The Angers tramway is a single-line tramway in the French city of Angers in Pays de la Loire. Opened on 25 June 2011, Line A is operated by Keolis and replaced some bus lines, with the buses redeployed throughout the rest of the metropolitan area. Alstom's APS ground-level power supply has been used on two parts of the line totalling 1.5 km in order to avoid overhead lines in the centre of Angers and Avrillé. Angers is the second city using such system, after Bordeaux. April 2007: Works started. April 2010: Delivery of the Citadis 302 trams December 2010: Testing January 2011: Operation of shadow service without passengers 25 June 2011: Line A in service The total budget for the first line, re-evaluated in 2008, is around €350m, up from the 2004 estimate of €250m. Main features for Line A: North-South connection across the metropolitan area, connecting Avrillé to La Roseraie. Non-stop service from 5.30 AM until 0.30 AM 12 kilometers 25 stations End to end journey time of 37 minutes. An estimated 35,000 passengers expected daily.
As the line goes on both banks of the Maine, a new bridge was built to allow the trams to cross the river. It connects Angers' University Hospital Centre to Saint-Serge; this 270m bridge is accessible to pedestrians as well as emergency vehicles. Angers-Roseraie Jean Vilar Jean XXIII Bamako Strasbourg Place Lafayette Les Gares Foch-Haras Foch-Maison Bleue Ralliement Molière Saint-Serge Université Berges de Maine C. H. U-Hôpital Capucins Jean Moulin Les Hauts De Saint Aubin Verneau Terra Botanica Plateau Mayenne Bois du Roy Acacias Saint Gilles Bascule Avrillé-Ardenne Good public transport system for Avrillé, bringing more life to the city centre and assisting with the development of new neighbourhoods Connecting new districts: Plateaux de la Mayenne and des Capucins Tram station close to Terra Botanica Connecting important facilities such as the University Hospital Centre, Angers Saint-Laud railway station and the administrative city The new bridge on the Maine is used by trams and pedestrians between the hospital and the Gaumont Film Company studios.
A better connections to the Angers city centre and improved traffic flows A more attractive city centre Complementarity of different transport types around the central connection point, Angers Saint-Laud railway station and bus station Connecting La Roseraie as part of the urban renovation of the district. No connection to the biggest campus of Angers in Belle-Beille, to be connected by Line B. Line A passes through place du Ralliement, which will still be accessible for pedestrians and delivery vehicles as well as bicycles, but buses will not have access to it, nor will other tram lines. Angers Loire Métropole awarded Alstom a €47m contract to supply 17 Citadis 302 trams on 15 November 2006. Design and personalization of the rolling stock is characterized by the front end "convergence" V-shape similar in form to a shield; the other major feature is the ubiquity of a rainbow, designed by the French agency RCP Design Global is found in the color scheme and interior design of the trams and other transportation in the city.
The interior of the trams is marked by floral figures in different colors on the ceiling, white walls and green seats to reflect the geological layers of Anjou. The 16 km Line B was expected to be opened by 2020, it was planned to run from Beaucouzé, via the Atoll shopping centre via the Campus Belle-Beille - Université Angers to the main railway station and Parc des Expositions through Monplaisir district. However, in 2016 the city presented a revised proposal for the future Line B. Stopping at the Technopole Angers at the Universities Belle-Beille Campus, the lines length is stripped to 10 km. Due to financial reasons, the start of construction has been postponed for 2019, so that a start of passenger transport can not be expected until 2022. Trams in France List of town tramway systems in France Angers Loire métropole tram website
CRRC Dalian Co. Ltd. abbreviated as DLoco, is a company located in Dalian, Liaoning Province, producing railway locomotives, multiple units and diesel engines. The factory was established in 1899 during the period of construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, as the Shahekou works, was under Japanese control from 1905, part of the Manchukuo state. After the end of the Second World War the railway was under joint Chinese and Russian control until the 1950s when the Chinese Eastern Railroad and the city of Dalian were transferred to sole Chinese control; the factory was state owned, controlled by the Ministry of Railways until 2001 when LORIC was split into two groups. The locomotive factory in Dalian was founded in 1899, contemporary with the construction of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway during the lease of the Liaodong Peninsula from China to the Russian Empire, to the development of Dalian as a port and town. In 1905, the "Shahekou Plant" came under Japanese control as a result of the Treaty of Portsmouth, in 1906 the railway from Dalian to Changchun became part of the Japanese controlled South Manchurian Railway.
In 1934 the factory together with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, manufactured the Asia Express high speed steam train for the South Manchuria Railway. In 1945 at the end of the Second World War the city came under Soviet Russian control; the Changchun Railway was jointly operated by China and Russia until 1952, when control was passed to the Chinese government. Soviet Russian occupation ended in 1955. In 1956 the company manufactured the China Railways HP prototype 2-10-2 steam locomotive. and in 1957, the first China Railways JS class 2-8-2 locomotive, of which 1916 were built at different plants. As well as other steam locomotives. Diesel locomotives were developed and produced at the plant, a prototype diesel electric type "JuLong" was produced in 1958 based on the Russian ТЭ10 locomotive and Fairbanks Morse FM38D opposed piston engine, which led to the DF class diesel electric locomotives entered production in 1964; the change from steam to diesel production began in 1965, in 1969, the first of the China Railways DF4 class of locomotives was produced.
The DF4 series of locomotive type became the main mainline diesel locomotive type in China, developments were produced in the following decades. In the 1980s the company began a decade long research partnership with Ricardo plc into increasing the power output and efficiency of its DL240 diesel engine products. In 1997 it began working with Southwest Research Institute on the design of a new locomotive diesel engine; the company first exported a mainline diesel locomotive in 1993, by the middle of the first decade of the 21st century the company had exported over 200 diesel locomotives. By 2000 the company was producing half of the China's internal supply of diesel locomotives, manufactured 80% of the countries diesel locomotive exports. Dalian locomotive works' parent company, state-owned China National Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry Corporation, was split into the northern and southern groups in 2002; the locomotive works was incorporated as a limited company in 2003, known as CNR Group Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock or just CNR Dalian.
In the first decade of the 21st century the plant began producing two new mainline locomotive product types. In the 2000s the diesel electric locomotives China Railways HXN3 were produced at Dalian in association with GM EMD; as part of the initial public offering, the stake of CRN Dalian was transferred to an intermediate holding company China CNR in 2008. In 2009 the company obtained its first export order to supply locomotives to a western country, an order for 20 New Zealand DL class locomotives. In 2009 the groundbreaking ceremony took place for a new plant in the Lüshun economic development zone; the facility, on a 2 km site, is designed to have a production of around 1000 locomotives, 1000 rail vehicles and 1000 diesel engines per year. The plant opened in August 2011, the first vehicles on the production line were metro passenger units for Line 2, Tianjin Metro. One of the company's latest export orders came in January 2015 from the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority for 15 metro trains for the Lagos Rail Mass Transit system in Nigeria, with an option for 14 more.
This order came about following a failed acquisition of old H-series carriages retired from the Toronto, Canada metro system. The company's primary products are related parts. Sharing the same registered address in the Shahekou District, CRRC Dalian Dali Railway Transportation Equipment Co. Ltd. was found in 2007. The company was
The Nice tramway is a 27.5-kilometre, triple-line tramway in the city of Nice in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France. It is operated by the Société nouvelle des transports de l'agglomération niçoise division of Transdev under the name Lignes d'azur. Opened on 24 November 2007, it replaced bus lines 1, 2, 5 and 18. From the start, the system had 20 Alstom Citadis trams in service, providing a tram every seven minutes. Since its inception, the number of passengers has increased from 70,000 per day in 2008 to 90,000 per day in 2011; the frequency has increased to a tram every four minutes in 2011. Given the success of the T1 line, mayor of Nice Christian Estrosi decided to create additional lines; the West-East Line is to serve the Nice Côte d'Azur Airport to the west through the construction of a multimodal center and the Port of Nice to the east. This line will run through a tunnel in the center of Nice. A future extension of the West-East line, north along the Var valley, is proposed. Another extension, running further west from the airport, across the Var, is proposed.
In addition, the Nice Côte d'azur urban region decided to extend line 1 to the Pasteur neighborhood. The first tramway in Nice opened in 1879, was electrified in 1900, was followed by a departmental network in 1906; the entire network was electrified in 1910. In the 1920s, the network had 11 lines, some of which were used for goods transport. However, the tram was criticised and was replaced by buses on some lines beginning in 1927; the last tramway in Nice ceased service on 10 January 1953. Like many other French cities, Nice has major traffic problems, including the fact that most economic activities are concentrated in the centre. To overcome these problems, studies on the implementation of transit in dedicated lanes were conducted in 1987; the city of Nice began to implement dedicated bus lanes in 1997, launched a study on the implementation of a tram line in 1998. Trams were chosen because they appeared to be more reliable than buses, since they are not subject to the vagaries of traffic, but they are less expensive than a subway line.
The tram was declared a public utility in 2003 and work began the same year. In the months following the launch of the tram, there were between 65,000 and 70,000 passengers daily; the Nice tramway was designed to serve most of the population of Nice. As the city is situated on hilly ground by the sea, the first tram line was drawn as a U shape, passing through the city centre. Called "Las Planas", the north-western terminus of the tramway was renamed "Henri Sappia" in July, 2013; the Henri Sappia depot is situated at the northwestern terminus of the line in the neighbourhood of Le Rouret, where the Count of Falicon and the Marquis of Rouret once owned large villas and many farms dotted the land. Above the tram terminus sport and cultural centres have been built; the plaza in front of the station has been raised and planted, with a fountain of water jets installed. The Fontaine du Temple neighbourhood where the Comte de Falicon tram stop is built has been remodelled for the arrival of the tramway.
The plaza will host an outdoor market. Line 2 will run for 11.3 km of. Starting at the port in the east and ending at Nice Côte d'Azur Airport and Nikaïa in the west, serving 20 stations in total. Ridership expectations are 140,000 passengers per day. Work began in the second half of 2014. A €270m contract for building the underground section was awarded in December 2013. Service from CADAM to Magnan opened on June 30th 2018, service to the airport and Jean Médecin station opened in December 2018, service on the complete line is planned for summer 2019, the journey is about 26 minutes from Nice Airport to Port Lympia; the total cost of the line is projected to be €770m of which the central government is contributing €52.8m. Line 3 will branch off Line 2 at the Interchange located at Gare de Nice-Saint-Augustin which will add an additional 6 stations onto the network with its terminus being located at Saint-Isidore. Line 3 will serve the Allianz Riviera with journey times from the Stadium to the Port projected at being 36 Minutes An extension from the current Line 2 to Saint Laurent du Var and Cagnes-Sur-Mer has been proposed In addition, an extension of the original Line 1 from its current terminus at Hôpital Pasteur Art works are used throughout the line, including sculptures of figures by Jaume Plensa, on the top of pylons on the Place Massena.
Michel Redolfi designed the sound system. Artists Benjamin Vautier, known as "Ben", the Mado la Niçoise, Michael Lonsdale and others make voice announcements inside the tram. Sounds and voices are different depending on the hours, etc; the thirteen artists selected to decorate the tramway are: Ben Michael Craig-Martin Gunda Förster Yann Kersalé Ange Leccia Stéphane Magnin Maurizio Nannucci Jean-Michel Othoniel Pascal Pinaud Jaume Plensa Emmanuel Saulnier Pierre di Sciullo Sarkis Zabunyan Jacques Vieille. The cars of the Nice tramway are unique and have been designed to blend in with the Niçois architecture, they are based on the Alstom Citadis family of tramcars and were built near La Rochelle, Poitou-Charentes. A standard 5-car tram measures 35 m but extra carriages may be added, bringing the length to 45 m; the tram can carry 200 passengers at 18 km/h compared to 11 km/h for the bus. It uses the 1,435 mm standard gauge. Ni
Charles Bridge is a historic bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic. Its construction started in 1357 under the auspices of King Charles IV, finished in the beginning of the 15th century; the bridge replaced the old Judith Bridge built 1158–1172, badly damaged by a flood in 1342. This new bridge was called Stone Bridge or Prague Bridge but has been "Charles Bridge" since 1870; as the only means of crossing the river Vltava until 1841, Charles Bridge was the most important connection between Prague Castle and the city's Old Town and adjacent areas. This "solid-land" connection made Prague important as a trade route between Eastern and Western Europe; the bridge is 621 metres long and nearly 10 metres wide, following the example of the Stone Bridge in Regensburg, it was built as a bow bridge with 16 arches shielded by ice guards. It is protected by three bridge towers, two on the Lesser Quarter side and one on the Old Town side, the Old Town Bridge Tower; the bridge is decorated by a continuous alley of 30 statues and statuaries, most of them baroque-style erected around 1700 but now all replaced by replicas.
Repairs are scheduled to start in late 2019, should take around 20 years. Throughout its history, Charles Bridge has suffered several disasters and witnessed many historic events. Czech legend has it that construction began on Charles Bridge at 5:31am on 9 July 1357 with the first stone being laid by Charles IV himself; this exact time was important to the Holy Roman Emperor because he was a strong believer in numerology and felt that this specific time, which formed a palindrome, was a numerical bridge, would imbue Charles Bridge with additional strength. The bridge was completed 45 years in 1402. A flood in 1432 damaged three pillars. In 1496 the third arch broke down. A year after the Battle of White Mountain, when the 27 leaders of the anti-Habsburg revolt were executed on 21 June 1621, the Old Town Bridge Tower served as a deterrent display of the severed heads of the victims to stop Czechs from further resistance. During the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648, the Swedes occupied the west bank of the Vltava, as they tried to advance into the Old Town the heaviest fighting took place right on the bridge.
During the fighting, they damaged one side of the Old Town bridge tower and the remnants of all gothic decorations had to be removed from it afterward. During the late 17th century and early 18th century the bridge gained its typical appearance when an alley of baroque statues was installed on the pillars. During a great flood in 1784, five pillars were damaged and, although the arches did not break down, the traffic on the bridge had to be restricted for some time; the original stairway to Kampa Island was replaced by a new one in 1844. The next year, another great flood threatened the bridge. In 1848, during the revolutionary days, the bridge escaped unharmed from the cannonade, but some of the statues were damaged. In 1866, pseudo-gothic gas lights were erected on the balustrade. In the 1870s, the first regular public-transport line went over the bridge replaced by a horse tram; the bridge towers underwent a thorough reconstruction between 1874 and 1883. On 2–5 September 1890, another disastrous flood struck Prague and damaged Charles Bridge.
Thousands of rafts and other floating materials that escaped from places upstream formed a huge barrier leaning against the bridge. Three arches were torn down by the great pressure and two pillars collapsed from being undermined by the water, while others were damaged. With the fifth pillar, two statues – St. Ignatius of Loyola and St. Xavier, both by Ferdinand Brokoff – fell into the river; the former statue was replaced by a statuary of Saints Methodius by Karel Dvořák. Repair works cost 665,000 crowns. In the beginning of the 20th century, Charles Bridge saw a steep rise of heavy traffic; the last day of the horse line on the bridge was 15 May 1905, when it was replaced with an electric tram and in 1908, with buses. At the end of World War II, a barricade was built in the Old Town bridge tower gateway. A capital repair of the bridge took place between 1965 and 1978, based on a collaboration among various scientific and cultural institutes; the stability of the pillars was reassured, all broken stone blocks were replaced, the asphalt top was removed.
All vehicular traffic has been excluded from Charles Bridge since making it accessible by pedestrians only. The repair cost 50 million crowns. During the 1990s, some people started criticizing the previous reconstruction of the bridge and proposing further work; as of the beginning of the new millennium, most of the experts appeared to agree that the previous reconstruction had not been flawless but disputed the need for further interference with the bridge. However, after the disastrous floods of 2002, support for an overall bridge reconstruction grew, it was decided that repair and stabilization of the two pillars on the Malá Strana side of the bridge would be done. These are the only river pillars. The
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors or fully segregated from the outside environment. Third rail systems are always supplied from direct current electricity; the third-rail system of electrification is unrelated to the third rail used in dual gauge railways. Third-rail systems are a means of providing electric traction power to trains using an additional rail for the purpose. On most systems, the conductor rail is placed on the sleeper ends outside the running rails, but in some systems a central conductor rail is used; the conductor rail is supported on ceramic insulators or insulated brackets at intervals of around 10 feet. The trains have metal contact blocks called collector shoes which make contact with the conductor rail; the traction current is returned to the generating station through the running rails.
In the US, the conductor rail is made of high conductivity steel or steel bolted to aluminium to increase the conductivity. Elsewhere in the world, extruded aluminum conductors with stainless steel contact surface or cap, is the preferred technology due to its lower electrical resistance, longer life, lighter weight; the running rails are electrically connected using wire bonds or other devices, to minimise resistance in the electric circuit. Contact shoes can be positioned below, above, or beside the third rail, depending on the type of third rail used: these third rails are referred to as bottom-contact, top-contact, or side-contact, respectively; the conductor rails have to be interrupted at level crossings and substation gaps. Tapered rails are provided at the ends of each section, to allow a smooth engagement of the train's contact shoes; the position of contact between the train and the rail varies: some of the earliest systems used top contact, but developments use side or bottom contact, which enabled the conductor rail to be covered, protecting track workers from accidental contact and protecting the conductor rail from frost, ice and leaf-fall.
Because third rail systems present electric shock hazards close to the ground, high voltages are not considered safe. A high current must therefore be used to transfer adequate power, resulting in high resistive losses, requiring closely spaced feed points; the electrified rail threatens electrocution of anyone falling onto the tracks. This can be avoided by using platform screen doors, or the risk can be reduced by placing the conductor rail on the side of the track away from the platform, when allowed by the station layout; the risk can be reduced by having an insulated coverboard to protect the third rail from contact, although many systems do not use one. In some modern systems such as the ground-level power supply, the safety problem is avoided by splitting the power rail into small segments, each of, only powered when covered by a train. There is a risk of pedestrians walking onto the tracks at level crossings. In the US, a 1992 Supreme Court of Illinois decision affirmed a $1.5 million verdict against the Chicago Transit Authority for failing to stop an intoxicated person from walking onto the tracks at a level crossing in an attempt to urinate.
The Paris Metro has graphic warning signs pointing out the danger of electrocution from urinating on third rails, precautions which Chicago did not have. The end ramps of conductor rails present a practical limitation on speed due to the mechanical impact of the shoe, 160 km/h is considered the upper limit of practical third-rail operation; the world speed record for a third rail train is 174 km/h attained on 11 April 1988 by a British Class 442 EMU. In the event of a collision with a foreign object, the beveled end ramps of bottom running systems can facilitate the hazard of having the third rail penetrate the interior of a passenger car; this is believed to have contributed to the death of five passengers in the Valhalla train crash of 2015. Third rail systems using top contact are prone to accumulations of snow, or ice formed from refrozen snow, this can interrupt operations; some systems operate dedicated de-icing trains to deposit an oily fluid or antifreeze on the conductor rail to prevent the frozen build-up.
The third rail can be heated to alleviate the problem of ice. Unlike third rail systems, overhead line equipment can be affected by strong winds or freezing rain bringing the wires down and stopping all trains. Thunderstorms can disable the power with lightning strikes on systems with overhead wires, disabling trains if there is a power surge or a break in the wires; because of the gaps in the conductor rail a train can stop in a position where all of its power pickup shoes are in gaps, so that no traction power is available. The train is said to be "gapped". Another train must be brought up behind the stranded train to push it on to the conductor rail, or a jumper cable may be used to supply enough power to the train to get one of its contact shoes back on the third rail. Avoiding this problem requires a minimum length of trains that can be run on a line. Locomotives have either had the backup of an on-board diesel engine system, or have been connected to shoes on the rolling stock; the first idea for feeding elec
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Conduit current collection
Conduit current collection is a system of electric current collection used by electric tramways, where the power supply was carried in a'conduit' under the roadway. The power rails are contained in a conduit midway between and below the two surface rails on which the cars operate, in much the same fashion as the cable for cable cars; the conduit contains two "T" section steel power rails of opposite polarity facing each other, about 12 inches apart and about 18 inches below the street surface. Power reached the car by means of an attachment, called a plough, that rode in the conduit beneath the car; the plough had two metal shoes attached to springs. The plough was connected to a platform that could slide laterally to conform with variations in the placement of the conduit, for example in some areas there was a conduit for cable cars adjacent to the one for electric cars; the current was carried by a flexible cable from the plough through the platform to the car's controller and motor. The running rails are not part of the electrical circuit.
In the United States, the cars were sometimes popularly but incorrectly called trolleys but did not draw power through a trolley pole from an overhead wire as trolley cars do. Conduit current collection was one of the first ways of supplying power to trams but it proved to be much more expensive and trouble-prone than overhead wires; when electric street railways became ubiquitous, it was only used in those cities that did not permit overhead wires, including London, Berlin, Vienna and Prague in Europe, the New York City borough of Manhattan and Washington, D. C. in the United States. In Denver, the world's second electric street railway in 1885 pioneered conduit current collection. Difficulties with the conduit and the streetcars led to the replacement of conduit cars and lines with cable cars by 1888. New York City had the largest installation of conduit cars, due to the prohibition of overhead wires on Manhattan Island, although a few Bronx-based trolley lines entered the northern reaches of Manhattan using overhead wire.
Trolley lines from Brooklyn and Queens entered Manhattan under wire, but did not use city streets. The primary reason for the initial adoption of conduit systems was for aesthetic reasons as an alternative to overhead wiring, objected to as being unsightly; the expense of creating conduit lines in New York was reduced where it was possible to convert the cable vaults from discontinued cable car lines. The huge cost of building new conduits gave New York the distinction of having one of the last horsecar lines in the U. S. not closing until 1917. In some old photographs, two "slots" may be seen between the rails. In New York City, sometimes one slot was used for the other for electric cars. Two competing lines shared a common track and had independent slots for the ploughs of the respective cars. In New York City, the Queensboro Bridge between Manhattan and Queens had tracks installed on the outer lanes with conduits for Manhattan cars in addition to overhead wires; the conduit allowed them to run to Queens Plaza terminus without need for removing the plough and raising the poles.
In years the conduit was removed and only trolley wire remained. In the centre of Brussels some tram lines were fitted with conduits, the last ones being converted to overhead operation during World War II; the system was tried in the seaside resort of Blackpool, UK, but was soon abandoned as sand and saltwater entered the conduit and caused breakdowns and there was a problem with voltage drop. Some sections of track still had the conduit slot visible until the tramway was refurbished in 2012. Washington, D. C. had a large network of conduit lines. Some lines used overhead wires when they approached suburban areas; the last such line ran to Maryland. The current collector "plow" was mounted underneath the car on a fitting just forward of the rear truck on PCC streetcars, it had two cables with female connectors on cables to attach to matching cables of the car's electrical system. A "plowman" was assigned at each changeover point from overhead trolley wire to conduit to remove the cable attachments to the car and stow the plow, which did not remain with the car and was reattached in an incoming car running on overhead wire.
The lower section of the plow "board" was drawn by the moving car within the cavity of the conduit. Because of this usage, many of Washington's streetcars carried trolley poles, which were lowered while operating in the central part of the city. The'pit' here has the meaning analogous to racing circuit pits rather than a depression in the road. In the UK, London had a hybrid network of double-deck trams: overhead collection was used in the outer sections and conduit in the centre. At the changeover from conduit to overhead wire, at a change pit, the process was automatic; the conductor put the trolley pole onto the wire, as the tram moved forward the conduit channel veered sideways to outside the running track, automatically ejecting the plough - the tram was said to be'shooting the plough'. At the changeover from overhead wire to conduit the process was a little more complicated; the tram pulled up alongside a ploughman, who engaged a two-pronged plough fork over the plough in a short length of unelectrified conduit and into the plou