World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
House of Nassau
The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe. It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany; the lords of Nassau were titled "Count of Nassau" elevated to the princely class as "Princely Counts". Early on they divided into two main branches: the elder branch, that gave rise to the German Emperor Adolf, the younger branch, that gave rise to the Princes of Orange and the monarchs of the Netherlands. At the end of the Holy Roman Empire and the Napoleonic Wars, the Walramian branch had inherited or acquired all the Nassau ancestral lands and proclaimed themselves, with the permission of the Congress of Vienna, the "Dukes of Nassau", forming the independent state of Nassau with its capital at Wiesbaden; the Duchy was annexed in 1866 after the Austrian-Prussian War as an ally of Austria by Prussia. It was subsequently incorporated into the newly created Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau. Today, the term Nassau is used in Germany as a name for a geographical and cultural region, but no longer has any political meaning.
All Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchs since 1815 have been senior members of the House of Nassau. However, in 1890 in the Netherlands and in 1912 in Luxembourg, the male lines of heirs to the two thrones became extinct, so that since they have descended in the female line from the House of Nassau. According to German tradition, the family name is passed on only in the male line of succession; the House would therefore, from this German perspective, be extinct since 1985. However, both Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchial traditions, constitutional rules and legislation in that matter differ from the German tradition, thus both countries do not consider the House extinct; the Grand Duke of Luxembourg uses "Duke of Nassau" as his secondary title and a title of pretense to the dignity of Chief of the House of Nassau, but not to lay any territorial claims to the former Duchy of Nassau, now part of the Federal Republic of Germany. Dudo of Laurenburg is considered the founder of the House of Nassau, he is first mentioned in the purported founding-charter of Maria Laach Abbey in 1093.
The Castle Laurenburg, located a few kilometres upriver from Nassau on the Lahn, was the seat of his lordship. His family descended from the Lords of Lipporn. In 1159, Nassau Castle became the ruling seat, the house is now named after this castle; the Counts of Laurenburg and Nassau expanded their authority under the brothers Rupert I and Arnold I. Rupert was the first person to call himself Count of Nassau, but the title was not confirmed until 1159, five years after Rupert's death. Rupert's son Walram I was the first person to be titled Count of Nassau; the chronology of the Counts of Laurenburg is not certain and the link between Rupert I and Walram I is controversial. Some sources consider Gerhard, listed as co-Count of Laurenburg in 1148, to be the son of Rupert I's brother, Arnold I. However, Erich Brandenburg in his Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen states that it is most that Gerhard was Rupert I's son, because Gerard was the name of Beatrix of Limburg's maternal grandfather. Ca. 1060 – ca. 1123: Dudo 1123–1154: Rupert I – son of Dudo 1123–1148: Arnold I – son of Dudo 1148: Gerhard – son of Rupert I 1151–1154: Arnold II – son of Rupert I 1154–1159: Rupert II – son of Rupert I 1154–1198: Walram I – son of Rupert I 1158–1167: Henry I – son of Arnold I, died in Rome during the August 1167 epidemic 1160–1191: Rupert III, the Bellicose – son of Arnold I 1198–1247: Henry II, the Rich – son of Walram I 1198–1230: Rupert IV – son of Walram I.
Count Walram II began the Countship of Nassau-Weilburg, which existed to 1816. The sovereigns of this house afterwards ruled the Duchy of Nassau until 1866 and from 1890 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; the branch of Nassau-Weilburg became rulers of Luxembourg. The Walram line received the lordship of Merenberg in 1328 and Saarbrücken in 1353. 1344–1371: John I 1371–1429: Philipp I of Nassau-Weilburg, Count of Saarbrücken 1429–1492: Philip II 1492–1523: Louis I 1523–1559: Philip III 1559–1593: Albert 1559–1602: Philip IV 1593–1625: Louis II, Count of Nassau-Weilburg and in Ottweiler, Saarbrücken and Idstein 1625–1629: William Louis, John IV and Ernest Casimir 1629–1655: Ernest Casimir 1655–1675: Frederick 1675–1688: John Ernst 1688–1719: John Ernst 1719–1753: Charles August 1753–1788: Charles Christian 1788–1816: Frederick William 1816: Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg and Duke of Nassau — Nassau-Weilburg merged into Duc
Arrondissements of Belgium
Arrondissements of Belgium are subdivisions below the provinces of Belgium. There are administrative and electoral arrondissements; these may not relate to identical geographical areas. Belgium, a federalized state, geographically consists of three regions, of which only the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region are subdivided into five provinces each; the 43 administrative arrondissements are an administrative level between the municipalities and the provinces. Brussels-Capital forms a single arrondissement for all 19 municipalities in the region by that name; as an exception, the arrondissement of Verviers has two NUTS codes: BE335 for the French-speaking part and BE336 for the German-speaking part. The latter is identical to the area of the German-speaking community. Belgium has 12 judicial arrondissements: The arrondissement Liège covers the French-speaking part of the province of Liège The arrondissement Eupen covers the German-speaking part of the province of Liège The arrondissement Brussels covers the Capital Region and the administrative arrondissement of Halle-Vilvoorde The arrondissement Leuven covers the administrative arrondissement of Leuven The remaining 8 arrondissements are coterminous with, have the same names as, the remaining 8 provincesUntil March 31, 2014 Belgium had 27 judicial arrondissements.
These are now sections of today's 12 judicial arrondissements. In addition, the arrondissement Brussels was divided into the sections Brussels and Halle-Vilvoorde Until the end of 1999 the electoral districts for the election of the parliaments were electoral arrondissements; the arrondissement of Brussels-Capital is not part of any province and forms its own electoral district. As the only part of Belgium, the Walloon Parliament still uses electoral arrondissements; each electoral arrondissement consists of at least one arrondissement. There were 13 such electoral districts, but they have since been reduced to 11; each of these electoral districts take their names from the arrondissements they consist of decreasing in order of population. Municipalities in Belgium Communities and language areas of Belgium "Arrondissements of Belgium". Statoids
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
The Tramways vicinaux or Buurtspoorwegen were a system of narrow-gauge tramways or local railways in Belgium, which covered the whole country and had a greater route length than the mainline railway system. They were 1,000 mm gauge and included electrified city lines and rural lines using steam locomotives and diesel railcars. Only the coastal line, the Charleroi metro and the short line to the caves at Han-sur-Lesse are still in commercial use; the longest and oldest tourist tramway is the Tramway Touristique de l'Aisne, or'TTA', between Erezée and Dochamps. A sponsoring group called'Tramania' has supported various tramway preservation initiatives for 13 years, in particular financing construction of the Thuin museum and car restoration for TTA. Legislation allowing the construction of rural tramways was passed in 1875, followed by a new law in 1885; the result was the creation of the national Vicinal tramway company – Nationale Maatschappij van Buurtspoorwegen in Dutch, Société nationale des chemins de fer vicinaux in French.
The majority of lines were 1,000 mm metre gauge, although until 1921 many in the Antwerp area were 1,067 mm gauge re-gauged. Many lines were built alongside roads, carried considerable quantities of freight as well as passengers. World War I and World War II saw increased traffic despite some wartime damage; the non-electric network reached a peak of 3,938 kilometres in 1925, but soon parts started to close as usage of buses and electric trams increased. At this time, the electric network was 523 kilometres in length. After World War II lorries and cars deprived the trams of much of their business; the electric network reached a peak of 1,528 kilometres in 1950. The whole network was still 4,236 kilometres in length, but by 1960 had been reduced to only 977 kilometres. In 1977, the buses of the Belgian railways were transferred to SNCV/NMVB; the tramways from Brussels to Wemmel and Grimbergen closed in 1978. Political federalism within Belgium from 1980 onwards saw the splitting of many national institutions into separate bodies for Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region.
SNCV/NMVB was broken up in 1991 into De Lijn and TEC, both companies operating buses. De Lijn inherited the tram systems in Ghent and Antwerp, operated by local companies MIVG and MIVA and the coastal tramway. TEC operates the Charleroi Pre-metro. STIB/MIVB operates the 1,435 mm standard gauge Brussels Metro and bus network. Tramway Touristique Lobbes-Thuin Tramway Touristique de l'Aisne Photo archives of the Vicinal tramways Vicinal tram history and preservation activities Trambelgium Tram Travels: Vicinal tramway Documents and clippings about Vicinal tramway in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Vilvoorde is a Belgian municipality in the Flemish province of Flemish Brabant. The municipality comprises the city of Vilvoorde proper with its two outlying quarters of Koningslo and Houtem and the small town of Peutie; the nickname for inhabitants of Vilvoorde is Pjeirrefretters because horse meat is a beloved food in Vilvoorde. The official language of Vilvoorde is Dutch. There is a French-speaking minority of about 20%, concentrated in the Koningslo quarter bordering Brussels; the French-speaking minority is represented by 3 members on the 33-seat local council. The city is home to a large Spanish minority. In the center of the city, 1 out of 10 inhabitants have Spanish nationality and the proportion of Belgians with Spanish roots is greater. Most immigrated from Peñarroya-Pueblonuevo in Andalusia. There is a large Moroccan community, many smaller communities of more recent immigrants including Turks and Portuguese. From 2000 until August 1, 2007, the mayor of Vilvoorde was former Belgian prime minister Jean-Luc Dehaene.
The mayor since 2013 is Hans Bonte a member of the federal House of Representatives. The Nervii, the Romans already settled in this strategic place near the river Zenne; the name Filfurdo was first mentioned in a 779 document whereby Pippin of Herstal ceded this territory to the Abbey of Chèvremont, near Liège. This name derived from the word equivalents villa at the ford or river crossing. In the 12th century, a small town started to grow, which became a target for the ambitions of the dukes of Brabant and lords of Grimbergen. Henry I, Duke of Brabant granted the city its charter of rights as soon as 1192 to ensure the support of the inhabitants against powerful neighbouring Flanders; the rights to build defensive walls and to export its products gave Vilvoorde a great economic boost, driven by the cloth industry. In the 14th century, thanks to its position on the Zenne, Vilvoorde became an important military centre and could compete against Leuven and Brussels for the title of most important city in Brabant.
From the 15th to the 19th century, Vilvoorde suffered a prolonged decline because of the competition from Brussels, a general malaise in the textile industry, the result of epidemics and wars, both political and religious. The translator of the Bible into English, William Tyndale, was executed here in October 1536. In 1597 Anna Utenhoven, an Anabaptist accused of heresy, was buried alive at Vilvoorde - the last of the Protestants suffering martyrdom for their faith in the history of the Habsburg Netherlands. Anthony van Stralen, Lord of Merksem and Jan van Casembroot both were executed in Vilvoorde; the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century was a godsend to Vilvoorde, which could capitalize on its proximity to Brussels and its good transportation infrastructure: the deepening of the canals around 1830 and the advent of the railways in 1835. Soon, the medieval buildings gave way to better constructions; the 1489 city hall was replaced by the neo-classical building. In the 1920s, the canal was broadened and deepened again, lined with new industrial zones, an inland port was built to receive the freightliners.
Following its liberation by the British in 1944, Vilvoorde was administered by a joint British and Belgian municipality, with temporary British and Belgian Mayors, Lt Col JME Howarth Esq and Robert Senelle, before transferring back to a civilian administration. Vilvoorde became one of the largest industrial areas around Brussels, with a population that grew to five times what it was 150 years earlier; the recent economic crises have hit the city hard when Renault closed its doors in 1997. The service industry is now taking the lead in 21st century Vilvoorde. Mayors of Vilvoorde: 1983-1993: Laurent Moyson 1994-2000: Willy Cortois 2001-2007: Jean-Luc Dehaene 2007-2012: Marc Van Asch Since 2013: Hans Bonte The neo-classical city hall and a covered market hall can be found on the main city square; the statue of a Brabant horse can be found nearby, commemorating the long tradition of horse trading in Vilvoorde. The Kijk-Uit house dates from the 16th century; the city has interesting churches, including the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk, started in the 14th century, the basilica of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-ten-Troost, built in the 17th-century Baroque style and adjoining the cloister of the Carmelites.
Vilvoorde has its fair share of parks, such as the Hanssenspark with English gardens and the Domein Drie Fonteinen, which boasts both English and French gardens. The Vilvoorde Viaduct, part of the Brussels beltway. Like many other Belgian cities, Vilvoorde has a week-long carnival, which takes place every year in the week of Shrove Tuesday Every year, on the Monday three weeks after Easter, a popular yearly market is held which features several competitions and exhibitions of farm animals, which coincides with the start of the yearly, week-long fair featuring plenty of attractions for children. Jancko Douwama, a Frisian nobleman who fought to free Friesland from Saxon rule, was imprisoned by the Emperor Charles V in Vilvoorde castle from 1523 until his death in 1533 Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes, shortly before becoming the first Lutherans executed by the Roman Catholic Church, were imprisoned in Vilvoorde in 1523 William Tyndale, Eng
The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium. The people of the south were Dutch-speaking Flemings and French-speaking Walloons. Both peoples were traditionally Roman Catholic as contrasted with the Protestant people of the north. Many outspoken liberals regarded King William I's rule as despotic. There were high levels of unemployment and industrial unrest among the working classes. On 25 August 1830, riots erupted in Brussels and shops were looted. Theatregoers who had just watched the nationalistic opera La muette de Portici joined the mob. Uprisings followed elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces but rioting continued and leadership was taken up by radicals, who started talking of secession. Dutch units pulled out; the States-General in Brussels declared independence.
In the aftermath, a National Congress was assembled. King William appealed to the Great Powers; the resulting 1830 London Conference of major European powers recognized Belgian independence. Following the installation of Leopold I as "King of the Belgians" in 1831, King William made a belated attempt to reconquer Belgium and restore his position through a military campaign; this "Ten Days' Campaign" failed because of French military intervention. Not until 1839 did the Dutch accept the decision of the London conference and Belgian independence by signing the Treaty of London; the Dutch overthrew Napoleonic rule in 1813 and, after the British-Dutch Treaty of 1814, named their state the "United Provinces of the Netherlands" or the "United Netherlands". After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the Congress of Vienna created a kingdom for the House of Orange-Nassau, thus combining the United Provinces of the Netherlands with the former Austrian Netherlands in order to create a strong buffer state north of France.
Symptomatic of the tenor of diplomatic bargaining at Vienna was the early proposal to reward Prussia for its staunch fight against Napoleon with the former Habsburg territory. When the British insisted on retaining the former Dutch Ceylon and the Cape Colony the new kingdom of the Netherlands was compensated with these southern provinces; the union of these two areas reverted to the original cultural area of the Netherlands before the 16th century and were called the "United Kingdom of the Netherlands". The Belgian Revolution had many consequences. Catholic bishops in the south viewed the Protestant-majority north with suspicion, had forbidden working for the new government; this rule, originated in 1815 by Maurice-Jean de Broglie, the French nobleman, bishop of Ghent, caused an under-representation of Southerners in government apparatus and the army. The traditional economy of trade and an incipient Industrial Revolution were centred in the present day Netherlands in the large port of Amsterdam.
Furthermore, although 62% of the population lived in the South, they were assigned the same number of representatives in the States General. At the most basic level, the North was for free trade, while less-developed local industries in the South called for the protection of tariffs. Free trade lowered the price of bread, made from wheat imported through the reviving port of Antwerp; the more numerous Northern provinces represented a majority in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands' elected Lower Assembly, therefore the more populous Southerners felt under-represented. King William I was from the North, lived in the present day Netherlands, ignored the demands for greater autonomy, his more progressive and amiable representative living in Brussels, the twin capital, was the Crown-Prince William King William II, who had some popularity among the upper class but none among peasants and workers. A linguistic reform in 1823 was intended to make Dutch the official language in the Flemish provinces, since it was the language of most of the Flemish population.
This reform met with strong opposition from the upper and middle classes who at the time were French-speaking. On 4 June 1830, this reform was abolished. Religion was another cause of the Belgian Revolution. In the politics of the south Roman Catholicism was the important factor, its partisans fought against the freedom of religion proclaimed by William, at that time still supported by the liberal faction. Over time the liberal faction began to support the Catholics to accomplish its own goals: freedom of education and freedom of the press; the Belgian Revolution of 1830 crystallised this antagonism. The language policy of King William was abolished. Catholic partisans watched with excitement the unfolding of the July Revolution in France, details of which were swiftly reported in the newspapers. On 25 August 1830, at the Théâtre