Ground billiards is a modern term for a family of European lawn games, the original names of which are unknown, played with a long-handled mallet, wooden balls, a hoop, an upright skittle or pin. The game, which billiard historian Michael Ian Shamos calls "the original game of billiards", was the precursor of many more familiar outdoor and indoor games, including snooker, nine-ball and hockey. Dating back, in the form described above, to at least the 15th century, in recognizable form to as early as the 14th, this proto-billiard game appears to have been ancestral to croquet, pall-mall, jeu de mail, indoor cue sports; the location of origin is obscure, with various scholars tracing it to medieval France, Spain, Germany, or more than one of these areas. More exotic and earlier origins have been proposed. In the late 17th to early 18th centuries, indoor billiards was exactly the same game, with smaller equipment and played on a bounded table, with or without pockets. Use of the king pin declined first in most areas, followed by the abandonment of the port arch, though many variants featured both as well as pockets, while the king survived and multiplied in some cases, leading to such modern games as five-pins.
Ground and table billiards were played contemporaneously, the outdoor version remained known until at least the beginning of the 19th century. The game's relationships to bowling, golf and bat-and-ball games are not certain, it is clear that bowling, in its ancestral form skittles, shares a common origin with ground billiards, as the two game types share both the basic objective, to direct a rolling ball towards a target, equipment, aside from the mace. Some contemporary sources depict the same game being played both with the hand and with a mace, show a distinctive teardrop-shaped king pin design, with a rounded bottom; this pin shape suggests that it may have been the origin of the modern bottom-heavy design of bowling pins and similar skittles of various sizes used in a wide variety of games. A conical king or jack, as well as round jacks or pallinos as used in modern bowls, bocce, pétanque, were employed in lawn bowling games at least as early as the thirteenth century in England, with a similar goal.
The Dutch game het kolven, a precursor of golf dating to at least the early 13th century, seems to be intermediate between ground billiards on the one hand, both golf and ice hockey on the other. It was played in a wicker-bounded court during warm weather, on ice in the winter, like bandy. Players used maces similar to those shown in early ground billiards illustrations. At least one variant of it used holes in the ground, reminiscent of both golf holes and billiard pockets, instead of above-ground targets; the modern version, kolf or kolven, uses a tall, flat-bottomed king pin at each end of the court, is played indoors. Engravings dating back to c. 1300 show a game being played, an early variant of either ground billiards or one-on-one field hockey, sometimes within a bounded area. A similar game has survived in the form of box hockey. There are hints. At least as early as 360 BCE, Romans played a somewhat golf-like game called paganica that could have degenerated to simpler, smaller-scale lawn games during the Dark Ages.
Second-century Ireland has been proposed as a time and place of origin. Third century BCE Greece has been proposed. Earlier still, a bas relief dating to c. 600 BCE depicts an ancient Greek ball game, a possible ancestor of both ground billiards and field hockey, which may have been called kerētízein or kerhtízein because it was played with an implement shaped like a horn. It appears to be the same as the Mediaeval European activity of c. 1300 CE. An ancient Greek game said to be "analogous to billiards" was reported in contemporary Greek writings around 400 BCE. Billiard scholars Victor Stein and Paul Rubino conclude that there is an unbroken chain of game evolution from widespread prehistoric stick-and-ball games and rituals, through the civilizations of classical antiquity, to modern lawn and cue sports in Europe and Asia. Polo, a cavalry-training sport originating in Ancient Persia, is the same core game, but played on horseback with a longer cue-mallet. A set of gaming pieces, buried with a child dating to c. 3300 BCE in Egypt, features stone balls, an arch.
Stein and Rubino, among other researchers, believe that games such as early ball-and-stick activities and many others were brought into Europe from the Near East and Middle East by returning Crusaders from the 12th century onward, that the pastimes were kept alive and evolving on that continent principally by the Christian clergy. Games played with curved sticks and a ball have been found throughout history and the world. In Inner Mongolia in modern-day China, the Daur people have been playing beikou, a game simil
Maoricrypta is a genus of small to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Calyptraeidae, the slipper snails and saucer shells and Chinese hat shells. This marine genus is known to occur off New Australia. Species within the genus Maoricrypta include: Maoricrypta costata † Maoricrypta haliotoidea Marwick, 1926 Maoricrypta immersa Maoricrypta kopua Marshall, 2003 Maoricrypta monoxyla † Maoricrypta profunda Hutton † Maoricrypta radiata Maoricrypta sodalis B. A. Marshall, 2003 Maoricrypta youngi Powell, 1940 Marshall B. A. 2003. A review of the Recent and Late Cenozoic Calyptraeidae of New Zealand; the Veliger 46: 117-144
"Sick" is the second episode of the third season of the post-apocalyptic horror television series The Walking Dead, which aired on AMC in the United States on October 21, 2012. In their haste to amputate Hershel Greene's infected leg while clearing out the prison and his group encounter five living prisoners, Andrew, Big Tiny and Oscar. Rick, T-Dog keep the prisoners at a distance, learning they have been shut away for the last ten months and were unaware of the extent of the walker epidemic. Tomas believes the prison should be theirs, but Rick asserts that since they spilled blood to clear it, the prison belongs to Rick's group. However, Rick does offer to let the prisoners split the supplies; the group returns back to their cell block where Hershel is kept in a separate cell and watched over in case he turns. Rick keeps the prisoners in a locked cell temporarily. Rick tells Lori he does not trust the prisoners and considers killing them. Rick offers to help the prisoners clear a cell block and he, T-Dog provide them melee weapons as they show them how to fight off walkers.
During this, Big Tiny is scratched in the back by a walker. Unable to save Big Tiny as they had with Hershel, Tomas hacks at Big Tiny with an ax mercilessly to kill him, making Rick and the others uneasy. Tomas disobeys Rick's instructions as they clear out a room, forcing the group to deal with a mass of walkers. In the chaos, Tomas attempts to assassinate Rick twice; the walkers are subdued, Rick confronts Tomas. Tomas claims he was reacting instinctively but Rick drives a machete into Tomas' head, killing him. Andrew misses, he runs outside into a courtyard filled with walkers. Rick locks Andrew out, despite his pleas to be let back in. Oscar and Axel profess no knowledge of Tomas' or Andrew's plans and surrender their weapons to Rick's group, he keeps to his word, letting them stay in the cleared block. Meanwhile, Carl takes off on his own to get medical supplies from the infirmary, though successful, is scolded by Lori. Carol has Glenn help her capture a female walker to allow her to practice performing a C-section, as Hershel may not be able to help when Lori goes into labor.
They are unaware. Hershel starts to show signs of recovery, is conscious after Rick returns from the other cell block. On, Lori tries to strike up an intimate conversation with Rick, who thanks her for helping with Hershel, coldly walks away; the episode was well received. Zack Handlen, writing for The A. V. Club, gave the episode a B+ on a scale from A to F. Eric Goldman at IGN gave the episode an 8.0 out of 10. Upon its initial broadcast on October 21, 2012, "Sick" was watched by an estimated 9.55 million viewers, down from the season premiere which broke several records when it reached 10.9 million viewers, becoming the most-watched scripted drama telecast on a basic cable network in history, the most-watched episode of the series to date. "Sick" at AMC "Sick" on IMDb "Sick" at TV.com
Pavlina Stoyanova-Nola is a former tennis player who played for both Bulgaria and New Zealand in her professional career. Nola turned professional in 1995, she reached her career high ranking of No. 68 in the world on 14 May 2001. The best singles result of her career was finishing runner-up to Henrieta Nagyová at a WTA tournament in Palermo where she lost 3–6, 5–7, she one won doubles title at the same tournament two years with Elena Pampoulova-Wagner. She played her last match in 2002, losing in the first round of the 2002 Australian Open to Janette Husárová. Captain of Campbells Bay Tennis Club – Chelsea Cup team 2010 — Pavlina Nola was Captain of Campbell’s Bay Tennis Club Chelsea Cup team in 2010; the Chelsea Cup is the premier club tennis league competition for North Shore City in New Zealand. Campbells Bay Tennis Club is a large tennis club based in the best location on the shore. Pavlina was successful winning captain leading a team consisting of Franziska Etzel, Kairangi Vano, Vicki Wild and Charlotte Roberts.
Such was Pavlina’s dominance in the competition that in the nine matches she ended with astonishing statistics of playing nine matches and winning 108 games and giving the opposition only 14 games. Pavlina Nola debuted for the Bulgaria Fed Cup team in 1995. Since she has a 4–4 singles record and a 1–3 doubles record. RR = Round Robin PPO = Promotion Play-Off A = did not participate in the tournament SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played Pavlina Nola at the Women's Tennis Association Pavlina Nola at the International Tennis Federation Pavlina Nola at the Fed Cup
The Roasting Ear Church and School is a historic multifunction building in rural northwestern Stone County, Arkansas. It is located northeast of Onia, on County Road 48 west of its junction with County Road 86, it is a single-story wood frame structure, with a front-facing gable roof, weatherboard siding, stone foundation. The main facade has a pair of symmetrically-placed entrances with transom windows and simple molding, otherwise lacks adornment. Built c. 1918, it is a well-preserved example of a typical rural Arkansas structure built to house both a church congregation and a local school. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. National Register of Historic Places listings in Stone County, Arkansas
Konoe Motozane, son of Fujiwara no Tadamichi, was a Kugyō during the late Heian period. His sons include Motomichi and wives include a daughter of Fujiwara no Tadataka they divorce and he married Taira no Moriko, second daughter of Taira no Kiyomori. At age of 16 he assumed the position of kampaku, regent, to Emperor Nijō, becoming a head of Fujiwara family, he died at the age of 24 and his wife, Taira no Moriko become a widow at the age of 12. A year after he took the position of sesshō, or regent, to Emperor Rokujō, his ancestry came to be known as Konoe family, one of the Five sessho families. Taira no Moriko daughter of Fujiwara no Tadataka Konoe Motomichi daughter of Fujiwara no Akisuke Awataguchi Tadayoshi Konoe Michiko married Emperor Takakura daughter of Minamoto Moritsune??? Unknown