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Gropecunt Lane

Gropecunt Lane was a street name found in English towns and cities during the Middle Ages, believed to be a reference to the prostitution centred on those areas. Gropecunt, the earliest known use of, in about 1230, appears to have been derived as a compound of the words grope and cunt. Streets with that name were in the busiest parts of medieval towns and cities, at least one appears to have been an important thoroughfare. Although the name was once common throughout England, changes in attitude resulted in its replacement by more innocuous versions such as Grape Lane. A variation of Gropecunt was last recorded as a street name in 1561. Variations include Gropecunte, Gropecontelane and Gropekuntelane. There were once many such street names in England. In the city of York, for instance, Grapcunt Lane—grāp is the Old English word for grope—was renamed as the more acceptable Grape Lane; the first record of the word grope being used in the sense of sexual touching appears in 1380. Under its entry for the word cunt, the Oxford English Dictionary reports that a street was listed as Gropecuntlane in about 1230, the first appearance of that name.

According to author Angus McIntyre, organised prostitution was well established in London by the middle of the 12th century mainly confined to Southwark in the southeast, but spreading to other areas such as Smithfield, Shoreditch and Westminster. The practice was tolerated by the authorities, there are many historical examples of it being dealt with by regulation rather than by censure: in 1393 the authorities in London allowed prostitutes to work only in Cokkes Lane and in 1285 French prostitutes in Montpellier were confined to a single street, it was normal practice for medieval street names to reflect their function, or the economic activity taking place within them, hence the frequency of names such as The Shambles, Silver Street, Fish Street, Swinegate in cities with a medieval history. Prostitution may well have been a normal aspect of medieval urban life; the more graphic Gropecunt Lane, however, is the most obvious allusion to sexual activity. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word cunt as "The female external genital organs" and notes "Its currency is restricted in the manner of other taboo-words: see the small-type note s.v.

FUCK v." During the Middle Ages the word may have been considered vulgar, having been in common use in its anatomical sense since at least the 13th century. In The Miller's Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer writes "And prively he caughte hire by the queynte", Philotus mentions "put doun thy hand and graip hir cunt." Though the word became used more as the obscenity it is considered to be today. In John Garfield's Wandring Whore II the word is applied to a woman a whore—"this is none of your pittiful Sneakesbyes and Raskalls that will offer a sturdy C— but eighteen pence or two shillings, repent of the business afterwards". Francis Grose's A Classical Dictionary of The Vulgar Tongue lists the word as "C**t; the chonnos of the Greek, the cunnus of the Latin dictionaries. Although some medieval street names such as Addle Street and Fetter Lane have survived, others have been changed in deference to contemporary attitudes. Sherborne Lane in London was in 1272–73 known as Shitteborwelane Shite-burn lane and Shite-buruelane.

Pissing Alley, one of several identically named streets whose names survived the Great Fire of London, was called Little Friday Street in 1848, before being absorbed into Cannon Street in 1853–54. Petticoat Lane, the meaning of, sometimes misinterpreted as related to prostitution, was in 1830 renamed as Middlesex Street, following complaints about the street being named after an item of underwear. More Rillington Place, where John Christie murdered his victims, was renamed Ruston Close. Selous Street in London was renamed as a mark of respect for Nelson Mandela, as it may have been perceived to have been named in honour of the colonialist Frederick Selous, although it was named after the artist Henry Courtney Selous; as the most ubiquitous and explicit example of such street names, with the exception of Shrewsbury and Newcastle the use of Gropecunt seems to have fallen out of favour by the 14th century. Its steady disappearance from the English vernacular may have been the result of a gradual cleaning-up of the name.

The ruling Protestant conservative elite's growing hostility to prostitution during the 16th century resulted in the closure of the Southwark stews in 1546, replacing earlier attempts at regulation. London had several streets named Gropecunt Lane including one in the parishes of St Pancras, Soper Lane and St Mary Colechurch, between Bordhawelane and Puppekirty Lane near present-day Cheapside. First recorded in 1279 as Gropecontelane and Groppecountelane, it was part of a collection of streets


A Kunstgewerbeschule was a type of vocational arts school that existed in German-speaking countries from the mid-19th century. The term Werkkunstschule was used for these schools. From the 1920s and after World War II, most of them either merged into universities or closed, although some continued until the 1970s. Students started at these schools from the ages of 16 to 20 years old, although sometimes as young as 14, undertook a four-year course, in which they were given a general education and learnt specific arts and craft skills such as weaving, painting, etc; some of the most well known artists of the period had been Kunstgewerbeschule students, including Anni Albers, Peter Behrens, René Burri, Otto Dix, Horst P. Horst, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele and Oskar Schlemmer. Many students accepted into the renowned Bauhaus art school had studied at Kunstgewerbeschulen. In order of date opened: Wien; the Kunstgewerbeschule Wien became a higher education institute in 1941, became the University of Applied Arts Vienna in 1999.

Its main building was designed in 1877. The school was affiliated with the Imperial Royal Austrian Museum of Art and Industry, now the Museum of Applied Arts, known as MAK, founded in 1863. Notable alumni of the Kunstgewerbeschule include Oskar Kokoschka. Berlin. Berlin had two Kunstgewerbeschulen; the teaching institute of the Berlin Museum of Applied Arts, opened on 12 January 1868. The museum itself was founded in 1866 as an initiative of a private museum association; the school was set up to provide an alternative to academic arts training. From 1881 the school was based in the museum's Martin-Gropius-Bau building in Niederkirchnerstraße in Kreuzberg. In 1885 the Prussian state took over its affiliated school. In 1924, the school was separated from the museum and merged with the Hochschule für die Bildenden Künste, to become the Vereinigten Staatsschulen für Freie und Angewandte Kunst, it is one of the predecessors of the Hochschule der Künste Berlin, founded in 1975, which since 2001 has been the Universität der Künste Berlin.

The other Berlin Kunstgewerbeschule, founded in 1899, was integrated into what is now UdK, see below. The Reimann School in Berlin, founded in 1902, was a vocational arts school, but it was funded, rather than being a state-funded Kunstgewerbeschule. München The Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule München was renamed the Staatsschule für angewandte Kunst in 1928, in 1937 renamed again as the Akademie für angewandte Kunst. In 1946 it was incorporated into the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München. Kassel; the school grew from an art academy founded in 1777 and was established as the Werkkunstschule on 24 May 1869. It closed at the beginning of World War II and its premises were used as a military hospital, which stopped operating in May 1943 due to flood damage caused by the bombing of the Edersee Dam, of the Dam Busters fame; the school reopened under the name Schule für Handwerk und Kunst in 1946. After various name changes and changes of premises this merged into the Kunsthochschule Kassel in 1970, which, in 1971, became a faculty of the University of Kassel.

Stuttgart. The school was called the Württembergische staatliche Kunstgewerbeschule. In 1946 it became the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart. Kaiserslautern; the school was founded as the Pfälzische kunstgewerbliche Fachschule in 1874, along with the Königliche Kreisbaugewerkschule. About 1938 both schools merged to become the present day Meisterschule für Handwerker Kaiserslautern. Dresden, it was founded as the Königlich-Sächsische Kunstgewerbeschule. It became the Akademie für Kunstgewerbe in 1921, merged with the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts in 1950 to become the present day Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden. Leipzig; the Königliche Kunstakademie und Kunstgewerbeschule was established in 1876, from the earlier Zeichnungs-, Malerey- und Architectur-Academie, founded in 1764. The writer Johann Wolfgang Goethe a law student, started attending drawing classes there from Autumn 1765. From 1900 the school was called the Königliche Akademie für graphische Künste und Buchgewerbe.

After World War II, in 1947, it became the Akademie für Graphik und Buchkunst - staatliche Kunsthochschule, in 1950 the Hochschule für Graphik und Buchkunst. Today it is known as the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst / Academy of Fine Arts Leipzig. Breslau; the Königlichen Kunst und Kunstgewerbeschule Breslau, founded in 1876 in what was Prussia. It had its origins in the provincial art school, Provinzialkunstschule, founded in 1791; this became the Königlichen Kunst- Bau- und Handwerkerschule in 1816. From 1911 it was the de:Staatliche Akademie für Kunst und Kunstgewerbe Breslau, it was closed on 1 April 1932 in the wake of an emergency decree issued under Article 43 of the Weimar Constitution. A new art school, now called the Eugeniusz Geppert Ac

Kyiv-Pasazhyrskyi Railway Station

Kyiv-Pasazhyrskyi is a railway station in the capital of Ukraine, Kiev. It is a big complex and railway hub consisting of several railroad station buildings and other railroad infrastructure such as the Kiev Electrical and Railcar Maintenance Factory; the station is located on so called Kiev Southern Railway loop. Serving more than 170,000 passengers per day, station contains several buildings; the Central Station building connected with the Southern Station building by overpass is the main feature of the railway station. The station complex thus provides long-distance and international services, short-distance service for suburbs, minor city stations, nearby regions; the Kiev Metro station Vokzalna adjoins the complex, constituting the station's main intersection with city transport. The Kiev tram terminal Starovokzal'na is adjacent via a passageway; the old Kiev railroad station was constructed during 1868-1870, as a part of Kiev-Balta and Kiev-Kursk railroad constructions, which were completed in 1870.

The station was located in a valley of Lybid' river. The two-floor brick station building of Old English Gothic style was by the architect М. V. Vyshnevetskyi; the current Central Station building was designed by O. Verbytskyi, it was built in the style of Ukrainian Baroque with some elements of Constructivism. The Central Station building is designated as the Landmark of Architecture, numbered 193; the equipment and interior of the hall of deputies of the Supreme Council at the station was made by the architect Irma Karakis. In 2001, the building was restored to its original state. In the same year, the new modern "Southern Station" building was erected at the opposite side of Central Station's sixteen tracks, being in reality not a separate station but another large entranceway to the Central Station, with new ticket windows and linked by a hallway above the track accesses. Both buildings are connected with an overpass for passengers; the renovation project included two large underground parking structures, one of which remains uncompleted to the date.

The construction of the southern station building was done on efforts of Heorhiy Kirpa. Kiev-Pasazhyrskyi railway station is regarded as the whole huge complex of passenger terminals, depots etc. with respective personnel. Such installations in post-Soviet countries are known as railroad vokzals, which means the building and services serving passengers for various types of transport; the official name Kiev-Pasazhyrskyi is not used colloquially, appearing only in tickets, schedules etc. By the same token, the locally popular terms "Central Station" and "Southern Station" do not appear in such technical literature, as for internal purposes they are treated as the same location; the name Kiev-Pasazhyrskyi is used to differentiate it from other railway stations across the city such as Kiev-Volynsky, Kiev-Demiivskii, Kiev-Tovarny, others. The station is overloaded with suburban traffic, intercity traffic, subway traffic. Relief plans include: Upgrading Darnytsia station to make it a second long-distance passenger station, serving the Left-Bank of the city Construction of a second surface entrance for the Vokzalna metro station, the most overloaded station of the metro system.

Extension of the Podilsko-Vyhurivska Metro Line, now under construction on the banks of Dineper river, to the Vokzalna metro station. Ukrzaliznytsia - the national railway company of Ukraine

An Inch of Gold for an Inch of Time

An Inch of Gold for an Inch of Time is the 2005 release by American mathcore band The Number Twelve Looks Like You. It was their first release through Eyeball Records; this EP contains two re-recorded songs from their 2003 album Put On Your Rosy Red Glasses, which are "Don't Get Blood on My Prada Shoes" and "Jesus and Tori". It contains two early versions of songs that would be included on their second full-length album Nuclear. Sad. Nuclear. Which are "Like a Cat" and "Clarissa Explains Cuntainment"; the final track on the EP is a cover of The Knack's hit signature song "My Sharona". "Clarissa Explains Cuntainment" – 2:26 "Don't Get Blood on My Prada Shoes" – 1:25 "Like a Cat" – 3:24 "Jesus and Tori" – 3:25 "My Sharona" – 3:17 The Number Twelve Looks Like YouJesse Korman – vocals Justin Pedrick – vocals Alexis Pareja – guitar Jamie Mcilroy – guitar Michael Smagula – bass guitar Christopher Conger – drums, other percussionProductionDan Coutant – engineer, mixer The Number Twelve Looks Like You – producer

David Robinson (photographer)

David Robinson is a British photographer and author. Preoccupied with the landscape of leisure he is best known as the creator of Golfers and Lee Valley Leisure. Robinson was born in Northern Ireland, he attended Portora Royal School. Preoccupied with the landscape of leisure he is best known as the creator of Golfers and Lee Valley Leisure, he has worked commercially throughout his career, creating images for Penguin books, Polydor, EMI, Adobe and editorially, working for The Guardian, The Independent and The Daily Telegraph. Robinson was commissioned by Penguin to photograph the dub-reggae poet Linton Kwesi Johnson for the cover of his 2001 modern classics book Mi Revalueshanary Fren. Robinson has created images of The Divine Comedy for their album Regeneration and for recent releases by Guillemots. In 2007, he featured in the BBC 4 series Britain in Pictures in which he was filmed whilst photographing ballrooms and other inspirational buildings in the province where he grew up. In 2012, Robinson created a children's book titled The Mushroom Picker, using an experimental'luminogram' process that produces "beautifully intricate, playful and at times surreal" images which "evoke other worlds, full of magic, menace and a mischievous sense of humour."Robinson's images have been exhibited in the UK and beyond, featured in the US touring show Picturing Eden, initiated by George Eastman House in Rochester, curated by Deborah Klochko.

A book of the exhibition is published by Steidl. In 2014, Robinson collaborated with Gorilla Perfume / Lush, creating a Luminogram to help promote'Mycelium', one of their newly released fragrances, he featured on The Food ProgrammeBBC Radio 4 discussing his artistic practice and Sporeboys, the Street food kitchen that he co-founded in 2005. Penny Bun Helps Save the World, published by GOST is the sequel to The Mushroom Picker and employs the same visual style. An illustrated book for all ages, it tells the story of a gang of mushrooms and their attempt to save the forest; the protagonist of the fungi tale is Penny Bun, whose forest home is under threat from developers who wish to destroy the fragile ecosystem that supports mushroom and human life. The story is told through analogue luminograms which Robinson creates by placing on photographic paper on the plate of an enlarger and exposed to different light intensities; each exposure produces a unique print, shaped the interplay of light and texture of the mushrooms.

Golfers. Glass, 2000. ISBN 0-9539587-0-1. Wonderland. GenerationYacht, 2003. ISBN 0-9545969-0-0. Lee Valley Leisure. GenerationYacht, 2005. ISBN 0-9545969-1-9; the Extreme Golf Handbook. Barrons, 2005. Picturing Eden. Göttingen: Steidl, 2006. OCLC 607780029. With an introduction by Anthony Bannon and an essay by Deborah Klochko; the Mushroom Picker: Penny Buns Great Escape. Violette Editions, 2012. ISBN 978-1-900828-41-3 OCLC 1008258555 Penny Bun Helps Save the World. GOST, 2018 ISBN 978-1-910401-24-8. Wonderland – Photofusion, London, 2003. Ireland, 2003 Computer Portraits – Old Museum Arts Centre, Belfast, N. Ireland, 2003 Golfscapes – Clotworthy Arts Centre, Antrim, N. Ireland, 2003 Picturing Eden – Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, 2007 Official website The Mushroom Picker at Violette Editions The Food Programme – Mushrooms BBC Radio 4 Britain in Pictures BBC 4

Giordano Bruno (film)

Giordano Bruno is a 1973 Italian biographical-drama film directed by Giuliano Montaldo. The film chronicles the last years of life of the philosopher Giordano Bruno from 1592 to his execution in 1600. Gian Maria Volonté: Giordano Bruno Charlotte Rampling: Fosca Renato Scarpa: Fra' Tragagliolo Mathieu Carrière: Orsini Hans Christian Blech: Sartori Giuseppe Maffioli: Arsenalotto Mark Burns: Bellarmino Massimo Foschi: Fra Celestino Paolo Bonacelli José Quaglio Corrado Gaipa Giordano Bruno on IMDb