Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket. In American English, the equivalent term, tuxedo, is common; the dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie an evening waist coat or a cummerbund, black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn; the dinner jacket evolved in late 19th century out of the smoking jacket – 19th century informal evening wear without tails designated for more comfortable tobacco smoking – following the first documented example in 1865 of the Prince of Wales King Edward VII.
Thus in many non-English languages, it is known as a "smoking". In American English, its synonym "tuxedo" was derived from the town of Tuxedo Park in New York State, where it was first introduced in 1886 following the example of Europeans. Traditionally worn only for events after 6 p.m. black tie is less formal than white tie but more formal than informal or business dress. As semi-formal, black tie are worn for dinner parties and sometimes to balls and weddings, although etiquette experts discourage wearing of black tie for weddings. Traditional semi-formal day wear. Supplementary semi-formal alternatives may be accepted for black tie: military uniform, religious clothing, folk costumes, etc. Dinner jacket in the context of menswear first appeared in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland around 1887 and in the United States of America around 1889. In the 1960s it became associated in the United States with colored jackets specifically. Tuxedo in the context of menswear originated in the US around 1888.
It was named after Tuxedo Park, a Hudson Valley enclave for New York's social elite where it was seen in its early years. The term was capitalized until the 1930s and traditionally referred only to a white jacket; when the jacket was paired with its own unique trousers and accessories in the 1900s the term began to be associated with the entire suit. In French, Catalan, German, Russian, Spanish and other European languages the style is referred to with the pseudo-anglicism smoking; this generic colloquialism is a false friend deriving from its similarity with the 19th century smoking jacket. In French the dress code may be called "cravate noire," a term, sometimes adopted directly into English; the suit with accompanying accessories is sometimes nicknamed a monkey suit and, since 1918, soup and fish - a term derived from the sort of food thought to be served at black tie dinners. In the 1860s, the increasing popularity of outdoor activities among the middle and upper classes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland led to a corresponding increase in the popularity of the casual lounge suit as a country alternative to the more formal day wear frock coat, traditionally worn in town.
Men sought a similar alternative to the formal evening tailcoat worn every evening. The earliest record of a tailless coat being worn with evening wear is a 1865 midnight blue smoking jacket in silk with matching trousers ordered by the Prince of Wales from Savile Row tailors Henry Poole & Co; the smoking jacket was tailored for use at the Prince's informal country estate. Henry Poole never saw his design become known as a dinner jacket or cross the Atlantic and be called a tuxedo over there. Other accounts of the Prince's experimentation appear around 1885 variously referring to "a garment of many colours, such as was worn by our ancestors" and "short garments coming down to the waist and made on the model of the military men's jackets"; the garment as we know it was first described around the same time and associated with Cowes, a seaside resort in southern England and centre of British yachting, associated with the Prince. It was intended for warm weather use but soon spread to informal or stag winter occasions.
As it was an evening tailcoat substitute, it was worn with all the same accoutrements as the tailcoat, including the trousers. As such, in these early days, black tie was considered informal wear. In the following decades of the Victorian era, the style became known as a dinner jacket: a fashionable, formal alternative for the tailcoat which men of the upper classes wore every evening, thus it was worn with the standard accompaniments for the evening tailcoat at the time: matching trousers, white or black waistcoat, white bow tie, white detachable wing-collar formal shirt and black formal shoes. Lapels were faced or edged in silk or satin in varying widths. In comparison with full dress, etiquette guides declared dinner jacket inappropriate for wear in mixed company, meaning together with ladies. During the Edwardian era, the practice of wearing a black waistcoat and black bow tie with a dinner jacket became the convention, esta
A top hat, beaver hat, high hat, silk hat, cylinder hat, chimney pot hat or stove pipe hat, sometimes known by the nickname "topper", is a tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, worn by men from the latter part of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century. By the end of World War II, it had become a rarity in ordinary dress, though it continued to be worn in specific instances, such as state funerals by those occupying prominent positions in the Bank of England, by certain City stock exchange officials and when passing between the Law Courts and Lincoln's Inn, London by judges of the Chancery Division and Queen's Counsel; as of the early 21st century, top hats are still worn at some society events in the UK, notably at church weddings and racing meetings attended by members of the royal family, such as Royal Ascot. They remain part of the formal uniform of certain British institutions, such as the boy-choristers of King's College Choir, they are worn with morning dress or white tie, in dressage, as part of servants' or doormen's livery.
The top hat was associated with the upper class, was used by satirists and social critics as a symbol of capitalism or the world of business. The use of the top hat persisted in politics and international diplomacy for many years, including at U. S. presidential inaugurations, the last being worn at the inauguration of John Fitzgerald Kennedy in 1961. The top hat forms part of the traditional dress of Uncle Sam, a symbol of the United States striped in red and blue; the top hat is associated with stage magic, both in traditional costume and the use of hat tricks. One such trick involving a top hat is the famous "Pulling a Rabbit out of a Hat" trick. Instances of this trick date back to Louis Comte who performed the trick in 1814. According to fashion historians, the top hat may have descended directly from the sugarloaf hat. Gentlemen began to replace the tricorne with the top hat at the end of the 18th century; the first silk top hat in England is credited to George Dunnage, a hatter from Middlesex, in 1793.
The invention of the top hat is erroneously credited to a haberdasher named John Hetherington. Within 30 years top hats had become popular with all social classes, with workmen wearing them. At that time those worn by members of the upper classes were made of felted beaver fur; the hats became part of the uniforms worn by postmen. Between the latter part of 18th century and the early part of the 19th century, felted beaver fur was replaced by silk "hatter's plush", though the silk topper met with resistance from those who preferred the beaver hat; the 1840s and the 1850s saw it reach its most extreme form, with ever-higher crowns and narrow brims. The stovepipe hat was a variety with straight sides, while one with convex sides was called the "chimney pot"; the style we refer to as the stovepipe was popularized in the United States by Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. It is said. One of Lincoln's top hats is kept on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. During the 19th century, the top hat developed from a fashion into a symbol of urban respectability, this was assured when Prince Albert started wearing them in 1850.
Whether it directly affected or was coincidental to the decline of the beaver trade is debatable. James Laver once observed that an assemblage of "toppers" resembled factory chimneys and thus added to the mood of the industrial era. In England, post-Brummel dandies went in for swooping brims, their counterparts in France, known as the "Incroyables", wore top hats of such outlandish dimensions that there was no room for them in overcrowded cloakrooms until the invention of the collapsible top hat. A silk top hat is made from hatters' plush, a soft silk weave with a long, defined nap; this is rare now, since it is no longer in general production since the 1950s, it is thought that there are no looms capable of producing the traditional material any more. The standard covering is now fur melusine as Christys' calls it. A grey flat fur felt, it is common to see top hats in stiff wool felt and soft wool though these are not considered on the same level as the silk or fur plush or grey felt varieties.
The standard crown shape nowadays is the'semi-bell crown'. Because of the rarity of vintage silk hats, the expense of modern top hats, the vintage/antique market is lively, with models in wearable condition hard to find. In the past, top hats were made by blocking a single piece of woo
A frock coat is a man's coat characterised by a knee-length skirt all around the base, popular during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. The double-breasted styled frock coat is sometimes called a Prince Albert after Prince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria; the frock coat is a fitted, long-sleeved coat with a centre vent at the back, some features unusual in post-Victorian dress. These include the reverse collar and lapels, where the outer edge of the lapel is cut from a separate piece of cloth from the main body, a high degree of waist suppression, where the coat's diameter round the waist is much less than round the chest; this is achieved by a high horizontal waist seam with side bodies, which are extra panels of fabric above the waist used to pull in the cylindrical drape. The frock coat was widely worn in much the same day-to-day professional situations as modern lounge suits, but came to embody the most formal attire, with different variations. One example is that a frock coat for formalwear was always double-breasted with peaked lapels, came with waistcoat.
Until the 1860s, it came with black trousers, although starting from that time more common was for it to go with wear charcoal gray pin striped formal trousers. As daily informal wear, the single-breasted frock coat sported the step, or notched and was more common in the early 19th century than the formal model. In the late 19th century, the dress coat, morning coat, lounge suit all evolved from the frock coat; the dress coat and the morning coat are knee length coats like the frock coat, traditionally share the waist seam of the precursor frock coat, but differ in the cut of the skirt, as the frock coat does not have the cut away front which gives dress coats and morning coats tails at the back. As was usual with all coats in the 19th century, shoulder padding was minimal; the formal frock coat only buttons down to the waist seam, decorated at the back with a pair of buttons. A frock coat that buttoned up to the neck, forming a high, stand-up collar, was worn only by clergymen; the name frock coat appeared out from the earlier frock.
Earlier terminology used redingote, derived from a French alteration of the English "riding coat", an example of reborrowing. Frock coats emerged during the Napoleonic Wars, where they were worn by officers in the Austrian and various German armies during campaign, they efficiently kept the wearer warm as well as protected his uniform. Privates and non-commissioned officers would wear greatcoats on campaign. During the mid 17th century, the older doublets, paned hose, jerkins were replaced by the precursor to the three piece suit comprising waistcoat, tight breeches, powdered wig, tricorne hat, a long coat called a justacorps; this coat, popularised by Louis XIII of France and Charles II of England, was knee length and looser fitting than the frock coat, with turn-back cuffs and two rows of buttons. English and French noblemen wore expensive brocade coats decorated with velvet, gold braid and gold buttons to demonstrate their wealth. Before the frock coat existed, there was another garment called the frock in the 18th century, unrelated to the frock coat, sharing only a similarity in name.
The earlier frock was country clothing that became common around 1730. Formal dress was so elaborate that it was impractical for everyday wear, so the frock became fashionable as half dress, a less formal alternative. By the 1780s the frock was worn as town wear, towards the end of the 18th century, started to be made with a single-breasted cut away front and tails, it was thus the precursor to the modern dress coat worn with white tie dress code. These relations can be seen in similar foreign terms; the modern word for a dress coat in Italian, French and Spanish is frac. Coats with horizontally cut away skirts like a dress coat were referred to as a frock in the late eighteenth and early 19th century, before being renamed to dress coat; this suggests that the earlier frock from the 18th century is more the direct ancestor of the modern dress coat, whereas the frock coat in the 19th century, the subject under discussion here, is a different garment altogether with separate military origins in the 19th century, although a remote historical connection to the frock cannot be excluded, as is the case with similar looks variably referred to as redingote or riding coat.
Other meanings of the term frock include clerical garb, a type of woman's dress combining a skirt with a shirt–blouse top. The first military frock coats were issued late in the Napoleonic Wars to French line infantry and Prussian Landwehr troops. Unwilling to soil the expensive tail coats on campaign, the French adopted a loose fitting single-breasted coat with contrasting collar and cuffs; the Germans, having been devastated by years of war, were unable to afford elaborate uniforms like the British line infantry and chose a peaked cap and double-breasted blue coat, again with contrasting collar and cuffs, as these were cheaper to produce for the large numbers of recruits, smart enough for full dress, more practical for campaigns. By the 1840s, frock coats were regulation for the American, Prussian and French armies. By 1834 officers of the British Army had adopted a dark blue/black frock coat for ordinary duties, derived from an earlier greatcoat worn d
An opera hat called a chapeau claque or gibus, is a top hat variant, collapsible through a spring system intended for less spacious venues, such as the theatre and opera. Made of satin in black colour, it folds vertically through a push or a snap on the top of the hat for convenient storage in a wardrobe or under the seat, it opens with an easy push from underneath. Its French name "chapeau claque" is a composition of chapeau, which means hat, claque, which means "tap" or "click"; the "chapeau claque" is thus a hat that folds with a click, unfolds likewise. In English the hat model is referred to as a collapsible top-hat, gibus or more opera hat- The construction may have been inspired by an historical hat model called "chapeau bras", made as bicorne or tricorne to be carried folded under the armOn May 5, 1812, London hatter Thomas Francis Dollman patented a design for "an elastic round hat" supported by ribs and springs, his patent was described as: An elastic round hat, which "may be made of beaver, silk, or other materials."
"The top of the crown and about half an inch from the top" as well as "the brim and about an inch, the crown from the bottom" are stiffened in the ordinary manner. The rest of the hat "is left without stiffening," and is kept in shape by ribs of any suitable material "fastened horizontally to the inside of the crown," and by an elastic steel spring from three to four inches long and nearly half an inch wide "sewed on each side of the crown in the inside in an upright position." Packed up for travelling, "the double ribbon fastened under the band is to be pulled over the top of the crown to keep it in a small compass." Some sources have taken this to describe an early folding top hat, although it is not explicitly stated whether Dollman's design was for male or female headgear. Dollman's patent expired in 1825. Operating from Poissy, France, around 1840, Antoine Gibus's design for a spring-loaded collapsible top-hat proved so popular that hats made to it became known as gibus, they were often called opera hats due to the common practice of storing them in their flattened state under one's seat at the opera, though the term can refer to any tall formal men's hat.
The characteristic snapping sound heard upon opening a gibus suggested a third name, the chapeau claque, "claque" being the French word for "slap". A chapeau claque is an inherent element of the stage image of Krzysztof Grabowski - the leader of Polish punk-rock band Pidżama Porno. Les Gibus une famille de chapelier]
A messenger bag is a type of sack made of cloth. It is worn over one shoulder with a strap that goes across the chest resting the bag on the lower back. While messenger bags are sometimes used by couriers, they are now an urban fashion icon; some types of messenger bags are called carryalls. A smaller version is called a sling bag; this design of bag has been used in the transportation of mail and goods by numerous types of messengers, including Pony Express riders, postal workers, messengers on foot, bicycle couriers. Some Royal Mail carriers in the United Kingdom use large messenger bags to deliver mail in lieu of a Postbag. Pre-dating today's messenger bags described herein as for bicycle messengers, fashion brands had been creating "messenger style" bags modeled after military map case bags and document pouches featuring a shoulder strap intended for wear across the chest for over a century. Similar in function to backpacks, messenger bags ensure comfort for people carrying heavy and/or bulky items, while allowing easy access to the contents.
Messenger bags incorporate features that make them suitable for cycling. Such features may include fittings for easy adjustment of the shoulder strap, quick release buckles, an adjustable hinged buckle, the ability to attach accessories, such as lights, phone holsters, or U-locks; the top-opening one-strap design allows messenger bags to be swung around front so that their contents can be accessed without removing the bag. A true messenger bag includes a second, thinner, "stabilizing strap", fastened either around the rider's waist or diagonally across the chest. Without a stabilizing strap, the bag tends to swing around to the rider's front, making pedaling difficult. Messenger bags are used as a fashion accessory. While they may be used by either gender, they are employed by men in a function analogous to a woman's purse to carry items too large for pockets, or a large number of items. Messenger bags have become fashionable among cyclists and commuters. Many college and high-school students and bicycle commuters use them for fashionable and functional purposes.
Many companies design messenger bags for the collegiate market. Compared to a backpack, it is easier to place and remove text-books and supplies from a messenger bag because they can be shifted to the side of the body, providing better accessibility. Messenger bags provide more weather resistance than leather satchel-style school bags. Materials used in messenger bags are more durable and water-resistant than other over-the-shoulder bags. Contemporary bags use thicker gauges of tarp shielding for the inner waterproof lining. Other materials include ballistic nylon, vinyl waterproof tarp lining used to make the bag waterproof; the liner provides the support structure for the bag. Some companies eschew the standard PVC waterproof lining for compounds such as thermoplastic polyurethanes, which are more expensive, more durable, more environmentally friendly, less volatile. Handbag Mail bag Satchel
Gone with the Wind (film)
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name. The film was produced by David O. Selznick of Selznick International Pictures and directed by Victor Fleming. Set in the American South against the backdrop of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction era, the film tells the story of Scarlett O'Hara, the strong-willed daughter of a Georgia plantation owner, it follows her romantic pursuit of Ashley Wilkes, married to his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, her subsequent marriage to Rhett Butler. The leading roles are played by Vivien Leigh, Clark Gable, Leslie Howard, Olivia de Havilland. Production was difficult from the start. Filming was delayed for two years because of Selznick's determination to secure Gable for the role of Rhett Butler, the "search for Scarlett" led to 1,400 women being interviewed for the part; the original screenplay was written by Sidney Howard and underwent many revisions by several writers in an attempt to get it down to a suitable length.
The original director, George Cukor, was fired shortly after filming began and was replaced by Fleming, who in turn was replaced by Sam Wood while Fleming took some time off due to exhaustion. The film received positive reviews upon its release in December 1939, although some reviewers found it overlong; the casting was praised, many reviewers found Leigh suited to her role as Scarlett. At the 12th Academy Awards, it received ten Academy Awards from thirteen nominations, including wins for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress, it set records for the total number of nominations at the time. Gone with the Wind was immensely popular when first released, it became the highest-earning film made up to that point, held the record for over a quarter of a century. When adjusted for monetary inflation, it is still the most successful film in box-office history, it became ingrained in popular culture. The film is regarded as one of the greatest films of all time.
In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. Part 1On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, Scarlett O'Hara lives at Tara, her family's cotton plantation in Georgia, with her parents and two sisters and their many slaves. Scarlett learns that Ashley Wilkes—whom she secretly loves—is to be married to his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, the engagement is to be announced the next day at a barbecue at Ashley's home, the nearby plantation Twelve Oaks. At the Twelve Oaks party, Scarlett declares her feelings to Ashley, but he rebuffs her by responding that he and Melanie are more compatible. Scarlett is incensed when she discovers another guest, Rhett Butler, has overheard their conversation; the barbecue is disrupted by the declaration of war and the men rush to enlist. As Scarlett watches Ashley kiss Melanie goodbye, Melanie's younger brother Charles proposes to her. Although she does not love him, Scarlett consents and they are married.
Scarlett is widowed when Charles dies from a bout of pneumonia and measles while serving in the Confederate Army. Scarlett's mother sends her to the Hamilton home in Atlanta to cheer her up, although the O'Haras' outspoken house slave Mammy tells Scarlett she knows she is going there only to wait for Ashley's return. Scarlett, who should not attend a party while in mourning, attends a charity bazaar in Atlanta with Melanie where she meets Rhett again, now a blockade runner for the Confederacy. Celebrating a Confederate victory and to raise money for the Confederate war effort, gentlemen are invited to bid for ladies to dance with them. Rhett makes an inordinately large bid for Scarlett and, to the disapproval of the guests, she agrees to dance with him; the tide of war turns against the Confederacy after the Battle of Gettysburg in which many of the men of Scarlett's town are killed. Scarlett makes another unsuccessful appeal to Ashley while he is visiting on Christmas furlough, although they do share a private and passionate kiss in the parlor on Christmas Day, just before he returns to war.
Eight months as the city is besieged by the Union Army in the Atlanta Campaign and her young house slave Prissy must deliver Melanie's baby without medical assistance after she goes into premature labor. Afterwards, Scarlett calls upon Rhett to take her home to Tara with Melanie, her baby, Prissy. Upon her return home, Scarlett finds Tara deserted, except for her father, her sisters, two former slaves: Mammy and Pork. Scarlett learns that her mother has just died of typhoid fever and her father has become incompetent. With Tara pillaged by Union troops and the fields untended, Scarlett vows she will do anything for the survival of her family and herself. Part 2As the O'Haras work in the cotton fields, Scarlett's father is killed after he is thrown from his horse in an attempt to chase away a scalawag from his land. With the defeat of the Confederacy, Ashley returns, but finds he is of little help at Tara; when Scarlett begs him to run away with her, he confesses his desire for her and kisses her passionately, but says he cannot leave Melanie.
Unable to pay the taxes on Tara implemented b
The bow tie is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, called the bow knot for that reason, it consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner so that the two opposite ends form loops. There are three types of bow ties: the pre-tied, the clip on, the self tie. Pre-tied bow ties are ties in which the distinctive bow is sewn onto a band that goes around the neck and clips to secure; some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, is known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie. Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics; some fabrics are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties. The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts.
This was soon adopted by the upper classes in France a leader in fashion, flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is uncertain whether the cravat evolved into the bow tie and four-in-hand necktie, or whether the cravat gave rise to the bow tie, which in turn led to the four-in-hand necktie; the most traditional bow ties are of a fixed length and are made for a specific size neck. Sizes can vary between 14 and 19 inches as with a comparable shirt collar. Fixed-length bow ties are preferred when worn with the most formal wing-collar shirts, so as not to expose the buckle or clasp of an adjustable bow tie. Adjustable bow ties are the standard when the tie is to be worn with a less formal, lie-down collar shirts which obscure the neckband of the tie. "One-size-fits-all" adjustable bow ties are a invention that help to moderate production costs. To its devotees, the bow tie suggests iconoclasm of an Old World sort, a fusty adherence to a contrarian point of view; the bow tie hints at intellectualism, real or feigned, sometimes suggests technical acumen because it is so hard to tie.
Bow ties are worn by magicians, country doctors and professors and by people hoping to look like the above. But most of all, wearing a bow tie is a way of broadcasting an aggressive lack of concern for what other people think. - Warren St John in The New York Times Popular perception tends to associate bow tie wearers with particular professions, such as architects, finance receipt collectors, university professors, teachers and politicians. Pediatricians wear bow ties since infants cannot grab them the way they could grab a four-in-hand necktie. Bow ties do not droop into places where they would get soiled or where they could, whether accidentally or deliberately, strangle the wearer. Clowns sometimes use an oversize bow tie for its comic effect. Classical musicians traditionally perform in white tie or black tie ensembles, of which both designs are bow ties. Bow ties are associated with weddings because of their universal inclusion in traditional formal attire. Bow ties, or slight variations thereof, have made their way into women's wear business attire.
The 1980s saw professional women in law and the corporate world, donning conservative tailored suits, with a rise of 6 million units in sales. These were worn with buttoned-up blouses, some with pleats up the front like tuxedo shirts, accessorized with bow ties that were fuller than the standard bow ties worn by their male counterparts, but consisting of the same fabrics and patterns as men's ties. Russell Smith, style columnist for Toronto's The Globe and Mail, records mixed opinions of bow tie wearers, he observed that bow ties were experiencing a potential comeback among men, though "the class conscious man recoils at the idea" of pre-tied bow ties and "eft-wingers"... "recoil at what they perceive to be a symbol of political conservatism." He argues that, that anachronism is the point, that bow tie wearers are making a public statement that they disdain changing fashion. Such people may not be economic conservatives, he argues, but they are social conservatives. In Smith's view, the bow tie is "the embodiment of propriety," an indicator of fastidiousness, "an instant sign of nerddom in Hollywood movies," but "not the mark of a ladies' man" and "not sexy."
To this image he attributes the association of the bow tie with newspaper editors, high-school principals, bachelor English teachers. Most men, only wear bow ties with formal dress; the four-in-hand necktie is still more prominent in contemporary Western society, it being seen the most at business meetings, formal functions and sometimes at home. However, the bow tie is making a comeback at fun-formal events such as dinners, cocktail parties, nights out on the town. Bow ties are worn with suits by those trying to convey a more dressed-up, formal image, whether in business or social venues. Bow ties are still popular with men of all ages in the American South, having never gone out of fashion there. Traditional opinion remains that it is inappropriate to wear anything other than a bow tie with a dinner jacket. Bow ties are sometimes worn as an alternative to ascot ties and four-in-hand neckties when wearing morning dress; the dress code of "black tie" requires a black bow tie. Most military mess dress uniforms incorporate a bow tie.
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