A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, or prehistorically. Occurring grottoes are small caves near water that are flooded or liable to flood at high tide. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden features; the Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the Tiberius' Villa Jovis in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes. Whether in tidal water or high up in hills, grottoes are made up of limestone geology, where the acidity of standing water has dissolved the carbonates in the rock matrix as it passes through what were small fissures. See karst topography, cavern; the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, Latin crypta. It is related by a historical accident to the word grotesque. In the late 15th century, Romans accidentally unearthed Nero's Domus Aurea on the Palatine Hill, a series of rooms, decorated with designs of garlands, slender architectural framework and animals; the rooms had sunk underground over time.
The Romans who discovered this historical monument found it strange because it was uncovered from an "underworld" source. This led the Romans of that era to give it the name grottesca, from. Grottoes were popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollo's oracles at Delphi and Clarus; the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural. At the great Roman sanctuary of Praeneste south of Rome, the oldest portion of the primitive sanctuary was situated on the second lowest terrace, in a grotto in the natural rock where a spring developed into a well. According to tradition, Praeneste's sacred spring had a native nymph, honored in a grotto-like watery nymphaeum. Tiberius, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology channeling Polyphemus' cave in the Odyssey; the numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient: in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated before Minoan palace-building.
Farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. In Ticino, the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland, grottos were places where wine and food was stored and preserved, they were built by exploiting the morphology of rocks and boulders, to create rooms with a cool climate suitable for food milk and cheese, as well as potatoes and wine storage. The importance of these cellars is demonstrated in their number; some grotti have been opened to the public, as in Avegno, but most have lost their original character as they became rustic restaurants which serve basic local food and drink. A true grotto is dug out under a rock or between two boulders, where subterranean air currents keep the room cool. A grotto had a second floor with another one or 2 rooms for the fermenting cask and tools of the vintage. In front of the grotto were a table and benches of stone, where the farmers could rest and refresh themselves; the popularity of artificial grottoes introduced the Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century.
Two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo. Before the Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor; the Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a small garden building, built in 1573–74 as a garden feature in the extensive grounds of the Villa "Riposo" of Bernardo Vecchietti. It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner; the outsides of garden grottoes are designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang. Inside, they are decorated as a temple or with fountains and imitation gems and shells. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, but they became fashionable in the cool drizzle of the Île-de-France.
In Kuskovo in the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths. Courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola, a little theater designed in the grotto manner, they were combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de' Medici's château in Paris, the Tuileries, was renowned. There are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles. In England, an early garden grotto was built at Wilton House in the 1630s by Isaac de Caus. Grottoes were suitable for less formal gardens too. Pope's Grotto, created by Alexander Pope, is all that survives of one of the first landscape gardens in England, at Twickenham. Pope was inspired after seeing grottoes in Italy during a visit there. Efforts are
The Byron Kennedy Award is an award presented by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, a non-profit organisation whose aim is "to identify, award and celebrate Australia's greatest achievements in film and television." The award is presented at the annual AACTA Awards Ceremony, which hand out accolades for technical achievements in feature film, television and short films. From 1984-2010, the award was handed out by the Australian Film Institute, the Academy's parent organisation, at the annual Australian Film Institute Awards; when the AFI launched the Academy in 2011, it changed the annual ceremony to the AACTA Awards, with the current award being a continuum of the AFI Byron Kennedy Award. Named after Byron Kennedy, an Australian film producer, it recognises a person in their early career for "outstanding creative enterprise within the film and television industries... whose work embodies the qualities of Byron Kennedy: innovation and the relentless pursuit of excellence."
Recommendations for recipients are made by the general public, but the AFI and Academy may select further candidates without the need for an entry. The award includes a A$10,000 cash prize; the Official Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts website
Traditionally, association football clubs in the Republic of Ireland have been classified as either senior, intermediate or junior. These classifications categorise clubs who compete in national and county leagues respectively. Apart from the current twenty members, at least 39 other clubs have competed in the League of Ireland at one time or another; some of these clubs are still active, playing in junior leagues. The list below only includes teams that played in the A Division, the Premier Division and the First Division. Senior Source: Senior 1 Source: Senior 1A Source: Senior 1B Source: This is a selection of teams playing in the lower levels of the Leinster Senior League. Senior Premier Source: Senior Division 1 Source: Senior 2nd Division Source: Source: Premier A teams Murphy's Irish Stout Premier LeagueSource: Premier Division Premier A Premier League Premier Division Super League Premier HiSpecCars.com Premier Division Andy McEvoy Premier 1 Super League 2014–15Source: List of association football clubs in Northern Ireland