia in Wallachia was known in Turkish as Kara-Eflak and Kuçuk-Eflak, while the former has been used for Ottoman Moldova. In the Second Dacian War western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province; the Roman limes was built along the Olt River in 119 before being moved to the east in the second century, during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucăr in the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245 and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region.
The area was subject to Romanization during the Migration Period, when most of present-day Romania was invaded by Goths and Sarmatians known as the Chernyakhov culture, followed by waves of other nomads. In 328, the Romans built a bridge between Sucidava and Oescus which indicates that there was a significant trade with the peoples north of the Danube. A short period of Roman rule in the area is attested under Emperor Constantine the Great, after he attacked the Goths in 332; the period of Goth rule ended when the Huns arrived in the Pannonian Basin and, under Attila and destroyed some 170 settlements on both sides of the Danube. Byzantine influence is evident during the 5th to 6th century, such as the site at Ipotești-Cândești, but from the second half of the 6th century and in the seventh century, Slavs crossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube. In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area.
Wallachia was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until the Hungarians' conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century