Groom of the Stool
The Groom of the Stool was the most intimate of an English monarch's courtiers, responsible for assisting the king in excretion and ablution. The physical intimacy of the role led to his becoming a man in whom much confidence was placed by his royal master and with whom many royal secrets were shared as a matter of course; this secret information—while it would never have been revealed, for it would have led to the discredit of his honour—in turn led to his becoming feared and respected and therefore powerful within the royal court in his own right. The office developed over decades and centuries into one of administration of the royal finances, under Henry VII, the Groom of the Stool became a powerful official involved in setting national fiscal policy, under the "chamber system"; the Groom of the Stool was a male servant in the household of the English monarch, responsible for assisting the king in his toileting needs. It is a matter of some debate as to whether the duties involved cleaning the king's anus, but the groom is known to have been responsible for supplying a bowl and towels and for monitoring the king's diet and bowel movements and liaising with the Royal Doctor about the king's health.
The appellation "Groom of the Close Stool" derived from the item of furniture used as a toilet. It appears as "Grom of the Stole" as the word "Groom" comes from the Old Low Franconian word "Grom". By the Tudor age, the role of Groom of the Stool was fulfilled by a substantial figure, such as Hugh Denys, a member of the Gloucestershire gentry, married to an aristocratic wife, who died possessing at least four manors; the function was transformed into that of a virtual minister of the royal treasury, being an essential figure in the king's management of fiscal policy. In the early years of Henry VIII's reign, the title was awarded to court companions of the king who spent time with him in the privy chamber; these were the sons of noblemen or important members of the gentry. In time they came to act as virtual personal secretaries to the king, carrying out a variety of administrative tasks within his private rooms; the position was an prized one, as it allowed unobstructed access to the king. David Starkey writes: "The Groom of the Stool had the most menial tasks.
The royal body service must have been seen as honourable, without a trace of the demeaning or the humiliating." Further, "the mere word of the Gentleman of the Privy Chamber was sufficient evidence in itself of the king's will", the Groom of the Stool bore "the indefinable charisma of the monarchy". The office was one serving male monarchs, so on the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, it was replaced by the First Lady of the Bedchamber, first held by Kat Ashley; the office came to an end when it was "neutralised" in 1559. On the accession of James I, the male office was revived as the senior Lord of the Bedchamber, who always was a great nobleman who had considerable power because of its intimate access to the king. During the reign of Charles I, the term "stool" appears to have lost its original signification of chair; the office fell into disuse with the accession of Queen Victoria, though her husband, Prince Albert, their son, Prince of Wales employed similar courtiers, now renamed "Groom of the Stole", from the Latin stola, a long outer garment or robe worn by Roman ladies.
The Tudor historian David Starkey classes this change as classic Victorianism: "When the Victorians came to look at this office, they spelt it s-t-o-l-e, imagined all kinds of fictions about elaborate robes draped around the neck of the monarch at the coronation." When Edward acceded to the throne as Edward VII in 1901, he discontinued the office. William Grymesby is mentioned as Yoman of the Stoole in 1455, in A collection of ordinances and regulations for the government of the royal household, printed in 1790 (cited OED; this may, or may not, be the Willielmus Grymesby, MP for Great Grimsby. Sir Edward Burton of Longnor, father of Sir John Burton, Groom of the Stool to King Henry VIII.?–1509: Hugh Denys of Osterley, Middlesex. Hugh Denys controlled the private and secret finances of King Henry VII. 1509–1526: Sir William Compton 1526–1536: Sir Henry Norris 1536–1546: Sir Thomas Heneage 1546–1547: Sir Anthony Denny Heneage and Denny, as servants "whom he used secretly about him", were privy to Henry VIII's most intimate confidences about Anne of Cleves.
He told them he doubted her virginity, on account of "her brests so slacke". 1547–1551: Sir Michael Stanhope 1603–: Thomas Erskine, 1st Earl of Kellie. 1625–1631: Sir James Fullerton 1626–1643: Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland 1643–c.1649: William Seymour, 1st Marquess of Hertford c.1649: Thomas Blagge 1660–c.1667/1673: Elizabeth Boyle, Countess of Guilford 1660: William Seymour, 1st Marquess of Hertford 1660–1685: Sir John Granville 1685–1688: Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough 1689–1700: William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland 1700–1702: Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney 1702–1711: Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough 1711–1714: Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset 1683–1685: John Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley of Stratton 1685–1687: Robert Leke, 3rd Earl of Scarsdale 1697–1708: John West, 6th Baron De La Warr 1714–1719: Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset 1719–1722: Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland 1722–1723: Vacant 1723–1727: Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin 1727–1735: Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin 1735–1750: Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke 1751–1755: Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle 1755
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary in different jurisdictions. A constable is the rank of an officer within the police. Other people may be granted powers of a constable without holding this title; the title comes from the Latin comes stabuli and originated from the Roman Empire. The title was imported to the monarchies of medieval Europe, in many countries developed into a high military rank and great officer of State. Most constables in modern jurisdictions are law enforcement officers. However, in the Channel Islands a constable is an elected office-holder at the parish level. A constable could refer to a castellan, the officer charged with the defense of a castle. Today, there is a Constable of the Tower of London. An equivalent position is that of Marshal, which derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant", meant "stable keeper", which has a similar etymology. In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank in most police services.
It is categorised into the following from lowest to highest: probationary constable, constable first class, senior constable, leading senior constable. These variations depend on the individual state/territory police force in question. Senior constable refers to a police officer of the rank above constable and is denoted by way of two chevrons/stripes; the New South Wales Police Force has three grades of senior constable, namely senior constable, incremental senior constable and leading senior constable. A senior constable is senior to a constable but junior to an incremental senior constable. Promotion to senior constable can occur after a minimum of five years service, one year as a probationary constable in addition to four years as constable and upon passing probity checks and an exam. Incremental senior constable is attained after ten years of service automatically. One is appointed the rank of leading senior constable on a qualification basis but must have a minimum of seven years service amongst other criteria in order to be eligible.
Leading senior constable is a specialist position of which there are limited allocated numbers within any section/unit or local area command. If an officer is transferred to another duty type or station, the officer is relieved of the position of leading senior constable, it is a position for field training officers who oversee the training and development of inexperienced probationary constables or constables. Within Victoria Police, a senior constable is the rank above a constable while above a senior constable is a leading senior constable; when first introduced into Victoria Police, the leading senior constable was a classification not a rank, somewhat like "detective". Leading senior constables were appointed to assist in the training and mentoring of more junior members; the last round of wage negotiations however saw leading senior constable become a rank in its own right, one that a lot of members will pass on their way from constable to sergeant though it is not necessary and is permissible to be promoted to sergeant direct from senior constable.
The general form of address for both senior constable and leading senior constable is "senior" and this is acceptable in courts. In Canada, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank with most law enforcement services, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In Newfoundland the provincial police are the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary whereby all officers are addressed by the term "constable". In addition, the chief officers of some municipal police services in Canada, notably Vancouver Police Department, carry the title of chief constableIn Canadian French, constable is translated to agent, except in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police where it is translated as gendarme.) Appointments can further be separated into: Special constables RCMP special constables are appointed for specific skills, for example, aboriginal language skills. They are peace officers under the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. Outside of the RCMP, special constables are not police officers but are appointed to serve certain law enforcement functions.
For example, SPCA agents or court/jail security officers. Auxiliary constables, or reserve constables, are volunteers with a policing agency, they only have peace officer status when engaged in specific authorized tasks only. Provincial civil constables deal with matters of a civil nature. In the Danish armed forces the ranks "Konstabel", "Overkonstabel" and "Overkonstabel af 1. Grad" are used for professional enlisted soldiers and airmen; the rank is more or less equal to a Private, Private 1st class and Lance corporal but higher than the rank "menig" which translates into "private" and only applies to drafted soldiers. In the Finnish Police, the lowest rank of police
A bridegroom is a man who will soon be or has been married. A bridegroom is attended by a best man and groomsmen; the first mention of the term bridegroom dates to 1604, from the Old English brȳdguma, a compound of brȳd and guma. It is related to the Old Saxon brūdigomo, the Old High German brūtigomo, the German Bräutigam, the Old Norse brúðgumi; the style of the bridegroom's clothing can be influenced by many factors, including the time of day, the location of the ceremony, the ethnic backgrounds of the bride and bridegroom, the type of ceremony, whether the bridegroom is a member of the Armed Forces. In the United States, the bridegroom wears a dark-colored suit for a daytime wedding or tuxedo for an evening ceremony. British tradition for a formal wedding requires the bridegroom, male ushers, close male family to wear morning suits. Bridegrooms of Scottish descent wear full Highland dress, as do their groomsmen. In Norway the bridegroom may wear a folk costume like the gákti among Northern Sami or bunad, a dark-colored suit or a tuxedo.
In Anglo-American weddings, the bridegroom will give a short speech after the reception, thanking the guests for attending, complimenting the bride, thanking members of the wedding party, sharing a "roast toast", in which he makes jokes at the expense of himself or a member of his party. His speech will be followed by one from the best man. In Christianity, Jesus Christ is called a bridegroom in relation to the Church as his bride. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist speaks of Jesus Christ as the bridegroom and mentions the bride, he that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled. See Matthew 9:15.
There are many aspects to horse care. Horses, mules and other domesticated equids require attention from humans for optimal health and long life. Horses require both shelter from natural elements like wind and precipitation, as well as room to exercise. Worldwide and other equids live outside with access to shelter for protection from the elements. In some cases, animals are kept in a barn or stable for ease of access by managers, or for protection from the weather for various reasons. For horse owners who do not own their own land and barns can be rented from a private land owner or space for an individual horse may be rented from a boarding farm. Horses that are not on full-time turnout in a field or pasture require some form of regular exercise, whether it is being ridden, longed or turned out for free time. However, if a horse is ill or injured it may need to be confined to a stable in a box stall; as equines are herd animals, most have better mental behavior when in proximity to other equine company.
However, this is not always possible, it has been known for companionship bonds to develop between horses and cats and other species. There are exceptions; some horses stallions are kept separated from other horses other males they may challenge for dominance. For safety and monitoring, Mares may be separated from a herd prior to foaling. Horses require access to clean fresh water at all times, access to adequate forage such as grass or hay. Unless an animal can be maintained on pasture with a natural open water source, horses must be fed daily; as horses evolved as continuous grazers, it is better to feed small amounts of feed throughout the day than to feed a large amount at one time. In the winter, horses grow a heavy hair coat to keep warm and stay warm if well-fed and allowed access to shelter, but if kept artificially clipped for show, or if under stress from age, sickness or injury, a horse blanket may need to be added to protect the horse from cold weather. In the summer, access to shade is well-advised.
If a horse is kept in a pasture, the amount of land needed for basic maintenance varies with climate, an animal needs more land for grazing in a dry climate than in a moist one. An average of between one and 3 acres of land per horse will provide adequate forage in much of the world, though hay or other feed may have to be supplemented in winter or during periods of drought. To lower the risk of laminitis, horses may need to be removed from lush changing grass for short periods in the spring and fall, when the grass is high in non-structural carbohydrates such as fructans. Horses turned out to pasture full time still need to be checked for evidence of injury, sickness or weight loss. If the terrain does not provide natural shelter in the form of heavy trees or other windbreaks, an artificial shelter must be provided. Horses cannot live for more than a few days without water; therefore in a natural, semi-feral setting, a check every day is recommended. Pastures should be rotated when plants are grazed down to avoid overgrazing or deterioration of pasture quality.
Manure management is improved by pasture rotation. Decomposition of the manure needs to be allowed. Horses evolved to live on prairie grasslands and to cover long distances unfettered by artificial barriers. Therefore, when fenced in, accident potential must be considered. Horses will put their legs through fences in an attempt to reach forage on the other side, they may run into fences if chased by another animal, or when running at play if the fence is not visible. The smaller the area, the more visible and substantial a fence needs to be. For exercise alone, a pen, corral or "dry lot" without forage can be much smaller than a pasture, this is a common way that many horses are managed. Outdoor turnout pens range in size, but 12 feet by 20 to 30 feet is a bare minimum for a horse that does not get ridden daily. To gallop for short stretches, a horse needs a "run" of at least 50 to 100 feet; when kept in a dry lot, a barn or shelter is a must. If kept in a small pen, a horse needs to be worked or turned out in a larger area for free exercise.
Fences in pens must be sturdy. In close quarters, a horse may contact the fence frequently. Wire is dangerous in any small pen. Pens are made of metal pipe, or wood. Larger pens are sometimes enclosed in woven mesh, sometimes called "no climb" fencing. However, if a wire mesh is used in a small pen, the openings must be too small for a horse hoof to pass through. Over vast areas, barbed wire is seen in some parts of the world, but it is the most dangerous fencing material that can be used around horses in a large pasture. If a horse is caught in barbed wire, it can become hurt leaving lasting scars o
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for elevated offices, such as in military rank and civilian law enforcement. "Marshal" is an ancient loanword from Norman French, which in turn is borrowed from Old Frankish *marhskalk, being still evident in Middle Dutch maerscalc, in modern Dutch maarschalk. It is cognate with Old High German mar-scalc "id.", modern German Marschall. It and meant "horse servant", from Germanic *marha- "horse" and *skalk- "servant"; this "horse servant" origin is retained in the current French name for farrier: maréchal-ferrant. The late Roman and Byzantine title of comes stabuli was a calque of the Germanic, which became Old French conestable and modern connétable, borrowed from the Old French, the English word "constable". In Byzantium, a marshal with elevated authority, notably a borderlands military command, was known as an exarch.
In many countries, the rank of marshal, cf. field marshal, is the highest army rank, outranking other general officers. The equivalent navy rank is admiral of the fleet. Marshals are but not appointed only in wartime. In many countries in Europe, the special symbol of a marshal is a baton, their insignia incorporate batons. In some countries, the term "marshal" is used instead of "general" in the higher air force ranks; the four highest Royal Air Force ranks are marshal of the Royal Air Force, air chief marshal, air marshal and air vice marshal. The five-star rank of marshal of the Air Force is used by some Commonwealth and Middle Eastern air forces. In the French Army and most National Armies modeled upon the French system, maréchal des logis is a cavalry term equivalent to sergeant; some historical rulers have used special "marshal" titles to reward certain subjects. Though not military ranks, these honorary titles have been bestowed upon successful military leaders, such as the famous grand marshal of Ayacucho Antonio José de Sucre.
Most famous are the Marshals of France, not least under Napoléon I. Another such title was that of Reichsmarschall, bestowed upon Hermann Göring by Adolf Hitler, although it was never a regular title as it had been "invented" for Göring, the only titleholder in history. In England during the First Barons' War the title "Marshal of the Army of God" was bestowed upon Robert Fitzwalter by election. Both the Soviet Union and Russia have army general as well as "marshal" in their rank system, the latter being an honorary rank; the following articles discuss the rank of marshal as used by specific countries: Feldmarschall and Feldmarschalleutnant Marshal of Bolivia Marshal Marshal Rigsmarsk Marshal of the German Democratic Republic Marshal of Finland France Marshal of France Marshal-of-Lodgings German Empire Generalfeldmarschall Japan Shōgun Italy Marshal of Italy Marshal – a warrant officer rank Land marshal of the Livonian Order Marshal of the Mongolian People's Republic Marshal Marshal of the air force Marshal of Paraguay Marshal of Peru Marszałek Polski Marshal Mareşal Field Marshal Marshal of the Russian Federation The Soviet Union had three marshals ranks: Marshal of the Soviet Union Chief marshal of the branch was used in five Soviet military branches: the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops, signal troops.
Marshal of the branch was used in five Soviet military branches – the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops, signal troops. Marshal of the branch is considered equivalent to the rank general of the army, used in the infantry and the marines. Mareşal Field marshal, marshal of the Royal Air Force Marshal of Venezuela Marshal of Yugoslavia See also: Mariscal and the upper condestable These ranks are considered the equivalent to a marshal: Chom Phon General of the army, fleet admiral and general of the Air Force Arteshbod Mushir Protostrator Stratarches Vojvoda Vrhovnik Wonsu Yuan Shuai Sima Gensui Nguyên soái or Thống chế The name is applied to the leader of military police organizations. Provost marshal – a term used in many countries Provost Marshal General – head of the military police in the United States Usually in monarchies, one or several of the senior digni
A veterinary physician called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon, is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases and injuries in animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or licensure are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered veterinary physicians, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a veterinarian or prescribe any treatment. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings; these veterinarians may be involved in a general practice. As with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients.
Current debates within the profession include the ethics of certain procedures believed to be purely cosmetic or unnecessary for behavioral issues, such as declawing of cats, docking of tails, cropping of ears and debarking on dogs. The word "veterinary" comes from the Latin veterinae meaning "working animals". "Veterinarian" was first used in print by Thomas Browne in 1646. Ancient Indian sage and veterinary physician Shalihotra, the son of a Brahmin sage, Hayagosha, is considered the founder of veterinary sciences; the first veterinary college was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain.
A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The professionalization of the veterinary trade was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research. Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis and aftercare; the scope of practice and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery. Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely on clinical signs, as animals are unable to vocalize symptoms as a human would. In some cases, owners may be able to provide a medical history and the veterinarian can combine this information along with observations, the results of pertinent diagnostic tests such as radiography, CT scans, MRI, blood tests and others.
Veterinarians must consider the appropriateness of euthanasia if a condition is to leave the animal in pain or with a poor quality of life, or if treatment of a condition is to cause more harm to the patient than good, or if the patient is unlikely to survive any treatment regimen. Additionally, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the client's finances; as with human medicine, much veterinary work is concerned with prophylactic treatment, in order to prevent problems occurring in the future. Common interventions include vaccination against common animal illnesses, such as distemper or rabies, dental prophylaxis to prevent or inhibit dental disease; this may involve owner education so as to avoid future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have the prevention of zoonoses; the majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals. Small animal veterinarians work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both.
Large animal veterinarians spend more time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them, such as zoos or farms. Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of veterinary medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies, pharmaceutical companies. In many countries, the government may be a major employer of veterinarians, such as the United States Department of Agriculture or the Animal and Plant Health Agency in the United Kingdom. State and local governments employ veterinarians. Veterinarians and their practices may be specialized in certain areas of veterinary medicine. Areas of focus include: Exotic animal veterinaria