Battle of Zorndorf
The Battle of Zorndorf, fought on 25 August 1758, during the Seven Years' War, was fought between Russian troops commanded by Count William Fermor and a Prussian army commanded by King Frederick the Great. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies claiming victory; the site of the battle was the Prussian village of Zorndorf. Although the Seven Years' War was a global conflict, it was intense in the European theater based on the concluded War of the Austrian Succession; the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle gave Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, the prosperous province of Silesia as a consequence of the First and Second Silesian Wars. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances. In 1754, escalating tensions with Britain in North America offered France an opportunity to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. Seeing the opportunity to regain her lost territories and to limit Prussia's growing power, Austria put aside the old rivalry with France to form a new coalition.
Faced with this turn of events, Britain aligned herself with the Kingdom of Prussia. This series of political maneuvers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution. At the outset of the war, Frederick had one of the finest armies in Europe: his troops—any company—could fire at least four volleys a minute, some of them could fire five. By the end of 1757, the course of the war had gone well for Prussia, poorly for Austria. Prussia had achieved spectacular victories at Rossbach and Leuthen, reconquered parts of Silesia that had fallen back to Austria; the Prussians pressed south into Austrian Moravia. In April 1758, Prussia and Britain concluded the Anglo-Prussian Convention in which the British committed to pay Frederick an annual subsidy of £670,000. Britain dispatched 7,000–9,000 troops to reinforce the army of Frederick's brother-in-law, the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Ferdinand evicted the French from Hanover and Westphalia and re-captured the port of Emden in March 1758. Despite Ferdinand's victory over the French at the Battle of Krefeld and the brief occupation of Düsseldorf, successful maneuvering of larger French forces required him to withdraw across the Rhine.
After the Battle of Kolín, having pushed the Prussians out of Bohemia in the summer of 1757, the cleverly waged campaign in the autumn that saw Lieutenant-General the Duke of Bevern's Prussians defeated at the Battle of Breslau, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria believed her fortunes were taking a turn for the better. In August 1758, Austria's ally Russia invaded East Prussia. 43,000 troops under William Fermor advanced within 100 km of Berlin, were poised to join the Austrians under Field Marshal Daun. King Frederick understood that the joining of his enemies would spell the fall of Berlin and, deciding to forestall their plans, moved to the Russian rear. Fermor, besieging Küstrin, learned about this maneuver from a Cossack sortie, he occupied a position at Zorndorf, 10 km northeast of Küstrin. At the Battle of Tornow a month a Swedish army repulsed the Prussian army but did not move on Berlin. By late summer, fighting had reached a draw. None of Prussia's enemies seemed willing to take the decisive steps to pursue Frederick into Prussia's heartland.
While Ferdinand kept the French occupied in the Rhineland, Prussia had to contend with Sweden and Austria. There remained a possibility that Prussia could lose Silesia to Austria, Pomerania to Sweden, Magdeburg to Saxony, East Prussia to Poland-Lithuania or Russia: for Prussia, this represented an nightmarish scenario. By 1758, Frederick marched to counter it. East of the Oder river in Brandenburg-Neumark, a Prussian army of 35,000 men fought a Russian army of 43,000 at Zorndorf on 25 August 1758. Zorndorf is a sizeable hamlet in a peat wilderness, full of scraggy firs and cultivated spaces resembling light green islands in a mass of dark fir. In the mid-18th century, it was marshy, full of bogs. Thomas Carlyle, who toured the ground 100 years investigated some of the old records: he called these marshes "leakages" 2–3 miles broad bottomless and woven with sluggish creeks and stagnant pools. Zorndorf lies at the crown of this morass of nearly unpassable terrain. On 25 August Frederick's infantry attacked a Russian "Observation Corps," which consisted of young conscripts only.
The Russians managed to hold their own until the famed cavalry of Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz struck against them. The Russian cavalry clashed with the Prussians, but was routed and had to flee towards the lines of the Russian infantrymen who, confused by clouds of dust and gun smoke, mistook them for the Prussians and opened artillery fire. In the meantime, Frederick's infantry fell upon the left wing of the Russian army. Frederick intended to repeat the oblique order assault that had g
Princess Catherine Dolgorukova known as Catherine Dolgorukova, Dolgoruki, or Dolgorukaya, was the daughter of Prince Michael Dolgorukov and Vera Vishnevskaya. She was a long-time mistress of Tsar Alexander II of Russia and as his morganatic wife, was given the title of Princess Yurievskaya. Alexander and Catherine had three children when they formed a morganatic marriage on 18 July 1880, after the death of the Emperor's wife, Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, on 3 June 1880. A fourth child had died in infancy. Catherine became a widow with the assassination of Alexander II on 13 March 1881 by members of Narodnaya Volya. Catherine first met Alexander when he paid a visit to her father's estate. At the time, he saw her only as a little girl and forgot their visit. After the death of her father, who had left his family without resources and her sister were sent to the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens in St. Petersburg, a school for well-born girls; the Tsar paid for that of their four brothers. Alexander met the sixteen-year-old Catherine there on an official visit to the school in the fall of 1864 and was attracted.
One contemporary described the young Catherine as "of medium height, with an elegant figure, silky ivory skin, the eyes of a frightened gazelle, a sensuous mouth, light chestnut tresses." He took her for walks and on carriage rides. Catherine had liberal opinions, formed in part by her time at the school, she discussed them with the Tsar, he arranged for her to become a lady-in-waiting to his wife, suffering from tuberculosis. Catherine liked the Tsar and enjoyed being in his company, but she didn't want to become one of a series of mistresses. Though her mother and the headmistress of the Smolny Institute both urged her to seize the opportunity to better her circumstances and those of her family and Alexander did not become intimate until July 1866, when she was moved by her pity for the Tsar after the death of his eldest son, Nicholas Alexandrovich, Tsarevich of Russia, after an attempt to assassinate him, her own mother had died two months before. That night, she recalled in her memoirs, the Tsar told her: "Now you are my secret wife.
I swear that if I am free, I will marry you." The Tsar insisted that their children remain nearby. He saw her three or four times a week when she was escorted by the police to a private apartment in the Winter Palace and they wrote to one another every day and sometimes several times each day discussing the pleasure they found in making love. In one 28-page letter, written when Catherine was pregnant, she asked the Tsar to remain faithful to her "for I know you are capable in one moment when you want to make it, to forget that you desire only me, to go and make it with another woman." Twenty-nine of the unpublished passionate letters the couple wrote to one another were auctioned off in May 2007 for high sums. Alexander sketched Catherine in the nude, rented her a mansion in St. Petersburg, thought of her constantly. Still, great secrecy was required, they never signed their letters to one another with their real names and used the code word "bingerle" to refer to the sex act. When she went into labor with her third child, Boris, in February 1876, Catherine insisted on being taken to the Winter Palace, where she gave birth in the Emperor's rooms, but the baby was taken back to Catherine's private residence while Catherine recovered from childbirth in the Emperor's rooms for nine days.
Boris died a few weeks later. The relationship met with tremendous disapproval from those at Court. Catherine was accused of influencing the Tsar towards liberalism, she was said to associate with unscrupulous businessmen. Some members of the family feared that Catherine's children might supplant the Tsar's legitimate heirs; the Tsar tired of hearing veiled criticisms from relatives and wrote to his sister Queen Olga of Württemberg, shortly after their marriage that Catherine never interfered in affairs at court, despite the ugly rumors about her. "She preferred to renounce all social amusements and pleasures so desired by young ladies of her age...and has devoted her entire life to loving and caring for me," the Tsar wrote. "Without interfering in any affairs, despite the many attempts by those who would dishonestly use her name, she lives only for me, dedicated to bringing up our children."Fearing that she might become the target of assassins, the Tsar had moved Catherine and their children to the third floor of the Winter Palace by the winter of 1880.
Courtiers spread stories that the dying Tsarina was forced to hear the noise of Catherine's children moving about overhead, but her rooms were far away from those occupied by the Empress. Though the Tsar had been unfaithful on many occasions in the past, his relationship with Catherine began after the Empress, who had had eight children, stopped having intercourse with her husband on the advice of her doctors. After the Empress asked to meet his children with Catherine, the Tsar brought their two older children and Olga, to the Empress's bedside and she kissed and blessed both children. Both the Tsar and his wife were in tears during the meeting; the Tsar told his family that he chose to marry Catherine soon after the death of the Empress because he feared that he would be assassinated and she would be left with nothing. The marriage was unpopular both with the family and with the people, but the Tsar forced them to
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Ivan Nikolajevich Rimsky-Korsakov, né Korsav was a Russian courtier and lover of Catherine the Great from 1778 to 1779. Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov was introduced to Catherine by Grigory Potemkin after having been vetted by Praskovja Bruce. Rumors that Catherine had her ladies-in-waiting'test' her potential favorites are unsubstantiated by the historical record. Furthermore, while Potemkin played an important role in Catherine's life, there is no evidence to suggest he picked and presented his successors in the bedchamber to the empress. Catherine called Korsakov Pyrrhus because of his singing and his violin playing. In 1779, Catherine caught him being unfaithful with Praskovja Bruce, it is believed that she was directed to the right room by Aleksandra von Engelhardt on the order of Potemkin, who wished for the fall of both Rimsky-Korsakov and Bruce. This caused both Bruce to lose their positions at court. Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov lived the rest of his life in Brattsevo near Moscow in a relationship with the married Countess Stroganova, née Princess Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya, with whom he had four children who were given the name Ladomirsky and were ennobled by Imperial Ukaze on 11 November 1798.
Varvara Ivanovna Ladomirsky married Ivan Dimitrievich Narishkin and was the great-great-grandmother of Prince Felix Yussupov. Marie Tetzlaff: Katarina den Stora Simon Sebac Montefiore: Potemkin och Katarina den stora – en kejserlig förbindelse
Maria Cantemir was a Romanian noblewoman, a lady in waiting and salonist, a mistress of Peter the Great. Maria was born in Iasi as the daughter of the Moldavian Prince Dimitrie Cantemir, she was well educated. From 1711, she lived in Russia, in 1720, she became involved in a relationship with Emperor Peter. Maria followed Peter to Astrakhan in 1722; the child died in 1723 poisoned by the physician of Empress Catherine. Catherine was afraid of being replaced as empress by her; the relationship with Peter continued until his death in 1725. She was a lady in waiting to princess Natalia in 1727–28 and to Empress Anna Ivanovna in 1730–31. After this, she hosted a literary salon in Saint Petersburg, she is mentioned in the autobiography of the Swedish slave Lovisa von Burghausen. Burghausen was the prisoner of Dimitrie Cantemir in 1713-1714, credited Maria and her sister Smaragda with saving her from freezing to death during a punishment, by allowing her to sleep in their bedroom instead of in an unheated stone room in the middle of winter
Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski was a Russian military leader, statesman and favourite of Catherine the Great. He died during negotiations over the Treaty of Jassy, which ended a war with the Ottoman Empire that he had overseen. Potemkin was born into a family of middle-income noble landowners, he first attracted Catherine's favor for helping in her 1762 coup distinguished himself as a military commander in the Russo-Turkish War. He became Catherine's lover and her consort. After their passion cooled, he remained favored statesman. Catherine obtained for him the title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and gave him the title of Prince of the Russian Empire among many others: he was both a Grand Admiral and the head of all of Russia's land and irregular forces. Potemkin's achievements include the peaceful annexation of the Crimea and the successful second Russo-Turkish War. In 1774, Potemkin became the governor-general of Russia's new southern provinces. An absolute ruler, he worked to colonize the wild steppes, controversially dealing with the Cossacks who lived there.
He founded the towns of Kherson, Nikolayev and Ekaterinoslav. Ports in the region became bases for his new Black Sea Fleet, his rule in the south is associated with the "Potemkin village", a ruse involving the construction of painted façades to mimic real villages, full of happy, well-fed people, for visiting officials to see. Potemkin was known for his love of women and material wealth, he oversaw the construction of many significant buildings, including the Tauride Palace in St. Petersburg. A distant relative of the Moscovite diplomat Pyotr Potemkin, Grigory was born in the village of Chizhovo near Smolensk into a family of middle-income noble landowners; the family claimed Polish ancestry. His father, Alexander Potemkin, was a decorated war veteran. Potemkin received his first name in honour of his father's cousin Grigory Matveevich Kizlovsky, a civil servant who became his godfather, it has been suggested that Kizlovsky fathered Potemkin, who became the centre of attention, heir to the village and the only son among six children.
As the son of an noble family, he grew up with the expectation that he would serve the Russian Empire. After Alexander died in 1746, Daria took charge of the family. In order to achieve a career for her son, aided by Kizlovsky, the family moved to Moscow, where Potemkin enrolled at a gymnasium school attached to the University of Moscow; the young Potemkin interested in the Russian Orthodox Church. He enlisted in the army in 1750 in accordance with the custom of noble children. In 1755 a second inspection placed him in the élite Horse Guards regiment. Having graduated from the University school, Potemkin became one of the first students to enroll at the University itself. Talented in both Greek and theology, he won the University's Gold Medal in 1757 and became part of a twelve-student delegation sent to Saint Petersburg that year; the trip seems to have affected Potemkin: afterwards he studied little and was soon expelled. Faced with isolation from his family, he rejoined the Guards. At this time his net worth amounted to 430 souls, equivalent to that of the poorer gentry.
His time was taken up with "drinking and promiscuous lovemaking", he fell deep in debt. Grigory Orlov, one of Catherine's lovers, led a palace coup in June 1762 that ousted the Emperor Peter III and enthroned Catherine II. Sergeant Potemkin represented his regiment in the revolt; as Catherine reviewed her troops in front of the Winter Palace before their march to the Peterhof, she lacked a sword-knot, which Potemkin supplied. Potemkin's horse refuse to leave her side for several minutes before Potemkin and horse returned to the ranks. After the coup Catherine singled out Potemkin for reward and ensured his promotion to second lieutenant. Though Potemkin was among those guarding the ex-Tsar, it appears that he had no direct involvement in Peter's murder in July. Catherine promoted him again to Kammerjunker. Potemkin was soon formally presented to the Empress. Although Catherine had not yet taken Potemkin as a lover, it seems that she passively—if not actively—encouraged his flirtatious behaviour, including his regular practice of kissing her hand and declaring his love for her: without encouragement, Potemkin could have expected trouble from the Orlovs who dominated court.
Potemkin entered Catherine's circle of advisers, in 1762 took his only foreign assignment, to Sweden, bearing news of the coup. On his return, he was appointed Procurator, won a reputation as a lover. Under unclear circumstances, Potemkin lost his left eye and fell into a depression, his confidence shattered, he withdrew from court. Eighteen months Potemkin reappeared summoned by Catherine, he oversaw uniform production. Shortly after, he became a Guardian of Exotic Peoples at the new All-Russian Legislative Commission, a significant political post. In September 1768, Potemkin became Kammerherr.