Saint-Luc is a village in the district of Sierre in the Swiss canton of Valais. An independent municipality before, it merged on 1 January 2009 with neighboring Ayer, Grimentz, Saint Jean, Saint-Luc is first mentioned in 1267 as Lus. In 1304 it was mentioned as Luc, which was the name until 1904. The name Saint-Luc first appears around 1850, the blazon of the village coat of arms is Azure, issuant from a Ribbon Or three Pine trees Vert trunked proper and an Ox passant Argent. Saint-Luc has a population of 312, most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Portuguese is the third. There are 8 people who speak Italian, of the population in the village,110 or about 34. 5% were born in Saint-Luc and lived there in 2000. There were 87 or 27. 3% who were born in the canton, while 53 or 16. 6% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, there were 135 people who were single, there were 154 married individuals,16 widows or widowers and 14 individuals who are divorced.
There were 32 households that consist of one person and 11 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 120 apartments were permanently occupied, the historical population is given in the following chart, In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 36. 88% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP, the SVP and the Green Party, in the federal election, a total of 176 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 63. 8%. There were 165 residents of the village who were employed in some capacity, in 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 167. The number of jobs in the sector was 14, of which 3 were in agriculture and 11 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the sector was 14 of which 13 or were in manufacturing and 1 was in construction. The number of jobs in the sector was 139. In 2000, there were 37 workers who commuted into the village and 72 workers who commuted away, the village is a net exporter of workers, with about 1.9 workers leaving the village for every one entering.
From the 2000 census,269 or 84. 3% were Roman Catholic, of the rest of the population, there was 1 individual who belongs to another Christian church. 21 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 3 individuals did not answer the question, in Saint-Luc about 120 or of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 47 or have completed additional higher education
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist, in an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists, the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning without god. The term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed, the actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope, the first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its unprecedented atheism, witnessed the first major movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason.
Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches, although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult, an older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the worlds population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the worlds population, according to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61% of people in China reported that they were atheists, the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in any sort of spirit, God or life force. Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, and has been contrasted with it, a variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism.
Some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity, the plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheisms applicability. The ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities, this view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist, Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief that any deities exist. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas, as far back as 1772, Baron dHolbach said that All children are born Atheists, they have no idea of God. Similarly, George H. Smith suggested that, The man who is unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god.
This category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist, ernest Nagel contradicts Smiths definition of atheism as merely absence of theism, acknowledging only explicit atheism as true atheism
Districts of Switzerland
In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts, most cantons are divided into Bezirke. They are termed Ämter, district or distretto, the Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax, seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Nidwalden, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to five administrative regions. Vaud decided a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, valais is planning a similar reduction and in Thurgau, a reduction of eight to four districts is under discussion.
From 2005, districts only have a statistical meaning, the districts are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere in Switzerland, and are generally shown as municipalities on maps etc. The Canton is divided into 6 districts, Appenzell Gonten Oberegg Rüte Schlatt-Haslen Schwende Municipalities of Switzerland
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland is a political party in Switzerland. It is represented by two Federal Councilors since 1960 and got the second-most votes in the 2015 national elections, the party was founded on 21 October 1888, and is currently the second largest of the four leading coalition political parties in Switzerland. It is the only left-wing party with representatives in the Swiss Federal Council and it is the second largest political party in the Swiss parliament. The current members in the Swiss Federal Council are, Alain Berset, the SP is the biggest pro-European party in Switzerland and supports Swiss membership of the European Union, unlike most other Swiss parties. Additionally, it is opposed to capitalism and maintains a long-term goal of overcoming capitalism. The party is a member of the Socialist International, the Progressive Alliance. With its foundation in October 1888, the Social Democratic Party was considered to be the opposition to the Radicals in government and parliament.
After the unsuccessful General strike in 1918, proportional representation was introduced which helped the SP gain 41 seats in parliament, the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1927 and 1940. After the strike the party took a line and in 1943 it became the strongest party in parliament. It picked up a seat in 1959. The partys historical archives is today hosted by the Swiss Social Archives, the SP supports classical social democratic policies. To that rule, the SP stands for a government offering strong public services, the SP opposes raising the retirement age. In addition, the SP is a proponent of increasing spending in some areas such as for a publicly financed maternity leave, universal health care. In tax policy the SP opposes the notion of lowering taxes for high-income citizens, by campaigning for the harmonisation of all tax rates in Switzerland, the SP seeks more redistribution. The SP is skeptical toward the privatization of state enterprises, the SP promotes more competition in the areas of agriculture and parallel imports.
In social policy, the SP is committed to social equity, the SP aims at making working conditions for women in families easier by promoting more external childcare centers and more opportunities for part-time jobs. It aims at reinforcing sexual equality in terms of eliminating wage differences based on gender, supports civil union for homosexuals, the SP rejects strengthening restrictions on asylum seekers and immigrants. Thus, it supports the integration of immigrants by which the immigrants are assigned to immigration procedures immediately after entering the country, the SP has a liberal stance toward drugs and is in favor of publicly regulated heroin consumption and the legalization of cannabis
Ayer is a village in the district of Sierre in the Swiss canton of Valais. An independent municipality before, it merged on 1 January 2009 with neighboring Chandolin, Saint Jean, Saint-Luc, Ayer is first mentioned in 1296. The blazon of the coat of arms is Gules tripant on Coupeaux Vert an Ibex Argent in chief four Mullets of Five of the last in cross. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common, there are 8 people who speak Italian and 1 person who speaks Romansh. Of the population in the village,254 or about 44. 6% were born in Ayer and lived there in 2000. There were 106 or 18. 6% who were born in the canton, while 92 or 16. 1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, there were 209 people who were single, there were 295 married individuals,28 widows or widowers and 38 individuals who are divorced. There were 76 households that consist of one person and 11 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 229 apartments were permanently occupied, the historical population is given in the following chart, In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 51. 77% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SP, the FDP and the SVP, in the federal election, a total of 333 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 63. 7%. There were 312 residents of the village who were employed in some capacity, in 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 254. The number of jobs in the sector was 13, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the sector was 116 of which 16 or were in manufacturing and 76 were in construction. The number of jobs in the sector was 125. In 2000, there were 52 workers who commuted into the village and 104 workers who commuted away, the village is a net exporter of workers, with about 2.0 workers leaving the village for every one entering. From the 2000 census,444 or 77. 9% were Roman Catholic, of the rest of the population, there were 8 members of an Orthodox church, and there were 8 individuals who belonged to another Christian church. There were 14 who were Islamic,38 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 24 individuals did not answer the question.
In Ayer about 215 or of the population have completed upper secondary education
Anniviers is a municipality in the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It was formed through the merger of six municipalities in Val dAnniviers, Chandolin, Saint-Jean, Saint-Luc, the merger became effective 1 January 2009, creating the third largest municipality of Switzerland by surface area. Human settlement dates from the Bronze Age and Iron Age, the region was occupied by Gaulish tribes, who were conquered by the Roman Empire during the first century. Under Rome the valley was incorporated into the province of Helvetia, the present inhabitants of Anniviers are claimed to be descendants of Huns or a related people, who migrated to Europe from Central Asia, during or after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. An extinct and unrecorded language formerly spoken in the area is reported to have had similarities to Hungarian, a century later, the Hungarian cleric and historian Mihály Horváth says of the inhabitants, They say they are the descendants of the old Huns. The majority of them have light-blue eyes or grayish green eyes, blonde or brown hair, with large and bony forehead and they have a common nose, broad chin, prominent shoulders and neck, and they are in general low-statured.
Other cultural features including folk art and burial rituals are said to support this link. The valley was known as Annivesium until 1052, the Bishop of Sion owned the valley between 1116 and 1138 and donated it to the chapter. In the year 1193, the became a demesne of the Anniviers family. The property was returned to the bishopric in 1798, Ayer was first mentioned in 1296, and Chandolin about 1250 as Eschandulyns. Grimentz was first mentioned in 1052 as Grimiens, the village was known by its German name Grimensi. Saint-Jean was first mentioned in 1250 as de Sancto Johanne, Saint-Luc was first mentioned in 1267 as Lus and in 1304 as Luc, the name Saint-Luc first appeared around 1850, and was nout the official name until 1904. While the valleys first cart path was cleared in about 1300, the paved road dates from 1955, it was constructed to allow transportation of materials needed to build the Dam Moiry. The number of parishes increased from two in 1805 to five in 1932, by 1905 there were six municipalities, Chandolin, Saint-Luc, Saint-Jean and Vissoie.
Anniviers has an area, as of 2011, of 243.1 square kilometers, of this area,22. 0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 19. 4% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 57. 1% is unproductive land, Anniviers has a population of 2,716. As of 2008,19. 5% of the population are resident foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 14. 4%. It has changed at a rate of 14. 8% due to migration, most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Portuguese is the third
Education in Switzerland
The education system in Switzerland is very diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system mainly to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools, the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. After primary schools, the split up according to their abilities. Roughly 20% of all students attend secondary schools leading, normally after 12 school years in total to the federal recognized matura which grants access to all universities. The other students split in two or more school-types, depending on the canton, differing in the balance between theoretical and practical education and it is obligatory for all children to attend school for at least 9 years. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 in Basel and this place has a long tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland.
In addition, there are seven regional associations of Universities for Applied Sciences which require vocational education, Switzerland has a high rate of foreign students in tertiary education including one of the highest in the world of doctoral level students. Many Nobel prizes have been awarded to Swiss scientists, more recently Vladimir Prelog, Heinrich Rohrer, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Rolf Zinkernagel and Kurt Wüthrich have received nobel prizes in the sciences. In total,113 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to Switzerland, geneva hosts the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, the CERN. Other important research centers are the Empa and Paul Scherrer Institute which belong to the ETH domain, the obligatory school system usually includes primary education and secondary education I. Before that, children go to Kindergarten, but it is not required in every canton. The minimum age for school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden. The cantons Thurgau and Nidwalden allow five-year-olds to start school in exceptional cases.
Primary school continues until grade four, five or six, depending on the school/canton, any child can take part in school if they choose to, but pupils are separated depending on whether they speak French, German or Italian. At the end of school, pupils are separated according to their capacities. Students who aspire to an academic career enter Mittelschule to be prepared for further studies and this so-called dual system splitting academic and vocational training has its continuation in the higher education system. If in addition to the training the Berufsmaturitätsschule is completed the Fachhochschule may be visited instead. Rather recently introduced is a third, middle path via the Fachmittelschule which leads to an access to a Fachhochschule after a successful graduation of a Fachmatura
Orthodoxy is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. In the Christian sense the term means conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church, the first seven Ecumenical Councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines. In classical Christian usage, the term refers to the set of doctrines which were believed by the early Christians. A series of councils, known as the First seven Ecumenical Councils, were held over a period of several centuries to try to formalize these doctrines. The most significant of these decisions was that between the Homoousian doctrine of Athanasius and Eustathius and the Heteroousian doctrine of Arius and Eusebius. The earliest recorded use of the term orthodox is in the Codex Iustinianus of 529–534, following the 1054 Great Schism, both the Western and Eastern Churches continued to consider themselves uniquely orthodox and catholic. Over time, the Western Church gradually identified with the Catholic label and this was in note of the fact that both Catholic and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively.
Today the two largest Orthodox Christian communions are the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy, Orthodox Judaism is split into various different movements and factions. They have different ways of interpreting and following the laws and traditions of Judaism, Orthodox Judaism is distinct from Conservative Judaism. The term Orthodox Islam generally refers to the teachings and religious practices of traditional Sunni Islam. The term Orthodox Hinduism commonly refers to the teachings and practices of Sanātanī. In this sense, the term has a pejorative connotation. Among various orthodoxies in distinctive fields, most common terms are, Political orthodoxy, Social orthodoxy, Economic orthodoxy, Scientific orthodoxy, Orthodoxy is opposed to heterodoxy or heresy. A deviation lighter than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being enough to cause total estrangement. Sometimes error is used to cover both full heresies and minor errors. The concept of orthodoxy is prevalent in many forms of organized monotheism, for example, plays a much wider role in non-monotheistic religion.
The prevailing governing norm within polytheism is often rather than the right belief of orthodoxy. Henderson, The Construction of Orthodoxy and Heresy, Neo-Confucian, Islamic and Early Christian Patterns, SUNY Press 1998