There are three related types of Neolithic earthwork that are all sometimes loosely called henges. The essential characteristic of all three is that they feature a ring-shaped bank and ditch, with the ditch inside the bank; because the internal ditches would have served defensive purposes poorly, henges are not considered to have been defensive constructions. The three henge types are as follows, with the figure in brackets being the approximate diameter of the central flat area: Henge; the word henge refers to a particular type of earthwork of the Neolithic period consisting of a circular or oval-shaped bank with an internal ditch surrounding a central flat area of more than 20 m in diameter. There is little if any evidence of occupation in a henge, although they may contain ritual structures such as stone circles, timber circles and coves. Henge monument is sometimes used as a synonym for henge. Henges sometimes, but by no means always, featured stone or timber circles, circle henge is sometimes used to describe these structures.
The three largest stone circles in Britain are each in a henge. Examples of henges without significant internal monuments are the three henges of Thornborough Henges. Although having given its name to the word henge, Stonehenge is atypical in that the ditch is outside the main earthwork bank. Hengiform monument. Like an ordinary henge except the central flat area is between 5 and 20 m in diameter, they comprise a modest earthwork with a wide outer bank. Mini henge or Dorchester henge are sometimes used as synonyms for hengiform monument. An example is the Neolithic site at Wormy Hillock Henge. Henge enclosure. A Neolithic ring earthwork with the ditch inside the bank, with the central flat area having abundant evidence of occupation and being more than 300 m in diameter; some true henges lack evidence of domestic occupation. Super henge is sometimes used as a synonym for a henge enclosure. However, sometimes Super henge is used to indicate size alone rather than use, e.g. "Marden henge... is the least understood of the four British'superhenges' (the others being Avebury, Durrington Walls and Mount Pleasant Henge".
The word henge is a backformation from the famous monument in Wiltshire. Stonehenge is not a true henge as its ditch runs outside its bank, although there is a small extant external bank as well; the term was first coined in 1932 by Thomas Kendrick, who became the Keeper of British Antiquities at the British Museum. Henges may be classified as follows: Class I henges, which have a single entrance created from a gap in the bank. Sub groups exist for these when three internal ditches are present rather than one. Henges are associated with the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, with the pottery of this period: Grooved Ware, Impressed Wares, Beakers. Sites such as Stonehenge provide evidence of activity from the Bronze Age Wessex culture. Henges contain evidence of a variety of internal features, including timber or stone circles, pits, or burials, which may pre- or post-date the henge enclosure. A henge should not be confused with a stone circle within it, as henges and stone circles can exist together or separately.
At Arbor Low in Derbyshire, all the stones except one are laid flat and do not seem to have been erected, as no stone holes have been found. Elsewhere only the stone holes remain to indicate a former circle; some of the best-known henges are at: Avebury, about 20 miles north of Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, in Wiltshire Knowlton Circles henge complex in Dorset Maumbury Rings in Dorset Mayburgh Henge in Cumbria The Ring of Brodgar in Orkney Thornborough Henges complex in YorkshireHenges sometimes formed part of a ritual landscape or complex, with other Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments inside and outside the henge. Earlier monuments associated with a henge might include Neolithic monuments such as a cursus, or a long barrow such as the West Kennet Long Barrow at Avebury, Wiltshire, or as in the case of Stonehenge, Mesolithic post holes. Monuments added after the henge was built might include Bronze Age cairns as at Arbor Low. Examples of such ritual landscapes are: Balfarg in Fife, Scotland Dunragit archaeological excavation site in Wigtownshire Heart of Neolithic Orkney, the UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Mainland, one of the islands of Orkney, Scotland Stonehenge and Associated Sites, the UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Wiltshire, England mentioned: Arbor Low, Knowlton Circles, Stanton Drew stone circles, Thornborough HengesBurials have been recorded at a number of excavated henges, both pre-dating the henge and as a result of secondary reuse.
For example: At Avebury, at least two disturbed inhumations were found in the central area Cairnpapple and North Mains both had burials that pre-date the henges, as well as post-date them At King Arthur's Round Table, Cumbria, a cremation trench lay within the monument At Woodhenge, a central burial of a child was interpreted by its excavators as a dedicatory offering At Maxey, phosphate surveys suggest that burials may have been present within this monument Efforts to delineate a direct lineage for the henge from earlier enclosures have not been conclusive. Their chronological overlap wi
Agriculture in prehistoric Scotland
Agriculture in prehistoric Scotland includes all forms of farm production in the modern boundaries of Scotland before the beginning of the early historic era. Scotland has between a fifth and a sixth of the arable or good pastoral land of England and Wales in the south and east. Heavy rainfall encouraged the spread of acidic blanket peat bog, which with wind and salt spray, made most of the western islands treeless. Hills, mountains and marshes made internal communication and agriculture difficult. In the Neolithic period, from around 6,000 years ago, there is evidence of permanent settlements and farming; the two main sources of food were cow's milk. In the early Bronze Age, arable land spread at the expense of forest, but towards the end of the period there is evidence of the abandonment of farming in the uplands and deterioration of soils. From the Iron Age, hill forts in southern Scotland are associated with cultivation ridges and terraces. Souterrains, small underground constructions, may have been for storing perishable agricultural products.
Extensive prehistoric field systems underlie existing boundaries in some Lowland areas, suggesting that the fertile plains were densely exploited for agriculture. During the period of Roman occupation of Britain there was re-growth of birch and hazel indicating a reduction in agriculture. Scotland is half the size of England and Wales and has the same amount of coastline, but only between a fifth and a sixth of the amount of the arable or good pastoral land, under 60 metres above sea level, most of this is located in the south and east; this made fishing, the key factors in the pre-modern economy. Its east Atlantic position means that it has heavy rainfall: today about 700 cm per year in the east and over 1,000 cm in the west; this encouraged the spread of blanket peat bog, the acidity of which, combined with high level of wind and salt spray, made most of the western islands treeless. The existence of hills, mountains and marshes made agriculture and internal communication difficult. At times during the last interglacial period Europe had a climate warmer than it is today, early humans may have made their way to Scotland, though archaeologists have found no traces of this.
Glaciers scoured their way across most of Britain, only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BCE. Mesolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, archaeologists have dated an encampment near Biggar to around 8500 BCE. Numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of mobile boat-using people making tools from bone and antlers; the oldest house for which there is evidence in Britain is the oval structure of wooden posts found at South Queensferry near the Firth of Forth, dating from the Mesolithic period, about 8240 BCE. From the Neolithic period, beginning around 6,000 years ago, there is evidence of permanent settlements and farming; this includes the settlement at Dunning in Perthshire, dating from 3800–3700 BCE, which includes faint plough marks made by a hand-held scratch plough known as an ard, which does not turn over the soil. There is the well-preserved stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray, dating from around 3500 BCE and the village of similar houses at Skara Brae on West Mainland, Orkney from about 500 years later.
Evidence of prehistoric farming includes small plots of improved land, with simple stone boundaries. On Shetland these have been found under peat and on the mainland they are associated with cairnfields, piles of rocks that have been cleared from fields. There was removal of oak-birch woodland in areas of good coastal or river access where archaeological remains from the period are most abundant through livestock grasing. Archaeological evidence of pollen, pottery and human remains, indicates that the two main sources of food were grain and cow's milk, in a pattern that remained constant until the High Middle Ages. There is some limited evidence of the cultivation of flax from this period. From the beginning of the Bronze Age, about 2000 BCE, extensive analyses of Black Loch in Fife indicate that arable land spread at the expense of forest; the oak-birch woodlands were eroded in the more accessible areas of the uplands by seasonal grazing of livestock and through some use of slash and burn and woodcutting methods of clearance.
However, towards the end of the period, pollen analyses indicate that climate deterioration meant that arable farming was abandoned at upland sites and there were increases in the intensity of anthropogenic impacts at lowland sites, of agriculture leading to changes in the structure of soils. Traditionally this was seen as leading to the abandonment of intensive agriculture, but more recent studies have indicated that it was possible to renew and maintain the fertility of soils. There is scattered evidence of field systems in this period, with extensive walls in some areas, suggesting pastoral agriculture. Excavations like that at the Scord of Brouster field-system, with its enclosing walls, low lynchets and clearance heaps, suggests that it was part of a larger enclosed landscape. A rig discovered at North Mains indicates that there may have been ridged field surfaces that have been eroded by agricultural activity. Key arable crops included flax. Oats grew as wild grass. From the Iron Age, beginning in the seventh century BCE, as elsewhere in Europe, hill forts were first introduced.
Some of these forts in southern Scotland are associated with cultivation terraces. Over 400 souterrains, small underground constructions, have been discovered in Scotland, many of them in the south-east, and
Prehistoric art in Scotland
Prehistoric art in Scotland is visual art created or found within the modern borders of Scotland, before the departure of the Romans from southern and central Britain in the early fifth century CE, seen as the beginning of the early historic or Medieval era. There is no clear definition of prehistoric art among scholars and objects that may involve creativity lack a context that would allow them to be understood; the earliest examples of portable art from what is now Scotland are decorated carved stone balls from the Neolithic period, which share patterns with Irish and Scottish stone carvings. Other items from this period include elaborate carved maceheads and figurines from Links of Noltland, including the Westray Wife, the earliest known depiction of a human face from Scotland. From the Bronze Age there are examples of carvings, including the first representations of objects, cup and ring marks. Representations of an axe and a boat at the Ri Cruin Cairn in Kilmartin, a boat pecked into Wemyss Cave, are the oldest two-dimensional representations of real objects that survive in Scotland.
Elaborate carved. Surviving metalwork includes gold lunula or neckplates, jet beaded necklaces and elaborate weaponry, such as leaf swords and ceremonial shields of sheet bronze. From the Iron Age there are more extensive examples of gold work. Evidence of the wider La Tène culture Horns; the Stirling torcs demonstrate common styles found in Scotland and Ireland and continental workmanship. One of the most impressive items from this period is the boar's head fragment of the Deskford carnyx. From the first century CE, as Rome carried out a series of occupations, there are Roman artifacts like the Cramond Lioness and Roman influence on material culture can be seen in local stone carvings; the ability to study prehistoric art is dependent on surviving artifacts. Art created in mediums such as sand, bark and textiles has not endured, while less-perishable materials, such as rock, bone, ivory pottery and metal, are more to be extant. Whether all these artifacts can be defined as works of art is contested between scholars.
Alexander Marshack argued that the earliest, non-representational incisions on rock mark the beginnings of human art. More cautiously, Paul Mellars suggests that the relative rarity of these works means they cannot be seen as integral to early human society and evidence of an artistic culture. Colin Renfrew has pointed out the dangers of applying modern values of art to past societies and cultures. Günter Berghaus argues that these works have been approached with a set of post-Renaissance aesthetic values that distinguish between artists and craftsman and art and artifact, although these categories are not universal and may be inappropriate for understanding prehistoric society. Duncan Garrow has pointed to the difficulties of the modern distinction drawn between form and decoration; the emphasis in studies of prehistoric art tend to be placed on decoration in objects such as ceramics and ignores the importance of form, found in objects such as weapons. Many meanings have been suggested for the nature of prehistoric art.
It may have helped develop human solidarity in its early stages. Open air rock art may have acted as signposts for the route of animal migrations. Cave art may have had a ritual role in rites of vision quests or totemic ceremonies. Portable objects may have acted as notation systems and anthropomorphic figures may have had a role in religious rituals. However, most artifacts can only be understood in their context, lost or poorly understood. Scotland was occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from around 8500 BCE, who were mobile boat-using people making tools from bone and antlers. Neolithic farming brought permanent settlements, like the stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray, dating from around 3500 BCE; the settlers introduced chambered cairn tombs, as at Maeshowe, the many standing stones and circles such as those at Stenness on the mainland of Orkney, which dates from about 3100 BCE, similar stones to which are found across Europe from about the same time. There is no surviving art from the Mesolithic period in Scotland because the mobile peoples of the period would have made this on perishable organic items.
The oldest surviving portable visual art from Scotland are carved stone balls, or petrospheres, that date from the late Neolithic era. They are a uniquely Scottish phenomenon, with over 425 known examples. Most are from modern Aberdeenshire, but a handful of examples are known from Iona, Harris, Lewis, Hawick and fifteen from Orkney, five of which were found at the Neolithic village of Skara Brae. Many functions have been suggested for these objects, most indicating that they were prestigious and powerful possessions, their production may have continued into the Iron Age. The complex carved circles and spirals on these balls can be seen mirrored in the carving on what was a lintel from a chambered cairn at Pierowall on Westray, which seem to be part of the same culture that produced carvings at Newgrange in Ireland. Elaborately carved maceheads are found in burial sites, like that found at Airdens in Sutherland, which has a pattern of interlocking diamond-shaped facets, similar to those found across Neolithic Britain and Europe.
Pottery appeared in the Neolithic period once hunters and gatherers transitioned to a sedentary lifestyle, until they needed to use lightweight, mobile containers. Finely made and decorated Unstan ware, survives from the fourth and third millen
The Maeatae were a confederation of tribes who lived beyond the Antonine Wall in Roman Britain. The historical sources are vague as to the exact region they inhabited, though an association is thought to be indicated in the names of two hills with fortifications. Near the summit of Dumyat hill in the Ochils, overlooking Stirling, there are remains of a fort and the name of the hill is believed to derive from name meaning the hill of the Maeatae; this prominent hill fort may have marked their northern boundary, while Myot Hill near Fankerton plausibly marks their southern limits. A discussion of two views of the importance of Dumyat and Myot Hill is given in Wainwright; as for the tribes themselves Dio quoted by Joseph Ritson and others describes them in detail although some of the descriptions look suspicious to the modern eye. John Rhys seems convinced that they occupied the land between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Tay or parts of what is now Clackmannanshire and Stirlingshire, he suggests that the Isle of May might derive its name from the tribe.
Dio mentions the Maeatae were between the wall and the Caledonians but there is some dispute over whether he is referring to Antonine's Wall or Hadrian's Wall. Alexander del Mar says no-one knows the identity of the Maeatae but he mentions that some authorities think they may have had a Norse origin, they appear to have come together as a result of treaties struck between the Roman Empire and the various frontier tribes in the 180s AD under the governorship of Ulpius Marcellus. Virius Lupus is recorded as being obliged to buy peace from the Maeatae at the end of the second century. In 210 AD they began a serious revolt against the Roman Empire, a bloody affair on both sides. Another revolt took place the following year. In 213 AD, Joseph Ritson records them receiving money from the Romans to keep the peace; the Miathi, mentioned in Adomnán's Life of Columba to be identified with the Southern Picts, have been posited as the same group, their identity surviving in some form as late as the 6th or 7th centuries AD
A chambered cairn is a burial monument constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a sizeable chamber around and over which a cairn of stones was constructed. Some chambered cairns are passage-graves, they are found with the largest number in Scotland. The chamber is larger than a cist, will contain a larger number of interments, which are either excarnated bones or inhumations. Most were situated near a settlement, served as that community's "graveyard". During the early Neolithic architectural forms are regionalised with timber and earth monuments predominating in the east and stone-chambered cairns in the west. During the Neolithic massive circular enclosures and the use of grooved ware and Unstan ware pottery emerge. Scotland has a large number of chambered cairns. Along with the excavations of settlements such as Skara Brae, Links of Noltland, Barnhouse and Balfarg and the complex site at Ness of Brodgar these cairns provide important clues to the character of civilization in Scotland in the Neolithic.
However the increasing use of cropmarks to identify Neolithic sites in lowland areas has tended to diminish the relative prominence of these cairns. In the early phases bones of numerous bodies are found together and it has been argued that this suggests that in death at least, the status of individuals was played down. During the late Neolithic henge sites were constructed and single burials began to become more commonplace; the Clyde or Clyde-Carlingford type are principally found in northern and western Ireland and southwestern Scotland. They first were identified as a separate group in the Firth of Clyde region, hence the name. Over 100 have been identified in Scotland alone. Lacking a significant passage, they are a form of gallery grave; the burial chamber is located at one end of a rectangular or trapezoidal cairn, while a roofless, semi-circular forecourt at the entrance provided access from the outside, gives this type of chambered cairn its alternate name of court tomb or court cairn.
These forecourts are fronted by large stones and it is thought the area in front of the cairn was used for public rituals of some kind. The chambers were created from large stones set on end, roofed with large flat stones and sub-divided by slabs into small compartments, they are considered to be the earliest in Scotland. Examples include Cairn Holy I and Cairn Holy II near Newton Stewart, a cairn at Port Charlotte, which dates to 3900–4000 BC, Monamore, or Meallach's Grave, which may date from the early fifth millennium BC; the Orkney-Cromarty group is by far most diverse. It has been subdivided into Yarrows and Cromarty subtypes but the differences are subtle; the design is of dividing slabs at either side of a rectangular chamber, separating it into compartments or stalls. The number of these compartments ranges from 4 in the earliest examples to over 24 in an extreme example on Orkney; the actual shape of the cairn varies from simple circular designs to elaborate'forecourts' protruding from each end, creating what look like small amphitheatres.
It is that these are the result of cultural influences from mainland Europe, as they are similar to designs found in France and Spain. Examples include Midhowe on Rousay and Unstan Chambered Cairn from the Orkney Mainland, both of which date from the mid 4th millennium BC and were in use over long periods of time; when the latter was excavated in 1884, grave goods were found that gave their name to Unstan ware pottery. Blackhammer cairn on Rousay is another example dating from the 3rd millennium BC; the Grey Cairns of Camster in Caithness are examples of this type from mainland Scotland. The Tomb of the Eagles on South Ronaldsay is a stalled cairn that shows some similarities with the Maeshowe type, it was in use for 800 years or more and numerous bird bones were found here, predominantly white-tailed sea eagle. The Maeshowe group, named after the famous Orkney monument, is among the most elaborate, they appear late and only in Orkney and it is not clear why the use of cairns continued in the north when their construction had ceased elsewhere in Scotland.
They consist of a central chamber from which lead small compartments, into which burials would be placed. The central chambers are tall and steep-sided and have corbelled roofing faced with high quality stone. In addition to Maeshowe itself, constructed c. 2700 BC, there are various other examples from the Orkney Mainland. These include Quanterness chambered cairn in which the remains of 157 individuals were found when excavated in the 1970s, Cuween Hill near Finstown, found to contain the bones of men and oxen and Wideford Hill cairn, which dates from 2000 BC. Examples from elsewhere in Orkney are the Vinquoy cairn, found at an elevated location on the north end of the island of Eday and Quoyness on Sanday constructed about 2900 BC and, surrounded by an arc of Bronze Age mounds; the central chamber of Holm of Papa Westray South cairn is over 20 metres long. The Bookan type is named after a cairn found to the north-west of the Ring of Brodgar in Orkney, now a dilapidated oval mound, about 16 metres in diameter.
Excavations in 1861 indicated a rectangular central chamber surrounded by five smaller chambers. Because of the structure's unusual design, it was originall
Durrington Walls is the site of a large Neolithic settlement and henge enclosure located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site. It lies 2 miles north-east of Stonehenge in the parish of Durrington, just north of Amesbury. Between 2004 and 2006, excavations on the site by a team led by the University of Sheffield revealed seven houses, it has been suggested that the settlement may have had up to 1000 houses and 4,000 people, if the entire enclosed area was used. The period of settlement was about 500 years, starting sometime between c.2800 and 2100 BC. It may have been the largest village in northern Europe for a brief period. At 500 metres in diameter, the henge is the largest in Britain and recent evidence suggests that it was a complementary monument to Stonehenge; the name comes from the civil parish in which the site is located – Durrington, meaning "the farm of doers people", the large henge banks that surround it. The "Dur" prefix is found in this region of England. D. Also, Dorchester was Durnovaria, smaller cities and locations are found in this region.
What visibly remains of Durrington Walls today is the'walls' of the henge monument – in fact the eroded remains of the inner slope of the bank and the outer slope of the internal ditch. This now appears as a ridge surrounding a central basin. On the eastern side the separate ditch and bank are much more discernible although badly eroded by ploughing; the ditch was some 5.5 metres deep, 7 metres wide at its bottom and 18 metres wide at the top. The bank was in some areas 30 metres wide. There were two entrances through the bank and ditch -- at south eastern ends. There may have been an entrance to the south and the north east, although these may have been deliberately blocked; the henge enclosed several timber circles and smaller enclosures – not all of which have been excavated. Several Neolithic house floors have been found next to and under the eastern bank of the henge, their density suggests that there was a large village on the sloping river bank on this side. The henge sits on high ground that slopes south east toward a bend in the River Avon, is thus higher at its north western side than at its south eastern edge.
The south eastern entrance is 60 metres from the riverbank. The henge has two roads passing through it – an old toll road, a modern banked road constructed in 1967. In the past military barracks were constructed at the north eastern end of the henge, some houses are constructed on the western bank; the land on the western side of the toll road is owned by the National Trust, forming part of its Stonehenge Landscape property. It has free entry. Although there is evidence of some early Neolithic activity at the site, most of the structures seem to have been built in the late Neolithic/early Bronze Age. At some point c. 2600 BC, a large timber circle was constructed. It is now known as the Southern Circle; the circle was oriented southeast towards the sunrise on the midwinter solstice and consisted of four large concentric circles of postholes, which would have held large standing timbers. A paved avenue was constructed on a different alignment – towards the sunset on the summer solstice – that led to the River Avon.
This feature is similar to the Stonehenge Avenue. A large timber post lay on this orientation, about as far away from the circle as the Heelstone is from Stonehenge. At a similar time, but after the circle and avenue were constructed, a village began to develop around the site. Excavations have revealed seven Neolithic house floors on the eastern side of the bank; some of these floors were located underneath the henge bank. The density of some of the houses suggests that there are many more house floors under the field east of the henge, along the banks of the River Avon. One of the homes excavated showed evidence of a cobb wall and its own ancillary building, was similar in layout to a house at Skara Brae in Orkney; the other houses seem to have had simple daub walls. Evidence suggests that the houses continued to the north of the site, it is probable that the village surrounded a large, open area that contained the Southern Circle and several smaller enclosures. A geophysical survey of the area 200 metres west of the Southern Circle, known as the western enclosures, showed "a group of at least six penannular structures...arranged around a terrace overlooking the timber circle and the eastern entrance".
An excavation revealed two houses set within timber palisades and ditched enclosures that appear to have been kept clean. These might have been shrines, cult-houses or spirit lodges. Julian Thomas notes that " Overall, the evidence from the internal structures at Durrington Walls does not show that this was a ‘ritual site’, for there is no such thing. There are sites at which ritual has taken place, at Durrington a variety of acts of various degrees of ritualization, from formal rites to habitual practices, were woven into a complicated history, marking moments of crisis and daily routine." Sometime perhaps 200 years after the circle was first constructed, another two concentric rings were added, the henge enclosure was constructed. A ditch some 5.5 m deep was dug, the earth used to create a large outer bank some 30 m wide and several metres high. Several features of the village, including houses and midden pits, were built over
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county; the county of Cumbria consists of six districts and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2. Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, to the east by County Durham and Northumberland. Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists and musicians.
A large area of the southeast of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet being the highest point of England. An upland and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall; the county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire were added. During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production, products of which have been found across Great Britain. During this period stone circles and henges began to be built across the county and today'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'.
While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in 43 AD, most of modern-day Cumbria was conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in 69 AD. The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria. At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria; the names Cumbria, Cymru and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which meant "compatriots". Although Cumbria was believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this.
For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was incorporated into England; the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, two further sieges during the Jacobite risings. After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow developing a significant shipbuilding industry.
Kendal and Carlisle all became mill town, with textiles and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region; the children's writer Beatrix Potter wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county; the county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire referred to as "Lancashire North of