Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman is a Russian mathematician. He has made contributions to Riemannian geometry and geometric topology. In 1994, Perelman proved the soul conjecture. In 2003, he proved Thurston's geometrization conjecture; the proof was confirmed in 2006. This solved in the affirmative the Poincaré conjecture. In August 2006, Perelman was offered the Fields Medal for "his contributions to geometry and his revolutionary insights into the analytical and geometric structure of the Ricci flow", but he declined the award, stating: "I'm not interested in money or fame. On 22 December 2006, the scientific journal Science recognized Perelman's proof of the Poincaré conjecture as the scientific "Breakthrough of the Year", the first such recognition in the area of mathematics. On 18 March 2010, it was announced that he had met the criteria to receive the first Clay Millennium Prize for resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. On 1 July 2010, he rejected the prize of one million dollars, saying that he considered the decision of the board of CMI and the award unfair and that his contribution to solving the Poincaré conjecture was no greater than that of Richard S. Hamilton, the mathematician who pioneered the Ricci flow with the aim of attacking the conjecture.
He had rejected the prestigious prize of the European Mathematical Society, in 1996. Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman was born in Leningrad, Soviet Union on 13 June 1966, to Russian-Jewish parents Yakov and Lyubov. Grigori's mother Lyubov gave up graduate work in mathematics to raise him. Grigori's mathematical talent became apparent at the age of ten, his mother enrolled him in Sergei Rukshin's after-school mathematics training program, his mathematical education continued at the Leningrad Secondary School #239, a specialized school with advanced mathematics and physics programs. Grigori excelled in all subjects except physical education. In 1982, as a member of the Soviet Union team competing in the International Mathematical Olympiad, an international competition for high school students, he won a gold medal, achieving a perfect score, he continued as a student of The School of Mathematics and Mechanics at the Leningrad State University, without admission examinations and enrolled to the university.
After his PhD in 1990, Perelman began work at the Leningrad Department of Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where his advisors were Aleksandr Aleksandrov and Yuri Burago. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, with a strong recommendation from the geometer Mikhail Gromov, Perelman obtained research positions at several universities in the United States. In 1991 Perelman won the Young Mathematician Prize of the St. Petersburg Mathematical Society for his work on Aleksandrov's spaces of curvature bounded from below. In 1992, he was invited to spend a semester each at the Courant Institute in New York University and Stony Brook University where he began work on manifolds with lower bounds on Ricci curvature. From there, he accepted a two-year Miller Research Fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley in 1993. After having proved the soul conjecture in 1994, he was offered jobs at several top universities in the US, including Princeton and Stanford, but he rejected them all and returned to the Steklov Institute in Saint Petersburg in the summer of 1995 for a research-only position.
Cheeger and Gromoll's soul conjecture states: Suppose is complete and non-compact with sectional curvature K ≥ 0, there exists a point in M where the sectional curvature is positive. The soul of M is a point. Perelman proved the conjecture by establishing that in the general case K ≥ 0, Sharafutdinov's retraction P: M → S is a submersion; until late 2002, Perelman was best known for his work in comparison theorems in Riemannian geometry. Among his notable achievements was a elegant proof of the soul conjecture; the Poincaré conjecture, proposed by French mathematician Henri Poincaré in 1904, was one of the key problems in topology. Any loop on a 3-sphere—as exemplified by the set of points at a distance of 1 from the origin in four-dimensional Euclidean space—can be contracted into a point; the Poincaré conjecture asserts that any closed three-dimensional manifold, such that any loop can be contracted into a point, is topologically a 3-sphere. The analogous result has been known to be true in dimensions greater than or equal to five since 1960 as in the work of Stephen Smale.
The four-dimensional case resisted longer being solved in 1982 by Michael Freedman. But the case of three-manifolds turned out to be the hardest of them all. Speaking, this is because in topologically manipulating a three-manifold there are too few dimensions to move "problematic regions" out of the way without interfering with something else; the most fundamental contribution to the three-dimensional case had been produced by Richard S. Hamilton; the role of Perelman was to complete the Hamilton program. In November 2002, Perelman posted the first of a series of eprints to the arXiv, in which he claimed to have outlined a proof of the geometrization conjecture, of which the Poincaré conjecture is a particular case. Perelman modified Richard S. Hamilton's program for a proof of the conjecture; the central idea is the notion of the Ricci flow. Hamilton's fundamental idea is to formulate a "dynamical process" in which a given three-manifold is geometrically distorted such that this distortion process is governed by a differen
Joseph Neil Schulman was an American novelist who wrote Alongside Night and The Rainbow Cadenza which both received the Prometheus Award, a libertarian science fiction award. His third novel, Escape from Heaven, was a finalist for the 2002 Prometheus Award, his fourth and last novel, The Fractal Man, was a finalist for the 2019 Prometheus Award. Schulman was born in Forest Hills, Queens on April 16, 1953, he was the author of nine other books in print, including a short story collection, Nasty and Short Stories, Stopping Power: Why 70 Million Americans Own Guns, The Robert Heinlein Interview and Other Heinleiniana. He wrote the Twilight Zone episode "Profile in Silver", first broadcast on CBS March 7, 1986. Schulman died on August 10, 2019 three days after suffering a pulmonary embolism. Schulman is author of: Self Control Not Gun Control Profile in Silver and Other Screenwritings The Frame of the Century? The Heartmost Desire Unchaining the Human Heart – A Revolutionary Manifesto I Met God – God without Religion, Scripture, or Faith Atheist to Believer J. Neil Schulman's The Book of Words The Fractal Man Origitent: Why Original Content Is Property Alongside Night The Rainbow Cadenza Why Original Content Is Property – Kindle edition by J. Neil Schulman, Wendy McElroy, Samuel Edward Konkin III, Stephan Kinsella, Steve Heller.
Schulman was the writer, executive producer of the movie, Lady Magdalene's, produced by Schulman's own company Jesulu Productions. The movie won three film-festival awards: "Best Cutting Edge Film" at the 2008 San Diego Black Film Festival, "Audience Choice – Feature-Length Narrative Film" at the 2008 Cinema City International Film Festival held on the Universal Hollywood Citywalk, "Special Jury Prize for Libertarian Ideals" at the 2011 Anthem Film Festival/FreedomFest held at Bally's Las Vegas. In 2013, Schulman completed production on a feature-film of Alongside Night, starring Kevin Sorbo, Jake Busey, Tim Russ, Garrett Wang, Mara Marini, Gary Graham; the movie had a limited theatrical release. It was released for streaming on iTunes, Amazon Video and Amazon Prime and as a Blu-ray/DVD combo pack. Though a supporter of the War on Terror, Schulman was opposed to U. S. military occupations or operations in the Middle East. He was against tariffs. Agorism Official Website J. Neil Schulman on IMDb
The Robotech Collectible Card Game is an out-of-print collectible card game produced by Hero Factory, set against the science fiction backdrop of Robotech. Cards are based on characters and mecha from this popular anime. After a limited public beta testing period, the game debuted at Anime Expo in 2006. In the Robotech CCG, players battle against each other in a race to accumulate battle points; the first player who accumulates 25 battle points, either through directly attacking an opponent's base zone, or through destruction of enemy units, wins the game. The basic game mechanics are similar to older games such as Magic: The Gathering, although with several differences. For example, attacks may be declared not only directly against an opponent, but against an opponent's units; this leads to concepts such as intercept defense, where fast units can intercept attacks made against individual units. Another gameplay element is that of transforming, where certain cards can change their configuration during play.
There are three basic card types in the Robotech CCG: Character cards represent the people and heroic individuals of the Robotech universe. Mecha cards depict fighting machines including Veritech fighters. Action cards represent events or actions occurring during battles, such as a unit making an evasive maneuver. Vessel cards were introduced in the Azonia expansion deck. Location cards were introduced in the Robotech Masters expansion deck; each player's deck must contain at least 50 cards, may not contain more than three of any one card which does not have the keyword "Basic". The following expansion decks have been released: Azonia deck Blue Squadron deck Breetai deck SDF-1 deck Robotech Masters deck The New Generation deckA "Beta" deck was publicly released and can be distinguished by its square corners, which are not rounded like the standard issue cards. Robotech Collectible Card Game Official Webpage
Antonina Nikolayevna Shuranova was a Russian stage and film actress. War and Peace - Princess Maria Bolkonskaya Na puti v Berlin - Tatyana Mikhaylovna Kazhdyy vecher v odinnadtsat Tchaikovsky - Natalia von Meck Shag s kryshi Matters of the Heart - Lida Strange Adults - Nina Ivanovna Trust - Rosa Luxemburg An Unfinished Piece for Mechanical Piano - Anna Petrovna Voynitseva Strogaya muzhskaya zhizn - Tamara Stepanovna Klyonova Inzhener Graftio - Antonina Graftio Tovarishch Innokentiy Krepysh S tekh por, kak my vmeste - Antonina Petrovna Vse kogo-to lyubyat... - Klavdiya Ivanovna Pomnish zapakh sireni... - Vera Lvovna 22 iyunya, rovno v 4 chasa - Tanya's mother Honored Artist of the RSFSR People's Artist of the RSFSR Rollberg, Peter. Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2008. Antonina Shuranova on IMDb
Waiheke Island Aerodrome is a private airport on Waiheke Island, 17 NM North East of Auckland, New Zealand. Waiheke Island Aerodrome is situated on the top of a ridge line south of Onetangi Bay and is the only airport on Waiheke Island. Owned and run, prior permission to land is required; the airport is used for residents of and visitors to Waiheke Island where Flight Hauraki is the only Island-based operator. The airfield is used for medevac from Waiheke Island to Auckland hospitals; the grass runway is positioned on the top of the ridge line, with the northerly landing direction preferred due to the uphill slope. As the area features significant changes in topography, there is the possibility of tricky crosswinds, sometimes coming from both sides of the runway at the same time; this along with the local noise sensitivity, is part of the reason that prior permission to land is required before planning of any trip to the airfield. The airfield is the only licensed landing site for helicopters on Waiheke Island, although there are some other private landing sites but with capped monthly landing counts.
NZAIP Volume 4 AD New Zealand AIP page for NZKE airfield List of airports in New Zealand List of airlines of New Zealand Transport in New Zealand Satellite Map of Waiheke Island Aerodrome Flight Hauraki - Waiheke Island-based Air Transport Operator
R v McCraw, 3 S. C. R. 72 was a decision by the Supreme Court of Canada on rape threats. The Court found that such threats should be considered threats of bodily harm under the Criminal Code; the case involved one Stephen Joseph McCraw, interested in the cheerleaders of the football team Ottawa Rough Riders. One day, he mailed them letters; the letters stated if necessary would rape them to do it. One letter quoted by the Supreme Court read, Sandy Let me tell you, your a beautiful woman, I am disapointed you wernt in the calendar, you are the most beautiful cheerleader on the squad. I think; every time I see you I get an instant erection. I masturbate thinking about you every night. Fucking you would be like a dream come true. I would lick your whole body, starting with your toes, up your legs right to your vagina. I would love to taste your juicy vagina. I would suck on your perfect, well shaped breasts, I would turn you over and lick your asshole. You would go down and suck my dick. Once I am nice and horny, I would stick my dick in your vagina.
I would shove my dick into your nice tight asshole. You would suck my dick, I would shoot my sperm all over your face. I am going to fuck you if I have to rape you. If it takes me till the day I die. There should be more beautiful woman around like you. See you and have a nice day! McCraw was arrested and the cheerleaders said in court that they had been terrified by the letters; the judge found that while the letters did threaten rape, they may not have threatened bodily harm. Instead, the judge called the content of the letters an "adoring fantasy" and said rape can be performed without inflicting physical or emotional damage to the victim; the decision of the Supreme Court was written by Peter Cory. He noted that until 1985, the Criminal Code outlawed any threat to kill or injure a person except threats spoken in front of a person. A major decision on that law was R v Nabis, the Parliament of Canada afterwards decided a better law was needed; the new law outlawed any kind of threat regarding bodily killing.
Cory found. As the law referred to "serious bodily harm," Cory consulted The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and found that "serious" meant "substantial", so "serious bodily harm" means substantial damage to the victim's health. Cory concluded that this law would cover emotional damage, as the types of bodily harm covered by the law were not limited; the Supreme Court decided that the new law was meant to guard against threats that terrorize people, that the law had a significant goal of upholding an individual's freedom. R v LeBlanc was another case that found that terror was what was important and not whether the crime would occur. Cory asserted that "Violence is inherent in the act of rape." He explained that in rape and violence are intertwined, that the rapist is exercising force which may have temporary physical effects but potentially permanent emotional impact. Cory said, It seems to me that to argue that a woman, forced to have sexual intercourse has not suffered grave and serious violence is to ignore the perspective of women.
For women rape under any circumstance must constitute a profound interference with their physical integrity. As well, by force or threat of force, it denies women the right to exercise freedom of choice as to their partner for sexual relations and the timing of those relations; these are choices of great importance that may have a substantial effect upon the life and health of every woman. Parliament's intention in replacing the rape laws with the sexual assault offences was to convey the message that rape is not just a sexual act but is an act of violence. To back this up, Cory pointed to journal articles describing how victims become depressed, cannot sleep, feel guilty or devalued, lose trust in people and become uninterested in sex. Thus, for the law not to recognize this would be a step backwards for sensitivity; the McCraw case has been cited by the Supreme Court in cases. For example, in R v CD. Full text of the decision