Münsterhof is a town square situated in the Lindenhof quarter in the historical center of Zürich, Switzerland. Münsterhof is the largest town square within the Altstadt of Zürich, is surrounded by medieval buildings; the area forms part of the southern extension of the Quaianlagen promenades of Zürich's lakefront. Münsterhof is located in front of the Fraumünster church, lies a short distance from the Münsterbrücke bridge which leads eastwards across the river Limmat to the Limmatquai and Grossmünster church beyond, it is surrounded by medieval buildings, among which are several guild houses, including zur Waag, the former Kämbel guild house, the art museum Zunfthaus zur Meisen. This area forms part of the southern extension of the Quaianlagen promenades that were built between 1881 and 1887. Münsterhof is the biggest town square within the former medieval town walls of Zürich, it is part of the historical core of the medieval town of Zürich the Celtic-Roman Turicum. Public transport from this area includes the Zürich tram lines 2, 4 and 15, as well as the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft and its Limmat river tour boats towards Zürichhorn.
Automobile transportation is limited. It is limited to road transport use between lower Limmatquai and Bellevueplatz, upstream on the Limmat. Since 25 September 2004, the driving of motor vehicles and scooters is restricted, except for goods deliveries, police vehicles, postal delivery services, medical doctors and emergency services; the main sights are the Fraumünster church and art museum Zunfthaus zur Meisen, which houses the porcelain and faience collection of the Swiss National Museum. There are restaurants and cafés at Münsterhof, including Zunfthaus zur Waag and Sprüngli at nearby Paradeplatz; the equestrian monument in front of the Fraumünster church at Münsterbrücke was created by Hermann Haller. It was unveiled on 6 April 1937 by the Kämbel guild, aiming to rehabilitate Hans Waldmann, mayor of Zürich from 1482 to 1489 and their former dean, who they proposed had been the victim of a judicial murder; the equestrian statue became the subject of controversy for artistic and historical reasons.
On 14 March 2004, the Katharina von Zimmern memorial was inaugurated at the former cloister of the Fraumünster Abbey, initiated by the Gesellschaft zu Fraumünster. Anna-Maria Bauer, a sculptor from Zürich, created a sculpture that consists of 37 copper blocks that are layered into a compact square; the shape of the sculpture refers to the shape of an altar table or burial and shines in its simplicity as a symbol of timelessness, to remember the last princess Abbess's decision that enabled the peaceful introduction of the Reformation in Zürich on 8 December 1524. On the ground floor of the cloister a banner is engraved: "Die Stadt vor Unruhe und Umgemach bewahren und tun, was Zürich lieb und dienlich ist." These were the words of Katharina von Zimmern on occasion of the surrender of the Fraumünster Abbey to the city's magistrates during the Reformation in Zürich. Paul Bodmer's fresco related to the history of the abbey are a popular touristic destination situated in the abbey's cloister. Beginning in 1999, Gesellschaft zu Fraumünster organized every three years the Mittelalter Spectaculum, a medieval funfair, at the Münsterhof square.
The city's authorities planned from May 2003 to declare Münsterhof a car-free zone, evaluations were made to improve public use of the historical urban square for open-air performances and other public events. Construction works of 2014 were scheduled to be completed in 2015, but were delayed to 2016 due to archaeological excavations in the winter of 2014–15 and from October to November 2015; the redesign includes a distinctive new fountain, 6 metres in diameter and 4 metres tall, as a central element. A smaller drinking-water fountain is to be connected directly to that central water basin. A new granite stone pavement with contrasting patterns visually divides the plaza into an inner and an outer area. New steel lighting fixtures enable a warm visual atmosphere. Benches are to be added, more space for outdoor cafés and restaurants. All structures are to meet the requirements for barrier-free construction and be accessible to physically disabled people. With this transformation, Münsterhof would no longer be used for parking, which will be restricted to Fraumünstertrasse and Parking Opéra.
Once work is finished, the plaza is to again be a representative and lively urban square in the heart of historical Zürich, available in its entirety for major events. The focus, will be on everyday use; the present construction works will result in minimal physical design changes, but the city's authorities claim "they will nonetheless enhance the square significantly" and create a "transformation into a tranquil open space which invites everyone to take a stroll or relax." While in prehistoric times the Münsterhof area was a swampy hollow, flooded by the river Sihl, Lindenhof hill was the core of the Helvetii and Roman settlement, upon which the modern city has grown, expanding along the easterly Limmat riverbank. Roman buildings were built at the site of the Zunfthaus zur Zimmerleuten on the other riverbank, the Roman settlement may have stretched towards the present Münsterbrücke, crossing the Limmat between Grossmünster and Wasserkirche, the present-day Münsterhof plaza. Suggested by historians and recent archaeological evidence uncovered during co
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director and conductor, chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama, he described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, his compositions those of his period, are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration, the elaborate use of leitmotifs—musical phrases associated with individual characters, ideas, or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and shifting tonal centres influenced the development of classical music.
His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music. Wagner had his own opera house built, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, which embodied many novel design features; the Ring and Parsifal were premiered here and his most important stage works continue to be performed at the annual Bayreuth Festival, run by his descendants. His thoughts on the relative contributions of music and drama in opera were to change again, he reintroduced some traditional forms into his last few stage works, including Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg; until his final years, Wagner's life was characterised by political exile, turbulent love affairs and repeated flight from his creditors. His controversial writings on music and politics have attracted extensive comment, since the late 20th century, where they express antisemitic sentiments; the effect of his ideas can be traced in many of the arts throughout the 20th century. Richard Wagner was born to an ethnic German family in Leipzig, who lived at No 3, the Brühl in the Jewish quarter.
He was baptized at St. Thomas Church, he was the ninth child of Carl Friedrich Wagner, a clerk in the Leipzig police service, his wife, Johanna Rosine, the daughter of a baker. Wagner's father Carl died of typhus six months after Richard's birth. Afterwards his mother Johanna lived with the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer. In August 1814 Johanna and Geyer married—although no documentation of this has been found in the Leipzig church registers, she and her family moved to Geyer's residence in Dresden. Until he was fourteen, Wagner was known as Wilhelm Richard Geyer, he certainly thought that Geyer was his biological father. Geyer's love of the theatre came to be shared by his stepson, Wagner took part in his performances. In his autobiography Mein Leben Wagner recalled once playing the part of an angel. In late 1820, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzel's school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher, he struggled to play a proper scale at preferred playing theatre overtures by ear.
Following Geyer's death in 1821, Richard was sent to the Kreuzschule, the boarding school of the Dresdner Kreuzchor, at the expense of Geyer's brother. At the age of nine he was hugely impressed by the Gothic elements of Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz, which he saw Weber conduct. At this period Wagner entertained ambitions as a playwright, his first creative effort, listed in the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis as WWV 1, was a tragedy called Leubald. Begun when he was in school in 1826, the play was influenced by Shakespeare and Goethe. Wagner was determined to set it to music, persuaded his family to allow him music lessons. By 1827, the family had returned to Leipzig. Wagner's first lessons in harmony were taken during 1828–31 with Christian Gottlieb Müller. In January 1828 he first heard Beethoven's 7th Symphony and in March, the same composer's 9th Symphony. Beethoven became a major inspiration, Wagner wrote a piano transcription of the 9th Symphony, he was greatly impressed by a performance of Mozart's Requiem.
Wagner's early piano sonatas and his first attempts at orchestral overtures date from this period. In 1829 he saw a performance by dramatic soprano Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient, she became his ideal of the fusion of drama and music in opera. In Mein Leben, Wagner wrote, "When I look back across my entire life I find no event to place beside this in the impression it produced on me," and claimed that the "profoundly human and ecstatic performance of this incomparable artist" kindled in him an "almost demonic fire."In 1831, Wagner enrolled at the Leipzig University, where he became a member of the Saxon student fraternity. He took composition lessons with the Thomaskantor Theodor Weinlig. Weinlig was so impressed with Wagner's musical ability, he arranged for his pupil's Piano Sonata in B-flat major to be published as Wagner's Op. 1. A year Wagner composed his Symphony in C major, a Beethovenesque work performed in Prague in 1832 and at the Leipzig Gewandhaus in 1833, he began to work on an opera, Die Hochzeit, which he never
Metzler Orgelbau is a firm of organ builders based in Dietikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. It is one of the most important makers of the European classical organ revival and has built many important and respected instruments throughout Europe. Among its instruments are: Belgium The east-end organ at Antwerp Cathedral Spain The main organ of the Abbey of Poblet Switzerland The organ of the Grossmünster, Zurich The organ of the Jesuit Church in Lucerne The church of St Nikolaus, Bremgarten The organ of St. Peter and St. Paul Church, Villmergen. United Kingdom The chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge University Church of St Mary the Virgin, Oxford. Official website: http://www.metzler-orgelbau.ch/htm/EN/index.htm
The nave is the central part of a church, stretching from the main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-type building, the strict definition of the term "nave" is restricted to the central aisle. In a broader, more colloquial sense, the nave includes all areas available for the lay worshippers, including the side-aisles and transepts. Either way, the nave is distinct from the area reserved for clergy; the nave extends from the entry—which may have a separate vestibule —to the chancel and may be flanked by lower side-aisles separated from the nave by an arcade. If the aisles are high and of a width comparable to the central nave, the structure is sometimes said to have three naves, it provides the central approach to the high altar. The term nave is from navis, the Latin word for ship, an early Christian symbol of the Church as a whole, with a possible connection to the "ship of St. Peter" or the Ark of Noah.
The term may have been suggested by the keel shape of the vaulting of a church. In many Scandinavian and Baltic countries a model ship is found hanging in the nave of a church, in some languages the same word means both'nave' and'ship', as for instance Danish skib, Swedish skepp or Spanish; the earliest churches were built when builders were familiar with the form of the Roman basilica, a public building for business transactions. It had a wide central area, with aisles separated by columns, with windows near the ceiling. Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is an early church, it was built in the 4th century on the orders of Roman emperor Constantine I, replaced in the 16th century. The nave, the main body of the building, is the section set apart for the laity, while the chancel is reserved for the clergy. In medieval churches the nave was separated from the chancel by the rood screen. Medieval naves were divided into the repetition of form giving an effect of great length. During the Renaissance, in place of dramatic effects there were more balanced proportions.
Longest nave in Denmark: Aarhus Cathedral, 93 m Longest nave in England: St Albans Cathedral, St Albans, 85 m Longest nave in Ireland: St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 91 m, externally Longest nave in France: Bourges Cathedral, 91 m, including choir where a crossing would be if there were transepts Longest nave in Germany: Cologne cathedral, 58 m, including two bays between the towers Longest nave in Italy: St Peter's Basilica in Rome, 91 m, in four bays Longest nave in Spain: Seville, 60 m, in five bays Longest nave in the United States: Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, United States, 70 m Highest vaulted nave: Beauvais Cathedral, France, 48 m, but only one bay of the nave was built. Highest completed nave: Rome, St. Peter's, Italy, 46 m Abbey, with architectural discussion and groundplans Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram List of highest church naves
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly center of Renaissance humanism, he continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. In 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster in Zürich where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent. In his publications, he noted corruption in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, attacked the use of images in places of worship. In 1525, Zwingli introduced a new communion liturgy to replace the Mass. Zwingli clashed with the Anabaptists, which resulted in their persecution. Historians have debated; the Reformation spread to other parts of the Swiss Confederation, but several cantons resisted, preferring to remain Catholic.
Zwingli formed an alliance of Reformed cantons which divided the Confederation along religious lines. In 1529, a war between the two sides was averted at the last moment. Meanwhile, Zwingli's ideas came to the attention of other reformers, they met at the Marburg Colloquy and although they agreed on many points of doctrine, they could not reach an accord on the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. In 1531 Zwingli's alliance applied an unsuccessful food blockade on the Catholic cantons; the cantons responded with an attack at a moment. Zwingli died on the battlefield, his legacy lives on in the confessions and church orders of the Reformed churches of today. The Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwingli's time consisted of thirteen states as well as affiliated areas and common lordships. Unlike the modern state of Switzerland, which operates under a federal government, each of the thirteen cantons was nearly independent, conducting its own domestic and foreign affairs; each canton formed its own alliances without the Confederation.
This relative independence served as the basis for conflict during the time of the Reformation when the various cantons divided between different confessional camps. Military ambitions gained an additional impetus with the competition to acquire new territory and resources, as seen for example in the Old Zürich War of 1440–1446; the wider political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was volatile. For centuries the relationship with the Confederation's powerful neighbour, determined the foreign policies of the Swiss. Nominally, the Confederation formed a part of the Holy Roman Empire. However, through a succession of wars culminating in the Swabian War in 1499, the Confederation had become de facto independent; as the two continental powers and minor regional states such as the Duchy of Milan, the Duchy of Savoy, the Papal States competed and fought against each other, there were far-reaching political and social consequences for the Confederation. During this time the mercenary pension system became a subject of disagreement.
The religious factions of Zwingli's time debated vociferously the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign wars for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities. These internal and external factors contributed to the rise of a Confederation national consciousness, in which the term fatherland began to take on meaning beyond a reference to an individual canton. At the same time, Renaissance humanism, with its universal values and emphasis on scholarship, had taken root in the Confederation. Within this environment, defined by the confluence of Swiss patriotism and humanism, Zwingli was born in 1484. Huldrych Zwingli was born on 1 January 1484 in Wildhaus, in the Toggenburg valley of Switzerland, to a family of farmers, the third child of nine, his father, played a leading role in the administration of the community. Zwingli's primary schooling was provided by his uncle, Bartholomew, a cleric in Weesen, where he met Katharina von Zimmern. At ten years old, Zwingli was sent to Basel to obtain his secondary education where he learned Latin under Magistrate Gregory Bünzli.
After three years in Basel, he stayed a short time in Bern with the humanist, Henry Wölfflin. The Dominicans in Bern tried to persuade Zwingli to join their order and it is possible that he was received as a novice. However, his father and uncle disapproved of such a course and he left Bern without completing his Latin studies, he enrolled in the University of Vienna in the winter semester of 1498 but was expelled, according to the university's records. However, it is not certain that Zwingli was indeed expelled, he re-enrolled in the summer semester of 1500. Zwingli continued his studies in Vienna until 1502, after which he transferred to the University of Basel where he received the Master of Arts degree in 1506. Zwingli was ordained in Constance, the seat of the local diocese, he celebrated his first Mass in his hometown, Wildhaus, on 29 September 1506; as a young priest he had studied little theology. His first ecclesiastical post was the pastorate of the town of Glarus, where he stayed for ten years.
It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, that Zwingli became involved in politics. The Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours: the French, th
A crypt is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building. It contains coffins, sarcophagi, or religious relics. Crypts were found below the main apse of a church, such as at the Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre, but were located beneath chancel and transepts as well. Churches were raised high to accommodate a crypt at the ground level, such as St Michael's Church in Hildesheim, Germany. "Crypt" developed as an alternative form of the Latin "vault" as it was carried over into Late Latin, came to refer to the ritual rooms found underneath church buildings. It served as a vault for storing important and/or sacred items. "Crypta", however, is the female form of crypto "hidden". The earliest known origin of both is in the Ancient Greek κρύπτω, the first person singular indicative of the verb "to conceal, to hide". First known in the early Christian period, in particular North Africa at Chlef and Djemila in Algeria, Byzantium at Saint John Studio in Constantinople. Where Christian churches have been built over mithraea, the mithraeum has been adapted to serve as a crypt.
The famous crypt at Old St. Peter's Basilica, developed about the year 600, as a means of affording pilgrims a view of Saint Peter's tomb, which lay, according to the Roman fashion, directly below the high altar; the tomb was made accessible through an underground passageway beneath the sanctuary, where pilgrims could enter at one stair, pass by the tomb and exit, without interrupting the clerical community's service at the altar directly above. Crypts were introduced into Frankish church building in the mid-8th century, as a feature of its Romanization, their popularity spread more in western Europe under Charlemagne. Examples from this period are most common in the early medieval West, for example in Burgundy at Dijon and Tournus. After the 10th century the early medieval requirements of a crypt faded, as church officials permitted relics to be held in the main level of the church. By the Gothic period crypts were built, however burial vaults continued to be constructed beneath churches and referred to as crypts.
In more modern terms, a crypt is most a stone chambered burial vault used to store the deceased. Crypts are found in cemeteries and under public religious buildings, such as churches or cathedrals, but are occasionally found beneath mausolea or chapels on personal estates. Wealthy or prestigious families will have a'family crypt' or'vault' in which all members of the family are interred. Many royal families, for example, have vast crypts containing the bodies of dozens of former royalty. In some localities an above ground crypt is more called a mausoleum, which refers to any elaborate building intended as a burial place, for one or any number of people. There was a trend in the 19th century of building crypts on medium to large size family estates subtly placed on the edge of the grounds or more incorporated into the cellar. After a change of owner these are blocked up and the house deeds will not allow this area to be re-developed. Catacomb Mausoleum Tumulus Ossuary Tomb Cemetery Media related to Crypt at Wikimedia Commons Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Crypt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
The Carolinum Zürich is the predecessor educational institution of the theological faculty of the University of Zürich, established in 1525. As building, it is part of the former cloister of the Grossmünster Chorherrenstift in Zürich, Switzerland. Grossmünster and Carolinum are listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object. An institutionalized academic education in Zürich dates back to the medieval collegiate and city schools. In the late European Middle Ages, a Carolinum associated to the Grossmünster priory and its canons was mentioned. On occasion of the Reformation in Zürich, it became an important rule for the training of prospective Protestant theologians; as other educational institutions, it is named after Charlemagne. The reformer Huldrich Zwingli initiated the transformation of the former Latin school Prophezey or Prophezei into a training center for reformed theologians, by a Zürich city's council mandate on 29 September 1523 AD.
The weekday lectures were free of charge for the interested people in urban and rural areas of the city republic of Zürich, by well-learned men. Heinrich Bullinger's Schola Tigurina may have influenced the education in many other institutions beginning in 1559. Bullinger's Schola Tigurina merged in the 18th century to the theological faculty and the upper secondary school in the Carolinum been; the financing of the chairs professorships was depending on the benefices of the secularized canons of the former Grossmünster priory. In addition to theological subjects and Classical languages, in 1541 the natural history department and in 1731 a political science chair was created, in 1782 the surgical institute to train medical doctors. After the abolition of the Chorherrenstift congregation in 1832, the building was sold to the Canton of Zürich. In 1849 the structures were demolished and replaced by Gustav Albert Wegmann's building; the Grossmünsterplatz schoolhouse of the girls' gymnasium, an urban high school for girls, was established in 1875 and located in the building until 1976, when the Theological faculty of the University of Zürich moved in.
The present University of Zürich bases on the Carolinum and uses its former logo, the silhouette of the Grossmünster church. The university claims to be established in the tradition of the canons of the Carolinum's institutions. Theodor Bibliander, faculty Johann Jakob Bodmer, faculty Heinrich Bullinger, faculty Conrad Gessner, faculty Konrad Pellikan, faculty Josias Simmler, faculty Peter Martyr Vermigli, faculty The building is located at Kirchgasse 9 at the Grossmünsterplatz square – attached to the Grossmünster church on its eastern side – in the southeast of the Neumarkt northwesternly of the Münsterhof squares in Zürich; the cloister of the former Chorherrenstift Grossmünster, the chapter of Augustinian canons, dates from the late 12th century and was part of the canons, dissolved in 1832, making way for the girls' school. The cloister was dismantled and integrated into the new building those reconstruction was based on the original elements of the architecture, but includes numerous interpretations by the architect.
The cloister is home to a permanent exhibition on Zwingli and other important people in the Reformation era. The cloister was renewed in 2009, its sandstone elements were cleaned, the interior garden redesigned in corporation with the ProSpecieRara foundation; the compilation of the cultural and historical ornamental plants is inspired by the natural scientist and polymath Conrad Gessner who found his final resting place in the cloister. Gessner dealt inter alia with the elements of teaching, therefore the renewed courtyard garden is dedicated to the thema earth, fire and air, cultural-historical ornamental plants in the four beds, analogous to the Gessner-Garten in the Old Botananical Garden. After the abolition of the Chorherrenstift congregation in 1832, to 1849 the structures were demolished and replaced by Wegmann's building in the Romanesque Revival style; the as of today faculty building was built according to the drafts Gustav Albert Wegmann from 1843 to 1849. The cloister was dismantled during the demolition, supplemented with many new parts and integrated into the new building in 1851.
The Grossmünster church building is owned by the Canton of Zürich, the annex building being the former cloister, however, is in the property of the city of Zürich. It is leased to the Theological faculty of the University of Zürich since 1976. Grossmünster and Carolinum are listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object of national importance. Daniel Gutscher: Das Grossmünster in Zürich. Eine baugeschichtliche Monographie. Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte der Schweiz, Volume 5. Redaction by Catherine Courtiau, Stefan Biffiger, Gian-Willi Vonesch. Gesellschaft für Schweizerische Kunstgeschichte Stäfa, Bern 1983, ISBN 3-85717-017-4. UZH Theologische Fakultät Sebastian Brändli: Universität Zürich in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 28 January 2013