SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Group 6 element

Group 6, numbered by IUPAC style, is a group of elements in the periodic table. Its members are chromium, molybdenum and seaborgium; these are all transition metals and chromium and tungsten are refractory metals. The period 8 elements of group 6 are to be either unpenthexium or unpentoctium; this may not be possible. Neither unpenthexium nor unpentoctium have been synthesized, it is unlikely that this will happen in the near future; the electron electron configuration of these elements do not follow a unified trend, though the the outermost shells do correlate with trends in chemical behavior: "Group 6" is the new IUPAC name for this group. Group 6 must not be confused with the group with the old-style group crossed names of either VIA or VIB; that group is now called group 16. Chromium was first reported on July 26, 1761, when Johann Gottlob Lehmann found an orange-red mineral in the Beryozovskoye mines in the Ural Mountains of Russia, which he named "Siberian red lead,", found out in less than 10 years to be a bright yellow pigment.

Though misidentified as a lead compound with selenium and iron components, the mineral was crocoite with a formula of PbCrO4. Studying the mineral in 1797, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin produced chromium trioxide by mixing crocoite with hydrochloric acid metallic chromium by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven a year later, he was able to detect traces of chromium in precious gemstones, such as ruby or emerald. Molybdenite—the principal ore from which molybdenum is now extracted—was known as molybdena, confused with and implemented as though it were graphite. Like graphite, molybdenite can be used to blacken a surface or as a solid lubricant; when molybdena was distinguishable from graphite, it was still confused with a galena, which took its name from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead. It was not until 1778 that Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele realized that molybdena was neither graphite nor lead, he and other chemists correctly assumed that it was the ore of a distinct new element, named molybdenum for the mineral in which it was discovered.

Peter Jacob Hjelm isolated molybdenum by using carbon and linseed oil in 1781. Regarding tungsten, in 1781 Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite. Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing this acid. In 1783, José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite, identical to tungstic acid; that year, in Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, they are credited with the discovery of the element. During the 1800s, chromium was used as a component of paints and in tanning salts. At first, crocoite from Russia was the main source, but in 1827, a larger chromite deposit was discovered near Baltimore, United States; this made the United States the largest producer of chromium products until 1848 when large deposits of chromite where found near Bursa, Turkey. Chromium was used for electroplating as early as 1848, but this use only became widespread with the development of an improved process in 1924.

For about a century after its isolation, molybdenum had no industrial use, owing to its relative scarcity, difficulty extracting the pure metal, the immaturity of the metallurgical subfield. Early molybdenum steel alloys showed great promise in their increased hardness, but efforts were hampered by inconsistent results and a tendency toward brittleness and recrystallization. In 1906, William D. Coolidge filed a patent for rendering molybdenum ductile, leading to its use as a heating element for high-temperature furnaces and as a support for tungsten-filament light bulbs. In 1913, Frank E. Elmore developed a flotation process to recover molybdenite from ores. During the first World War, demand for molybdenum spiked; some British tanks were protected by 75 mm manganese steel plating, but this proved to be ineffective. The manganese steel plates were replaced with 25 mm molybdenum-steel plating allowing for higher speed, greater maneuverability, better protection. After the war, demand plummeted until metallurgical advances allowed extensive development of peacetime applications.

In World War II, molybdenum again saw strategic importance as a substitute for tungsten in steel alloys. In World War II, tungsten played a significant role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main European source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore at Panasqueira. Tungsten's resistance to high temperatures and its strengthening of alloys made it an important raw material for the arms industry. Unlike other groups, the members of this family do not show patterns in its electron configuration, as two lighter members of the group are exceptions from the Aufbau principle: Most of the chemistry has been observed only for the first three members of the group; the chemistry of seaborgium is not established and therefore the rest of the section deals only with its upper neighbors in the periodic table. The elements in the group, like those of groups 7—11, have high melting points, form volatile compounds in hig

James Abbott (Indian Army officer)

For others named James Abbott, see the James Abbott navigation pageGeneral Sir James Abbott, was a British army officer and administrator in colonial India. The Pakistani city of Abbottabad was named after him. James Abbott was the 3rd son of Henry Alexius Abbott, a retired Calcutta merchant of Blackheath and his wife Margaret Welsh, the daughter of William Welsh of Edinburgh. Abbott was educated at a school in Eliot Place, Blackheath and at the East India Company Military Seminary in Addiscombe, Surrey. A number of his siblings would achieve distinction, notably Augustus Abbott, Sir Frederick Abbott, Saunders Alexius Abbott and Keith Edward Abbott, he was commissioned as a cadet in the Bengal Artillery at the age of sixteen, arriving in India in 1823. He first saw action at the Siege of Bharatpur under the command of his older brother Augustus. In 1827 he was made adjutant to the Sirhind division of artillery. During this period he saw little action, between 1835 and 1836 was assigned to the revenue surveys in Gorakhpur and Bareilly.

In June 1838 he was promoted to brevet captain. In November 1838, Abbott served in the army of Sir John Keane, tasked with supporting Shuja Shah Durrani in his bid to wrest power from Dost Mohammad Khan in Afghanistan; the British had been eager to secure Afghanistan, the gateway to India, in light of increasing Russian influence in the central Asia. In 1839 the British learned. In December 1839 acting Captain Abbott was sent from Herat to Khiva in an attempt to negotiate the release of Russian slaves and thereby deny the Russians a pretext for invasion. If war had broken out, Abbott was instructed to attempt to negotiate a settlement. Abbott reached Khiva in late January, a week or so before the Russians were forced to turn back due to an unusually cold winter; the Khivans knew little of Britain and he was hampered by a lack of understanding of Khivan language and culture. The attempt to release Russian slaves failed, he did agree with the Khivan ruler, Allah Quli Khan, to establish a British agent in Khiva and to travel to Russia to negotiate between the two powers.

He had no authorisation to serve as the Khan's agent, but had no way to communicate with his superiors in India. In March 1840 Abbott set off from Khiva to Fort Alexandrovsk on the Caspian Sea, his caravan was attacked by Kazakhs and he was wounded in the hand and taken hostage, but he and his party were released because they feared retribution. He reached, his bravery was recognised through promotion to full Captain. In May 1840 Lieutenant Richmond Shakespear of the Bengal Artillery went from Herat via Merv to Khiva, he escorted 416 Russian captives to the Caspian. Shakespear was knighted for this undertaking. In 1841, Abbott returned from Britain to India, he first held a post with a local battalion in Mewar before becoming assistant to the Resident in Indore in 1842. Following the conclusion of the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846, Abbott was hand picked to become one of Sir Henry Lawrence's "Young Men" known as The Paladins of the Punjaub; these were East India Company. Sir Henry Lawrence remarked of him: Made of stuff of the true knight errant, gentle as a girl in thought and deed, overflowing with warm affection, ready at all times to sacrifice himself for his country or his friend.

He is at the same time a brave and energetic soldier, with a peculiar power for attracting others Asiatics to his person. As part of the terms of the Treaty of Lahore signed after the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Sikh War and Kashmir were to be transferred to Raja Gulab Singh. Abbott was appointed assistant to Chattar Singh Attariwalla to quell unrest and undertake a survey of revenues. Abbott succeeded in this by learning the language and religion of the local people and promoting their social and economic interests, he made himself popular with Pashtun elders by permitting the call to prayer, banned by the Sikhs. During the Second Anglo-Sikh War, cut off from all communication with British troops, dependent upon his own resources, Abbott held the Margalla pass with a vastly inferior force until the conclusion of the war, a feat for which he was thanked by the Governor-General, The Earl of Dalhousie: It is a gratifying spectacle to witness the intrepid bearing of this officer in the midst of difficulties of no ordinary kind, not maintaining his position, but offering a bold front, at one time to the Sikhs at another to the Afghans.

He must have secured the attachment of the wild people amongst whom he was thrown by his mild and conciliatory demeanour in times of peace, as well as by his gallantry as their leader in action, thus enhancing the credit of our national character. After the British had annexed the Punjab in the aftermath of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, Abbott was promoted to brevet major and appointed First Deputy Commissioner of Hazara. In 1852, he commanded an expedition to the Black Mountain following the murder of Mr Carne and Mr Tapp and sub-collector of the salt tax by a party of sixty Hussunzyes. Abbott's original seat of government in the Hazara was at Haripur but he decided to shift this up into the hills for climatic and strategic reasons. Thus, a site was selected and acquired in late 1852, Abbott thereafter shifted his headquarters there in January 1853, founding a small town and military cantonment, to grow over time. Abbott him

Jimoh Aliu

Jimoh Aliu, MFR is a Nigerian dramatist, film writer and director. He was born on November 1939 at a city in Ekiti State southwestern Nigeria, his father, Aliu Fakoya is an Ifa priest who hails from Oke-Imesi but is mother hails from Iloro-Ekiti. He began acting in 1959 when Akin Ogungbe, a Nigerian veteran dramatist visited his hometown, the same year he joined the Akin Ogungbe theatre group where he gained some experience in drama. In 1966, after he spent seven years with the Ogungbe troupe, he established "Jimoh Aliu Concert Party", a group based in Ikare in Ondo State southwestern Nigeria, he joined the Nigerian Army in 1967 but retired in 1975 with the aim of focusing on drama as well as promoting independent artist under the platform of Jimoh Aliu cultural group. He had produced several television drama series such as Iku Jare Eda Yanpan yanrin and Fopomoyo that featured king Sunny Ade. Fopomoyo Yanpan yanrin Ajalu Arelu Igbo Eleje Irinkirindo rukerudo Member of the Federal Republic of Niger