Gro Harlem Brundtland is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway and as Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003. She is known for having chaired the Brundtland Commission which presented the Brundtland Report on sustainable development. Educated as a physician, Brundtland joined the Labour Party and entered the government in 1974 as Minister of the Environment, she became the first female Prime Minister of Norway on 4 February 1981, but left office on 14 October 1981. She returned for her third term on 3 November 1990. From 1981 to 1992 she was leader of the Labour Party. After her surprise resignation as Prime Minister in 1996, she became an international leader in sustainable development and public health, served as Director-General of the World Health Organization and as UN Special Envoy on Climate Change from 2007 to 2010, she is deputy chair of The Elders and a former Vice-President of the Socialist International. Brundtland belonged to the moderate wing of her party and supported Norwegian membership in the European Union during the 1994 referendum.
As Prime Minister Brundtland became known as the "mother of the nation." Brundtland received the 1994 Charlemagne Prize, has received many other awards and recognitions. Brundtland was born in the daughter of physician and politician Gudmund Harlem. In 1963, Brundtland graduated with a cand.med. From the University of Oslo, she took her master's degree as a Master of Public Health. From 1966 to 1969, she worked as a physician at the Directorate of Health, from 1969 she worked as a doctor in Oslo's public school health service, she was Norwegian Minister for Environmental Affairs from 1974 to 1979. Brundtland became Norway's first female Prime Minister in 1981, she served as Prime Minister from February to October. Brundtland became Norwegian Prime Minister for two further, more durable, terms; the second ministry was from 9 May 1986 until 16 October 1989 and this cabinet became known worldwide for its high proportion of female ministers: nearly half, or eight of the total eighteen ministers, were female.
The third ministry was from 3 November 1990 to 25 October 1996. Brundtland became leader of the Labour Party in 1981 and held the office until resigning in 1992, during her third term as Prime Minister. In 1996, she resigned as Prime Minister and retired from Norwegian politics, her successor as both Labour Party leader in 1992 and as Prime Minister in 1996 was Thorbjørn Jagland. In 1983, Brundtland was invited by United Nations Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar to establish and chair the World Commission on Environment and Development referred to as the Brundtland Commission, she developed the broad political concept of sustainable development in the course of extensive public hearings, that were distinguished by their inclusiveness. The commission, which published its report, Our Common Future, in April 1987, provided the momentum for the 1992 Earth Summit/UNCED, headed by Maurice Strong, a prominent member of the commission; the Brundtland Commission provided momentum for Agenda 21.
During her third ministry, the Norwegian government in 1993 took the initiative to sponsor secret peace talks between the Government of Israel led by Yitzchak Rabin – like Brundtland, leader of a Labour Party – and the PLO led by Yasser Arafat. This culminated with the signing of the Oslo Accords. For several years afterwards Norway continued to have a high-profile involvement in promoting Israeli-Palestinian peace, though displaced by the United States from its role as the mediator. After the end of her term as PM, Brundtland was elected Director-General of the World Health Organization in May 1998. In this capacity, Brundtland adopted a far-reaching approach to public health, establishing a Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, chaired by Jeffrey Sachs, addressing violence as a major public health issue. Brundtland spearheaded the movement, now worldwide, to achieve the abolition of cigarette smoking by education and increased taxation. Under her leadership, the World Health Organization was one of the first major employers to make quitting smoking a condition of employment.
Under Brundtland's leadership, the World Health Organization was criticized for increased drug-company influence on the agency. Brundtland was recognized in 2003 by Scientific American as their'Policy Leader of the Year' for coordinating a rapid worldwide response to stem outbreaks of SARS. Brundtland was succeeded on 21 July 2003 by Jong-Wook Lee. In 1994, Brundtland was awarded the Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen. In 2006 Brundtland was a member of the Panel of Eminent Persons who reviewed the work of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. In May 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon named Brundtland, as well as Ricardo Lagos, Han Seung-soo, to serve as UN Special Envoys for Climate Change. Brundtland's hallmark political activities have been chronicled by her husband, Arne Olav Brundtland, in his two bestsellers, Married to Gro and Still married to Gro. In 2007, Bruntland was working for Pepsi as a consultant. Gro Harlem Brundtland is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize collective action on issues of critical importance to w
Cuba–Mexico relations are the diplomatic and bilateral relations between the Republic of Cuba and the United Mexican States. Both nations are members of the Association of Caribbean States, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, Latin American Integration Association, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the United Nations; the most important aspect of Mexican–Cuban relations is the influence of the United States and the Soviet Union. Throughout the 20th century, the two superpowers exerted control over the Latin American region and, as time progressed further in the Cold War, how each country treated the other profoundly affected how they would react. Mexico had to be cautious not to anger the United States when interacting with Cuba or the Soviet Union, making the relations more complicated than just two countries interacting. For example, as the Cold War began and there were rising tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, Mexico had to be careful of how its relations with each country could affect the other country's perception of Mexico.
The United States had a Good Neighbor Policy towards countries like Mexico who were on the fence as to whether or not they should support the US or the USSR. Since the United States feared neutrality of countries over anything else, as neutrality can turn into communism they pushed nations like Mexico to side with the US. President Kennedy would strengthen the Good Neighbor Policy by implementing his Alliance for Progress program, which helped Latin American countries with "economic growth and development." With increased efforts by the US to bring Latin American countries like Mexico into its own sphere of influence and away from the influence of countries like the USSR and Cuba, Mexico was put into a difficult situation. This American influence would put a strain on Mexico whenever they wanted to have positive relations towards Cuba, as it could have negative repercussions from Mexico's powerful neighbor; the Soviet Union affected the relations between Mexico and Cuba. The USSR had a large influence on Cuba which caused the relationship between Cuba and the United States to be problematic and contentious.
Cuba's economy and independence from the US would not have been as stable as it was without the Soviet support they received, making them in debt to the USSR. Mexico had to be careful when dealing with either Cuba or the USSR because of the problems that would cause in Mexican–American relations. Throughout this article, the importance of the United States and the USSR in these relations will be discussed since it had a large impact on the relations between Mexico and Cuba. During the Cold War era, the US believed that their relations with Mexico should help dictate, to an extent, how Mexico could treat Cuba and how public or private they needed to be with opinions towards Cuba. After the Spanish–American War, the United States gained control of Cuba and gave the country its independence in a limited form. Under the Platt Amendment, the country was given independence with a few conditions. After Cuban independence, Mexico became an important country that Cubans would flee to when escaping political persecution, including notable Cubans like Fidel Castro who fled to Mexico from the Batista regime.
Mexico would become the site from which Castro, Ernesto "Che" Guevara, others started their trek back to Cuba to overthrow the Batista regime. With Mexico as a location for Cubans to go to when they had problems with their native country, this created a Cuban population within Mexico, which made Mexico more involved in how it treated Cuba in the future. Since Mexico became a refuge for Cubans exiled from Cuba, it became a starting point for Cubans to revolt back home. After meeting in Mexico, Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara began to plan a guerilla war against the Batista regime in Cuba to take back Cuba for the people; this movement became known as the "26th of July Movement," which began when Castro and Che entered Cuba in 1956 to overthrow dictator Batista, who fled the country in 1959. Mexico was a prime launching point for their boat since it was much easier to get to Cuba from Mexico than if they had started from another country. Mexico gave Castro the advantage to plan out and launch the movement without the backlash that other countries, who supported the Batista regime, may have given him.
On a final note, the Cuban government was backed by the American government at the time, so any movement against Cuba was against the US, starting the bad relations between the US and Cuba as soon as Castro was victorious, which showed Mexico that they needed to understand the need to be cautious with their Cuban relations from now on. The Organization of American States was an organization formed after World War II in 1948 to help "settle inter-American disputes." Following the Cuban Missile Crisis Cuba was expelled from the OAS. Mexico was the only country in the hemisphere to maintain diplomatic ties with Cuba throughout the Cuban missile crisis; this demonstrated Mexico's dedication to keeping ties with Cuba when they had to consider how the United States could react. "We have a problem. We are not Haiti, Bahamas or Jamaica. Mexican President Adolfo López Mateos statement during the Cuban missile crisis that pit the United States on a brink of nuclear war in Cuba; the Mexican government had to be cautious with.
Though it was obvious that Mexico supported Cuba they opposed Cuba’s actions, to help maintain good relations with the US.. Mexico realized that supp
Robert "Bob" Thomas Hines, Jr. is an American fighter pilot and NASA astronaut. Robert Hines was born on January 11, 1975 in Fayetteville, North Carolina to Lynne and Robert Hines Sr, his family moved to Mountain Top, where he attended Crestwood High School. In 1989 he attended Space Camp aged 14, he graduated from Boston University in 1997 with a Bachelor of Science degree in aerospace engineering. In 1999, Hines graduated from Air Force Officer Training School and was commissioned as a second lieutenant, he attended Undergraduate Pilot Training at Columbus Air Force Base. After pilot training, he was an instructor pilot on the T-37 Tweet, he trained to be an F-15E Strike Eagle pilot at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, before an assignment at RAF Lakenheath. While at RAF Lakenheath, he deployed for operations in the Middle East. In 2008, Hines attended the U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School, his first assignment as a test pilot was to Eglin Air Force Base, where he tested the F-15C Eagle and F-15E Strike Eagle, deployed as a U-28 pilot.
In 2010, Hines received his Masters of Science in aerospace engineering from the University of Alabama. Hines joined the Air Force Reserves at NAS JRB Fort Worth in 2011, where he worked as a Wing Plans Officer, as well as a F-15E Program test pilot at the 84th Test and Evaluation Squadron at Eglin Air Force Base. Throughout his career, he has flown 76 combat missions, has over 3,500 hours of flight time in 41 aircraft. Prior to his selection as an astronaut, Hines served as a test pilot at NASA's Johnson Space Center, as well as for the Federal Aviation Administration. In 2017, he was selected as a member of NASA Astronaut Group 22, began his two-year training. At the time of his selection, Hines was a research pilot for the Aircraft Operations Division of the Flight Operations Directorate at NASA. Hines and his wife, have three children. During his Air Force career, Hines received multiple awards, including the Air Medal, Aerial Achievement Medal, Iraq Campaign Medal, Afghanistan Campaign Medal, the Nuclear Deterrence Operations Service Medal.
He received the U. S. Air Force Bobby Bond Memorial Aviator Award, the NASA Stuart Present Flight Achievement Award, he is a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. This article incorporates public domain material from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration document "Bob Hines" by Mark Garcia. Retrieved on September 13, 2018
Leo Ayotte was a Canadian oil painter and artist. Born in Sainte-Flore, Quebec to a family of modest means, he began his studies at the College Séraphique and at Trois-Rivières Seminary, in Nicolet, he began to compose poems and paint. In 1938, Ayotte moved to Montreal and worked as a model at the École des beaux-arts de Montréal and the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Not being registered, Ayotte could not follow the lessons, but his work there as a model and as a janitor allowed him to listen in on classes. Without money, he picked up the half-empty tubes left by careless students and used them to paint; the director Maillard told him after he saw one of his paintings: "You are my best student." Through his art career and lectures, Ayott was able to save enough money to fulfil his dream of visiting France. In July 1962, he went to visit the Louvre Museum, he visited his friend François Hertel and Robert Roussil, a sculptor, the painter Jean Dallaire. He ended his trip on the French Riviera where he spent a lot of time painting with his niece, Louise-Helene Ayotte, who had just been awarded the Consul of France at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
After a year in France, he returned to Canada, where he participated in numerous exhibitions throughout Quebec until 1975. Suffering from cancer, he was transported on December 18, 1976 to the Hospital of Saint-Hyacinthe where he died three days on December 21, 1976. Ayotte began doing landscape sketches at an early age, his love of nature brought him to painting. Self-taught, he had a unique style. Ayotte used a single brush to achieve a work. From a single stroke and with spontaneity Ayotte always achieved a successful painting with his first attempt, never having to make corrections or touch-ups. Except for his portraits, he painted without preliminary drawings, taking the time to make observations before starting to paint; the bold and lively colors that emerged from his brush captured the essence of his subjects. His colorful landscapes are real hymns to nature, his still lifes and portraits, charged with emotion, led him to be considered a major artist in Quebec. The works of Ayotte are displayed at the Galerie Michel-Ange de Montreal and at the Galerie Le Balcon d'Art de Saint-Lambert as well as periodically in other galleries in Quebec and throughout Canada.
Signatures, mon Québec, Le Guide Vallée, Le Collectionneur, Investir dans les œuvres d’art, Le paysage dans la peinture au Québec. Galerie de Léo Ayotte Galerie Michel-Ange de Montréal Galerie Le Balcon d'Art
Rab escort protein 1 known as rab proteins geranylgeranyltransferase component A 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHM gene. This gene encodes component A of the RAB geranylgeranyl transferase holoenzyme. In the dimeric holoenzyme, this subunit binds unprenylated Rab GTPases and presents them to the catalytic Rab GGTase subunit for the geranylgeranyl transfer reaction. Rab GTPases need to be geranylgeranyled on either one or two cysteine residues in their C-terminus to localize to the correct intracellular membrane. CHM has been shown to interact with RAB1A, RAB7A and RAB3A. Mutations in this gene are a cause of choroideremia; this X-linked disease is characterized by progressive dystrophy of the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Rab GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Choroideremia Rab+escort+protein+1,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings
The Darnall Works is a former steelworks in the Darnall area of Sheffield in England. The only remaining large complex of crucible furnaces, the works opened in the 1835 and were extended and adapted until the late 20th century; some of the structures at the works are listed buildings, at Grade II* and Grade II, part of the site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Naylor and Sanderson was established in 1776 as a cutlery- and steel-manufacturing business in the Attercliffe area of Sheffield. By the 1820s, it had grown into a large concern, focused on producing steel, based at works on West Street near the city centre. Naylor retired, enabling four members of the Sanderson family to take control and rename the firm as "Sanderson Brothers". Over the next couple of decades, they took on various sites in the city to house their growing concern, in 1835 they took over a large site on the edge of the hamlet of Darnall; the site was in industrial use, as the Don Glass Works, which English Heritage believe were already established in 1793, centred on a glass cone.
The Sanderson Brothers were able to acquire the site on a 21-year lease for £13/13/0 annual rent. As part of this, it appears that they took over the glassworks, where possible learning technological advances in one industry to develop the other, adapting the glass cone into a cementation furnace. Both cementation and crucible furnaces were in use, but the glassworks was sold off during the 1850s to Melling, Carr and Co, who operated it until the start of the 20th century. Although the glassworks closed, there are no above-ground remains, English Heritage consider it that there are significant underground structures, along with discarded glass, this forms part of the justification for the listing of the site as a Scheduled Ancient Monument; the establishment was successful and, in 1871, Sandersons decided to concentrate production at the Darnall site. To increase capacity, the firm constructed several new buildings in 1871 and 1872, these are the oldest surviving structures on the site. Cementation furnaces had fallen out of favour, the new buildings instead contained 180 crucible furnaces.
Two abutting ranges of steel shops survive, both single-storey, in brick with asbestos cement, roofed in slate and in corrugated asbestos. The south-east range provided 84 holes for steel manufacture, while the south range had 24, designed to allow the casting of big objects using the "continuous teeming" method of production; the south range alone cost £6000 to construct, it remained in use for around fifty years resuming production during the Second World War. The two ranges are Grade II * form the core of the Scheduled Ancient Monument. At the same time, ancillary structures were added, including a two-storey office building, lodge and boundary walls. Constructed in brick, these all survive and are Grade II listed, form part of the Scheduled Ancient Monument. In 1873 and 1874, a further range of crucible furnaces was added, powered by a Siemens gas furnace, with its own gas plant adjoining; this was one of the first in the city, giving the same capacity as sixty traditional crucible furnaces.
In 1912, Ellison and Co. decided to establish a new steelworks, using electric arc furnaces, adjoining the existing Darnall Works. Completed the following year, it included two large buildings: a two-storey heat treatment workshop and a three-storey steel working shop. In each, a steel frame is infilled with brick and concrete, the roofs are of corrugate iron; this form of construction was novel, this contributes to the listing of each at Grade II. In 1934, Sandersons transferred their works to Kayser Ellison, combining the two sites to form a new, larger Darnall Works. Sandersons had stopped using their cementation furnaces in the 1920s, Kayser Ellison soon demolished these, along with the west range of crucible steel shops from the 1870s. Kayser Ellison merged with Sandersons in 1960. A new main building was completed in 1967, incorporating a former stock warehouse, measuring 500 by 59 feet in plan and more than 18 feet high, with a further 200-foot-long bay containing the new heat treatment workshop.
This building contained several large furnaces. This allowed many buildings to be put to new uses: the south-east crucible shops as stores, the heat treatment workshop as a stock grinding plant, the steel working shop as an annealing and cleaning plant; the gas-fired crucible furnaces and the gas plant were demolished, but English Heritage believe that substantial remains of these exist below ground. By the end of the 20th century, Sanderson Kayser had concentrated production on its nearby Newhall Road site, left the Darnall Works disused. Although the site became derelict, most of the buildings survived, it was established that these included the only remaining large complex of crucible furnaces, the only known remains in the United Kingdom of gas fired crucible furnaces. Interest in the buildings grew after they were featured in a 2001 English Heritage publication, One Great Workshop; this argued. A plan to restore the listed buildings and construct new warehouses on the remainder of the site, enabling the return of steelmaking to the area, was announced in 2006.
However, the scheme required local residents to relocate, it did not proceed. Instead, by 2010, £800,000 was raised to restore the Grade II* buildings at the site: the south-east and south crucible workshops.