University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
In mathematics, a self-similar object is or similar to a part of itself. Many objects in the real world, such as coastlines, are statistically self-similar: parts of them show the same statistical properties at many scales. Self-similarity is a typical property of artificial fractals. Scale invariance is an exact form of self-similarity where at any magnification there is a smaller piece of the object, similar to the whole. For instance, a side of the Koch snowflake is both scale-invariant; the non-trivial similarity evident in fractals is distinguished by their fine structure, or detail on arbitrarily small scales. As a counterexample, whereas any portion of a straight line may resemble the whole, further detail is not revealed. A time developing phenomenon is said to exhibit self-similarity if the numerical value of certain observable quantity f measured at different times are different but the corresponding dimensionless quantity at given value of x / t z remain invariant, it happens. The idea is just an extension of the idea of similarity of two triangles.
Note that two triangles are similar if the numerical values of their sides are different however the corresponding dimensionless quantities, such as their angles, coincide. In mathematics, self-affinity is a feature of a fractal whose pieces are scaled by different amounts in the x- and y-directions; this means that to appreciate the self similarity of these fractal objects, they have to be rescaled using an anisotropic affine transformation. A compact topological space X is self-similar if there exists a finite set S indexing a set of non-surjective homeomorphisms for which X = ⋃ s ∈ S f s If X ⊂ Y, we call X self-similar if it is the only non-empty subset of Y such that the equation above holds for. We call L = a self-similar structure; the homeomorphisms may be iterated. The composition of functions creates the algebraic structure of a monoid; when the set S has only two elements, the monoid is known as the dyadic monoid. The dyadic monoid can be visualized as an infinite binary tree; the automorphisms of the dyadic monoid is the modular group.
A more general notion than self-similarity is Self-affinity. The Mandelbrot set is self-similar around Misiurewicz points. Self-similarity has important consequences for the design of computer networks, as typical network traffic has self-similar properties. For example, in teletraffic engineering, packet switched data traffic patterns seem to be statistically self-similar; this property means that simple models using a Poisson distribution are inaccurate, networks designed without taking self-similarity into account are to function in unexpected ways. Stock market movements are described as displaying self-affinity, i.e. they appear self-similar when transformed via an appropriate affine transformation for the level of detail being shown. Andrew Lo describes stock market log return self-similarity in econometrics. Finite subdivision rules are a powerful technique for building self-similar sets, including the Cantor set and the Sierpinski triangle; the Viable System Model of Stafford Beer is an organizational model with an affine self-similar hierarchy, where a given viable system is one element of the System One of a viable system one recursive level higher up, for whom the elements of its System One are viable systems one recursive level lower down.
Self-similarity can be found in nature, as well. To the right is a mathematically generated self-similar image of a fern, which bears a marked resemblance to natural ferns. Other plants, such as Romanesco broccoli, exhibit strong self-similarity. Strict canons display various amounts of self-similarity, as do sections of fugues. A Shepard tone is self-similar in the wavelength domains; the Danish composer Per Nørgård has made use of a self-similar integer sequence named the'infinity series' in much of his music. In the research field of music information retrieval, self-similarity refers to the fact that music consists of parts that are repeated in time. In other words, music is self-similar under temporal translation, rather than under scaling. "Copperplate Chevrons" — a self-similar fractal zoom movie "Self-Similarity" — New articles about Self-Similarity. Waltz Algorithm Mandelbrot, Benoit B.. "Self-affinity and fractal dimension". Physica Scripta. 32: 257–260. Bibcode:1985PhyS...32..257M. Doi:10.1088/0031-8949/32/4/001.
Mechanics is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The scientific discipline has its origins in Ancient Greece with the writings of Aristotle and Archimedes. During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo and Newton laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics, it is a branch of classical physics that deals with particles that are either at rest or are moving with velocities less than the speed of light. It can be defined as a branch of science which deals with the motion of and forces on objects; the field is yet less understood in terms of quantum theory. Classical mechanics came first and quantum mechanics is a comparatively recent development. Classical mechanics originated with Isaac Newton's laws of motion in Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Both are held to constitute the most certain knowledge that exists about physical nature.
Classical mechanics has often been viewed as a model for other so-called exact sciences. Essential in this respect is the extensive use of mathematics in theories, as well as the decisive role played by experiment in generating and testing them. Quantum mechanics is of a bigger scope, as it encompasses classical mechanics as a sub-discipline which applies under certain restricted circumstances. According to the correspondence principle, there is no contradiction or conflict between the two subjects, each pertains to specific situations; the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by quantum theories reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers. Quantum mechanics has superseded classical mechanics at the foundation level and is indispensable for the explanation and prediction of processes at the molecular and sub-atomic level. However, for macroscopic processes classical mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in quantum mechanics and hence remains useful and well used.
Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a careful definition of such quantities as displacement, velocity, acceleration and force. Until about 400 years ago, motion was explained from a different point of view. For example, following the ideas of Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle, scientists reasoned that a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the Earth. Cited as father to modern science, Galileo brought together the ideas of other great thinkers of his time and began to calculate motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took, he showed that the speed of falling objects increases during the time of their fall. This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones, provided air friction is discounted; the English mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relating these to acceleration. For objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light, Newton's laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity.
For atomic and subatomic particles, Newton's laws were superseded by quantum theory. For everyday phenomena, Newton's three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics, the study of what causes motion. In analogy to the distinction between quantum and classical mechanics, Einstein's general and special theories of relativity have expanded the scope of Newton and Galileo's formulation of mechanics; the differences between relativistic and Newtonian mechanics become significant and dominant as the velocity of a massive body approaches the speed of light. For instance, in Newtonian mechanics, Newton's laws of motion specify that F = ma, whereas in relativistic mechanics and Lorentz transformations, which were first discovered by Hendrik Lorentz, F = γma. Relativistic corrections are needed for quantum mechanics, although general relativity has not been integrated; the two theories remain incompatible, a hurdle which must be overcome in developing a theory of everything. The main theory of mechanics in antiquity was Aristotelian mechanics.
A developer in this tradition is Hipparchus. In the Middle Ages, Aristotle's theories were criticized and modified by a number of figures, beginning with John Philoponus in the 6th century. A central problem was that of projectile motion, discussed by Hipparchus and Philoponus. Persian Islamic polymath Ibn Sīnā published his theory of motion in The Book of Healing, he said that an impetus is imparted to a projectile by the thrower, viewed it as persistent, requiring external forces such as air resistance to dissipate it. Ibn Sina made distinction between'force' and'inclination', argued that an object gained mayl when the object is in opposition to its natural motion. So he concluded that continuation of motion is attributed to the inclination, transferred to the object, that object will be in motion until the mayl is spent, he claimed that projectile in a vacuum would not stop unless it is acted upon. This conception of motion is consistent with Newton's first law of inertia. Which states that an object in motion will stay in mo
G. I. Taylor
Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor OM FRS HFRSE was a British physicist and mathematician, a major figure in fluid dynamics and wave theory. His biographer and one-time student, George Batchelor, described him as "one of the most notable scientists of this century". Taylor was born in London, his father, Edward Ingram Taylor, was an artist, his mother, Margaret Boole, came from a family of mathematicians. As a child he was fascinated by science after attending the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, performed experiments using paint rollers and sticky-tape. Taylor read mathematics and physics at Trinity College, Cambridge from 1905 to 1908, he obtained a scholarship to continue at Cambridge under J. J. Thomson. Taylor is best known to students of physics for his first paper, published while he was still an undergraduate, in which he showed that interference of visible light produced fringes with weak light sources; the interference effects were produced with light from a gas light, attenuated through a series of dark glass plates, diffracting around a sewing needle.
Three months were required to produce a sufficient exposure of the photographic plate, legend has it that during this time Taylor went punting on the Cam. The paper does not mention quanta of light and does not reference Einstein's 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect, but today the result can be interpreted by saying that less than one photon on average was present at a time. Once it became accepted ca. 1927 that the electromagnetic field was quantized, Taylor's experiment began to be presented in pedagogical treatments as evidence that interference effects with light cannot be interpreted in terms of one photon interfering with another photon—that, in fact, a single photon must travel through both slits of a double-slit apparatus. Modern understanding of the subject has shown that the conditions in Taylor's experiment were not in fact sufficient to demonstrate this, because the light source was not in fact a single-photon source, but the experiment was reproduced in 1986 using a single-photon source, the same result was obtained.
He followed this up with work on shock waves. In 1910 he was elected to a Fellowship at Trinity College, the following year he was appointed to a meteorology post, becoming Reader in Dynamical Meteorology, his work on turbulence in the atmosphere led to the publication of "Turbulent motion in fluids", which won him the Adams Prize in 1915. In 1913 Taylor served as a meteorologist aboard the Ice Patrol vessel Scotia, where his observations formed the basis of his work on a theoretical model of mixing of the air. At the outbreak of World War I, he was sent to the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough to apply his knowledge to aircraft design, amongst other things, on the stress on propeller shafts. Not content just to sit back and do the science, he learned to fly aeroplanes and make parachute jumps. After the war Taylor returned to Trinity and worked on an application of turbulent flow to oceanography, he worked on the problem of bodies passing through a rotating fluid. In 1923 he was appointed to a Royal Society research professorship as a Yarrow Research Professor.
This enabled him to stop teaching, which he had been doing for the previous four years, which he both disliked and had no great aptitude for. It was in this period that he did his most wide-ranging work on fluid mechanics and solid mechanics, including research on the deformation of crystalline materials which followed from his war work at Farnborough, he produced another major contribution to turbulent flow, where he introduced a new approach through a statistical study of velocity fluctuations. In 1934, Taylor contemporarily with Michael Polanyi and Egon Orowan, realised that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations developed by Vito Volterra in 1905; the insight was critical in developing the modern science of solid mechanics. During World War II, Taylor again applied his expertise to military problems such as the propagation of blast waves, studying both waves in air and underwater explosions. Taylor was sent to the United States in 1944–1945 as part of the British delegation to the Manhattan Project.
At Los Alamos, Taylor helped solve implosion instability problems in the development of atomic weapons the plutonium bomb used at Nagasaki on 9 August 1945. In 1944 he received his knighthood and the Copley Medal from the Royal Society. Taylor was present at the Trinity, July 16, 1945, as part of General Leslie Groves' "VIP List" of just 10 people who observed the test from Compania Hill, about 20 miles northwest of the shot tower. By a strange twist, Joan Hinton, another direct descendant of the mathematician, George Boole, had been working on the same project and witnessed the event in an unofficial capacity, they met at the time but followed different paths: Joan opposed to nuclear weapons, to defect to Mao's China, Taylor to hold throughout his career the view that governmental policy was not within the remit of the scientist. In 1950, he published two papers estimating the yield of the explosion using the Buckingham Pi theorem, high speed photography stills from that test, bearing timestamps and physical scale of the blast radius, published in Life magazine.
His estimate of 22 kt was remarkably close to the accepted value of 20 kt, still classified at that time. Taylor continued his research after the war, serving on the Aeronautical Research Committee and working on the development of supersonic aircraft. Though he official
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, quantity, space and change. One of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. The number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was "All is number", it was the Pythagoreans who coined the term "mathematics", with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria, she succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. Because of a political dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells.
Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and modes of funding varied based on scholars. It was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. Funding for translation of scientific texts in other languages was ongoing throughout the reign of certain caliphs, it turned out that certain scholars became experts in the works they translated and in turn received further support for continuing to develop certain sciences; as these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences. An example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many scholars working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were polymaths. Examples include the work on optics and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham; the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on science to Europe.
During this period of transition from a feudal and ecclesiastical culture to a predominantly secular one, many notable mathematicians had other occupations: Luca Pacioli. As time passed, many mathematicians gravitated towards universities. An emphasis on free thinking and experimentation had begun in Britain's oldest universities beginning in the seventeenth century at Oxford with the scientists Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, at Cambridge where Isaac Newton was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics & Physics. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking.” In 1810, Humboldt convinced the King of Prussia to build a university in Berlin based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas. Thus and laboratories started to evolve. British universities of this period adopted some approaches familiar to the Italian and German universities, but as they enjoyed substantial freedoms and autonomy the changes there had begun with the Age of Enlightenment, the same influences that inspired Humboldt.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge emphasized the importance of research, arguably more authentically implementing Humboldt’s idea of a university than German universities, which were subject to state authority. Overall, science became the focus of universities in the 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge; the German university system fostered professional, bureaucratically regulated scientific research performed in well-equipped laboratories, instead of the kind of research done by private and individual scholars in Great Britain and France. In fact, Rüegg asserts that the German system is responsible for the development of the modern research university because it focused on the idea of “freedom of scientific research and study.” Mathematicians cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level.
In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of mathematics. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in real life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, localized constructs, applied mathematicians work in the study and formulation of mathematical models. Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM careers; the discipline of applied mathematics concerns
James Jeffrey Binney, FRS, FInstP is a British astrophysicist. He is a professor of physics at the University of Oxford and former head of the Sub-Department of Theoretical Physics as well as an Emeritus Fellow of Merton College. Binney is known principally for his work in theoretical galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, though he has made a number of contributions to areas outside of astrophysics as well. Binney took a first class BA in the Mathematical Tripos at the University of Cambridge in 1971 moved to the University of Oxford, reading for a DPhil at Christ Church under Dennis Sciama, which he completed in 1975, he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton in 1983–87 and again in the fall of 1989. After holding several post-doctoral positions, including a junior research fellowship at Magdalen College, a position at Princeton University, Binney returned to Oxford as a university lecturer and fellow and tutor in physics at Merton College in 1981, he was subsequently made ad hominem reader in theoretical physics in 1991 and professor of physics in 1996.
Binney has received a number of awards and honours for his work, including the Maxwell Prize of the Institute of Physics in 1986, the Brouwer Award of the American Astronomical Society in 2003, the Dirac Medal in 2010, the Eddington Medal in 2013. He has been a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society since 1973, was made a Fellow of the Royal Society and a fellow of the Institute of Physics, both in 2000, he sits on the European Advisory Board of Princeton University Press. Binney's research interests have included: Physics of cooling flows and the processes of AGN feedback. Binney has authored over 200 articles in peer-reviewed journals and several textbooks, including Galactic Dynamics, which has long been considered the standard work of reference in its field. Books: Galactic Astronomy, by Dimitri Mihalas and James Binney, Freeman 1981. Galactic Dynamics, by James Binney and Scott Tremaine, Princeton University Press, 1988; the Theory of Critical Phenomena by J. J. Binney, N. J. Dowrick, A. J. Fisher & M. E. J. Newman, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Galactic Astronomy, by James Binney and Michael Merrifield, Princeton University Press, 1998. Galactic Dynamics, by James Binney and Scott Tremaine, Princeton University Press, 2008. James Binney; the Physics of Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction. Cappella Archive. ISBN 1902918487. Faculty page, Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des