Girard-Perregaux SA is a luxury Swiss watch manufacture with its origins dating back to 1791. Since 2011, the Swiss holding group of Girard-Perregaux, Sowind Group, has been a subsidiary of the French Kering Group. Headquartered in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the company opened the Girard-Perregaux Museum near its headquarters in Villa Marguerite in 1999. Girard-Perregaux is regarded as a top-tier Kering brand, it is best known for the historic Tourbillon with three gold bridges, awarded a Gold Medal at the 1889 International Exposition in Paris soon after the launch of the watch. Other notable models from the company include Bi-Axial Tourbillon and so on. In 1791, watchmaker and goldsmith Jean-François Bautte signed his first watches, he created a manufacturing company in Geneva, grouping for the first time all the watchmaking facets of that time. This includes the engineering of the watch all the way to the final hand-assembly and hand-polishing of each watch. In 1832, Jacques Bautte and Jean-Samuel Rossel succeeded Jean Bautte, becoming the head of the company.
In 1852, the watchmaker Constant Girard founded Cie in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. He married Marie Perregaux in the same year, the Girard-Perregaux Manufacture was founded in 1856. In 1906, Constant Girard-Gallet, who took over control of the Manufacture from his father, acquired the Bautte House and merged it with Girard-Perregaux & Cie. Since the quartz cirsis, the brand has pursued its activities by reinforcing from the 1980s its position in the domain of high-quality mechanical watches. Since late 1980s, Girard-Perregaux has been a part of the Swiss Sowind Group. In 1999, the Villa Marguerite, a building in La Chaux-de-Fonds from the beginning of the 20th century, became the Girard-Perregaux Museum. A selection of old watches and documents illustrating the history of the brand is presented there. In 2011, Sowind Group, the Swiss holding incorporating Girard-Perregaux, became a subsidiary of the French Kering Group. Girard-Perregaux relies on being a manufacturer of movements and watches, a manufacturer of cases and bands.
They bring together some tens of different components: watchmakers, movement decorators, etc. This global approach, founded on the traditional know-how of the watchmaking craftsmanship, allows them to create and direct high quality watches and movements from the assembly stages all the way to the final encasement. Girard-Perregaux designs and develops its own movements: a large collection of high-end watch making movements, of which the Tourbillon with three gold bridges is the emblematic piece. A complete range of mechanical movements at automatic reassembly, that can fit all the types of watches, all by serving as the base for the module constructions of mechanisms with complications. Quartz movements The Manufacture has 80 patents in the watchmaking domain and is the originator of many innovative concepts. 1965: Girard-Perregaux designed the first mechanical movement at high frequency, with the balance beating at 36,000 vibrations/hour: the Gyromatic HF. 1967: Girard-Perregaux receives the Centenary Award from the Astronomical Observatory de Neuchatel in recognition of the accomplishments of the Manufacture and for the Observatory Chronometer wristwatch that used the Gyromatic HF movement.
1970: Girard-Perregaux presents its first wristwatch to the world to be equipped with a quartz movement and the following year a second one which vibrates at 32,768 hertz, the frequency remaining the universal standard for quartz watches today. 2008: Girard-Perregaux presents prototypes of a constant-force escapement, distinguishing itself from all the other known escapements to this day. The first watch housing the constant escapement is presented in 2013, it is the emblematic model of Girard-Perregaux. In 1884, Constant Girard submitted to the United States Patent Office a patent of the design of the movement “Tourbillon with three gold bridges.” The three bridges were placed parallel to each other. The movement was no longer just a functional and technical element, but it became an element of design in every way. In 1889, the Tourbillon with three gold bridges was awarded a gold medal at the Universal Exposition of Paris. In 1980, Girard-Perregaux decided to make 20 pieces to conform to the original of 1889: 1500 hours of work were necessary to create the first one.
To celebrate its bicentenary in 1991, the company created a miniaturized wristwatch version of its famed Tourbillon with three gold Bridges. Since it is offered in different versions, is sometimes associated with other watchmakers’ complications. Vintage 1945 has a rectangular case and a design inspired by an Art Deco style watch dating back to 1945. Standing for worldwide time-control, this collection displays 24 time zones on the dial; the Vintage 1945 is powered by the Girard-Perregaux 9600-0019, mechanical self-winding movement and all in-house movement. In 2012, Girard-Perregaux introduced a new Girard-Perregaux 1966 Full Calendar and a 1966 Chronograph, highlighted as a new grand classic by Girard-Perregaux themselves; this Girard-Perregaux 1966 is a larger faced model than issued by the watchmaker at 42 mm and may be a sign of the changing demands upon watchmakers by the watch enthusiast community. Quentin Tarantino, American film director & screenwriter, 1994 & 2012 Academy Awards for Best Original Screenplay Kobe Bryant, American basketball player Pierce Brosnan, Irish-American actor Hugh Jackman, Australian actor Nicolas Sarkozy, 23rd President of France Farouk of Egypt, King of Egypt Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom List of watch manufacturers Manufac
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar
Balenciaga is a luxury fashion house founded in Spain by Cristóbal Balenciaga, a designer born in the Basque Country, Spain. The brand is now owned by the French multinational company Kering. Balenciaga had a reputation as a couturier of uncompromising standards and was referred to as "the master of us all" by Christian Dior, his bubble skirts and odd, yet "modernistic silhouettes" became the trademarks of the house. Cristóbal Balenciaga opened his first boutique in San Sebastián, Spain, in 1917, which expanded to include branches in Madrid and Barcelona; the Spanish royal family and the aristocracy wore his designs, but when the Spanish Civil War forced him to close his stores, Balenciaga moved to Paris. Balenciaga opened his Paris couture house on Avenue George V in August 1937, his first fashion show featured designs influenced by the Spanish Renaissance. Balenciaga's success in Paris was nearly immediate. In the period of two years, the French press lauded him as a revolutionary, his designs were sought-after.
Carmel Snow, the editor of Harper's Bazaar was an early champion of his designs. Customers risked their safety to travel to Europe during World War II to see Balenciaga's clothing. During this period, he was noted for his "square coat," with sleeves cut in a single piece with the yoke, for his designs with black lace over bright pink fabric. However, it was not until the post-war years that the full scale of the inventiveness of this original designer became evident, his lines became more linear and sleek, diverging from the hourglass shape popularized by Christian Dior's "New Look". The fluidity of his silhouettes enabled him to manipulate the relationship between his clothing and women's bodies. In 1951, he transformed the silhouette, broadening the shoulders and removing the waist. In 1955, he designed the tunic dress, which developed into the chemise dress of 1958. Other contributions in the postwar era included the spherical balloon jacket, the high-waisted baby doll dress, the cocoon coat, the balloon skirt, the sack dress.
In 1959, his work culminated in the Empire line, with high-waisted dresses and coats cut like kimonos. His manipulation of the waist, in particular, contributed to "what is considered to be his most important contribution to the world of fashion: a new silhouette for women."In the 1960s, Balenciaga was an innovator in his use of fabrics: he tended toward heavy fabrics, intricate embroidery, bold materials. His trademarks included "collars that stood away from the collarbone to give a swanlike appearance" and shortened "bracelet" sleeves, his spare, sculptural creations—including funnel-shape gowns of stiff duchess satin worn to acclaim by clients such as Pauline de Rothschild, Bunny Mellon, Marella Agnelli, Hope Portocarrero, Gloria Guinness, Mona von Bismarck—were considered masterworks of haute couture in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1960, he designed the wedding dress for Queen Fabiola of Belgium made of ivory duchess satin trimmed with white mink at the collar and the hips. Jackie Kennedy famously upset John F. Kennedy for buying Balenciaga's expensive creations while he was President because he feared that the American public might think the purchases too lavish.
Her haute couture bills were discreetly paid by her father-in-law, Joseph Kennedy. Several designers who worked for Balenciaga would go on to open their own successful couture houses, notably Oscar de la Renta, Andre Courreges, Emanuel Ungaro, but his most famous and noted protégé was Hubert de Givenchy, the lone designer to side with Balenciaga against the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture Parisienne and the press over the scheduling of his shows. In 1957, Balenciaga famously decided to show his collection to the fashion press the day before the clothing retail delivery date, not the standard four weeks before the retail delivery date the fashion industry followed at the time. By keeping the press unaware of the design of his garments until the day before they were shipped to stores, he hoped to curtail ongoing piracy and copying of his designs; the press resisted, finding it nearly impossible to get his work into their print deadlines, but Balenciaga and protégé Givenchy stood firm impacting their coverage and press of the era.
His supporters would argue that rival Christian Dior would gain acclaim from copying Balenciaga's silhouettes and cuts, claiming them as his own original work. In 1967, both designers reversed their decision and joined the traditional schedule. Balenciaga defiantly resisted the rules and bourgeoisie status of the Chambre syndicale de la haute couture parisienne, thus, was never a member. Although he is spoken of with immense reverence, Balenciaga couture was never haute couture. Cristóbal Balenciaga closed his fashion house in 1968 and died in 1972; the house lay dormant until 1986. In 1986, Jacques Bogart S. A. acquired the rights to Balenciaga, opened a new ready-to-wear line, "Le Dix". The first collection was designed by Michel Goma in October 1987, who remained at the house for the next five years to mixed reviews, he was replaced in 1992 with Dutch designer Josephus Thimister who began the restoration of Balenciaga to high-fashion status. During Thimister's term, Nicolas Ghesquière would join as a license designer, was promoted to head designer in 1997.
In 1992, for the Summer Olympic Games, House of Balenciaga designed the French team's clothes. Balenciaga is now owned by Kering known as PPR, its womenswear and menswear was headed by Nicolas Ghesquière. Ghesquière, like Balenciaga, is a self-taught designer, appren
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Théâtre Marigny is a theatre in Paris, situated near the junction of the Champs-Élysées and the Avenue Marigny in the 8th arrondissement. It was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier for the display of a panorama, which opened in 1883; the panorama was converted to the Théâtre Marigny in 1894 by the architect Édouard Niermans and became a home to operetta and other musical theatre. An earlier theatre on the site, the Salle Lacaze, became known in 1855, as the home of Jacques Offenbach's Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, where he first built his reputation as a theatre composer. In 1864 this became the Théâtre des Folies-Marigny, demolished in 1881, giving way to a panorama built by Charles Garnier. In 1885, dioramas on Paris through the ages by Theodor Josef Hubert Hoffbauer, on Jerusalem on the day of the death of Christ, by Olivier Pichat, were displayed. In 1894, Édouard Niermans converted the venue into a theatre-in-the-round for summer musical spectacles; the hall was enlarged and modernized in 1925 by Volterra, in that form opened with a revival of Monsieur Beaucaire by André Messager.
This success led the management to devote the venue to operetta and other musical theatre until the 1930s. Thereafter the Marigny mounted boulevard revivals. In 1946 the Théâtre Marigny welcomed a troupe from the Comédie-Française to form the Renaud-Barrault company, in 1954, Barrault opened a smaller "Petit Marigny"; the Grenier-Hussenot troupe followed and the hall became a cinema. In 1965 the direction passed to Elvira Popescu. In 2000 the theatre was acquired by the Artemis Group, owned by François Pinault, who asked Robert Hossein to take over the theatre's direction. In 2008 Hossein was replaced by Pierre Lescure. On 28 September 2006 Pinault and his wife put the entire facility at the disposal of the Brigitte Bardot Foundation for its 20th anniversary celebration. J'te veux Monsieur Beaucaire Venise by Tiarko Richepin Le diable à Paris by Marcel Lattes Coups de roulis by Messager Boulard et ses filles by Charles Cuvillier Madame Pompadour by Leo Fall Moineau by Louis Beydts La belle saison by Jean Delettre Mes amours by Oscar Strauss Un violon sur le toit Official website
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Patricia Barbizet is a prominent figure in the French business world. She was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Christie's in 2014, the first female CEO of the company, she has been Executive Director of Groupe Artémis since 1992 and is Vice-Chairman of the Board ofKering and Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Christie's. Daughter of film producer Philippe Dussart and painter Monique Cartier, Patricia Barbizet graduated from ESCP Europe in 1976, she began her career as an executive assistant with Renault in 1977. She held the positions of International Treasurer followed by "Group Treasurer" of RVI until 1984, CFO of Renault Crédit International and Director of Renault Acceptance BV from 1984 to 1989. In 1989, she joined the Pinault Group as Chief Financial Officer and was appointed Deputy Director-General for Finance and Communication of Pinault-CFAO before becoming Managing Director of Artemis, the investment company of the Pinault family. Artemis owns 40% of Kering, 100% of Christie's, Chateau Latour, Le Point...
As such, she is Vice President of the Board of Kering, the world Number 3 in the luxury goods sector, Chairman of Christie's International PLC and she serves on the boards of several of the Group's companies She serves as a qualified independent member of the Board of Total SA. In 2015, she was ranked 6 in Fortune Magazine's 50 Most Powerful Women EMEA. On 20 November 2008, the President of the Republic appointed her to head the Investment Committee of the €20 billion Strategic Investment Fund. In November 2012, she was honored by Humanity in Action, her husband, Jean Barbizet, former President of Barclays Capital France, headed the investment division of Barclays Bank. Former mandatesMember of the board of Directors PSA Peugeot-Citroen member of the board of Directors Air France-KLM Member of the Board of Directors Bouygues-TF1 Head of the Investment Committee of the €20billion Strategic Investment Fund. President Honorary President of the French Association of Corporate Treasurers Former President and CEO of SEFIMEG Member of the Financial Markets Authority She is chairman of the Board of Directors of the Philharmonie de Paris She is a member of the Board of Directors of the Paris Opera and of RMN-Grand Palais