Falcipennis is a genus of birds in the grouse family that comprises three similar species: Both inhabit northern coniferous forests and live on conifer needles during the winter. Both have breeding systems with dispersed male territories, intermediate between the leks of some grouse and the monogamy of others. Falcipennis means "sickle-winged" in New Latin. Peterson, Alan P.. Zoological Nomenclature Resource. Accessed 2007-08-01
A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate. These behaviors include ritualized movement, mechanical sound production, or displays of beauty, strength, or agonistic ability. In some species, males will perform ritualized movements to attract females; the male Six-Plumed bird-of-paradise, Parotia lawesii, exemplifies male courtship display with its ritualized "ballerina dance" and unique occipital and breast feathers that serve to stimulate the female visual system. This stimulation, along with many other factors, results in subsequent rejection. In other species, males may exhibit courtship displays that serve as both visual and auditory stimulation. For example, the male Anna's hummingbird and Calliope hummingbird perform two types of courtship displays involving a combination of visual and vocal display - a stationary shuttle display and dive display; when engaging in the stationary shuttle display, the male displays a flared gorget and hovers in front of the female, moving from side to side while rotating his body and tail.
The rhythmic movements of the male's wings produce a distinctive buzzing sound. When conducting a dive display, the male ascends 20–35 m in the air abruptly turns and descends in a dive-like fashion; as the male flies over the female, he rotates his body and spreads his tail feathers, which flutter and collide to produce a short, buzzing sound. In addition, some animals attempt to attract females through the construction and decoration of unique structures; this technique can be seen in Australia's satin bowerbirds, in which males build and decorate nest-like structures called "bowers". Bowers are decorated with colourful objects to attract and stimulate visiting females. Males who acquire the largest number of decorations tend to have greater success in mating. In some species, males initiate courtship rituals only after mounting the female. Courtship may continue after copulation has been completed. In this system, the ability of the female to choose her mate is limited; this process, known as copulatory courtship, is prevalent in many insect species.
In most species, the male sex initiates courtship displays in pre-copulatory sexual selection. Performing a display allows the male to present his traits or abilities to a female. Mate choice, in this context, is driven by females. Direct or indirect benefits to the female determine which males reproduce and which do not. Direct benefits may accrue to the female during male courtship behavior. Females can raise their own fitness if they respond to courtship behavior that signals benefits to the female rather than the fitness of the male. For example, choosing to mate with males that produce local signals would require less energy for a female as she searches for a mate. Males may compete by imposing lower mating costs on the female or providing material or offspring contributions to the female. Indirect benefits are benefits that may not directly affect the parents' fitness but instead increase the fitness of the offspring. Since the offspring of a female will inherit half of the genetic information from the male counterpart, those traits she saw as attractive will be passed on, producing fit offspring.
In this case, males may compete during courtship by displaying desirable traits to pass on to offspring. Female courtship display is less common in nature as a female would have to invest a lot of energy into both exaggerated traits and in their energetically expensive gametes. However, situations in which males are the sexually selective sex in a species do occur in nature. Male choice in reproduction can arise if males are the sex in a species that are in short supply, for example, if there is a female bias in the operational sex ratio; this could arise in mating systems. Such energy costs can include the effort associated in obtaining nuptial gifts for the female or performing long courtship or copulatory behaviors. An added cost from these time and energy investments may come in the form of increased male mortality rates, putting further strain on males attempting to reproduce. In pipefish, females use a temporary ornament, a striped pattern, to both attract males and intimidate rival females.
In this case, the female of a species developed a sexually selected signal which serves a dual function of being both attractive to mates and deterring rivals. Many species of animals engage in some type of courtship display to attract a mate, such as dancing, the creation of sounds and physical displays. However, many species are not limited to just one of these behaviors, it has been shown that the males of a multitude of species ranging many taxa create complex multi-component signals that have an effect on more than one sensory modality known as multi-modal signals. There are two leading hypotheses on the adaptive significance of multi-modal signal processing; the multiple message hypothesis states that each signal that a male exhibits will contribute to a possible mate's perception of the male. The redundant signal hypothesis states that the male exhibits multiple signals that portray the same'message' to the female, with each extra signal acting as a fall-back plan for the male should there be a signaling error.
The choosy sex may only evaluates one, or a couple, traits at a given time when interpreting complex signals from the opposite sex. Alternatively, the choosy sex may attempt to process all of the signals at once to facilitate the evaluation of the opposite sex; the process of multi-modal signaling is believed to help facilitate the cour
Lagopus is a small genus of birds in the grouse subfamily known as ptarmigans. The genus contains three living species with numerous described subspecies, all living in tundra or cold upland areas; the genus Lagopus was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 with the willow ptarmigan as the type species. The genus name Lagopus is derived from Ancient Greek lagos, meaning "hare", + pous, "foot", in reference to the feathered feet and toes typical of this cold-adapted group; the specific epithets muta and leucura were for a long time misspelt mutus and leucurus, in the erroneous belief that the ending of Lagopus denotes masculine gender. However, as the Ancient Greek term λαγωπους is of feminine gender, the specific epithet has to agree with that, the feminine muta and leucura are correct; the English name ptarmigan comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for the bird, tàrmachan, whose origin is unknown. The p- was added due to a mistaken belief in a Greek origin, as if the word were related to the Greek word πτερόν,'wing'.
The three species are all sedentary specialists of cold regions. Willow ptarmigan is a circumpolar boreal forest species, white-tailed ptarmigan is a North American alpine bird, rock ptarmigan breeds in both Arctic and mountain habitats across Eurasia and North America. All, with the exception of the red grouse, have a white winter plumage that helps them blend into the snowy background, their remiges are white, while these feathers are black in all birds because melanin makes them more resilient and thus improves flight performance. The Lagopus grouse found it easier to escape predators by not being seen than by flying away; these are hardy vegetarian birds, but insects are taken by the developing young. In all species except for the willow ptarmigan, the female takes all responsibility for nesting and caring for the chicks, as is typical with gamebirds; the genus contains three species: The distinctive British form of willow ptarmigan, the red grouse has sometimes been considered a separate species, L. scotica, but this is no longer accepted.
Two prehistoric species and two paleosubspecies are only known from fossils: Lagopus atavus Lagopus balcanicus Lagopus lagopus noaillensis Lagopus mutus correzensis Madge, Steve. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-3966-0
American Ornithological Society
The American Ornithological Society is an ornithological organization based in the United States. The society was formed in October 2016 by the merger of the American Ornithologists' Union and the Cooper Ornithological Society, its members are professional ornithologists although membership is open to anyone with an interest in birds. The AOS is a member of the Ornithological Ornithological Societies of North America; the society publishes the two scholarly journals The Auk and The Condor as well as the AOS Checklist of North American Birds. In 2013, the American Ornithologists' Union announced a close partnership with the Cooper Ornithological Society, including joint meetings, a centralized publishing office, a refocusing of their respective journals to increase efficiency of research. In October 2016 the AOU announced; the American Ornithologists' Union was founded in 1883. Three members of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Elliott Coues, J. A. Allen, William Brewster, sent letters to 48 prominent ornithologists inviting them "to attend a Convention of American Ornithologists, to be held in New York City, beginning on September 26, 1883, for the purpose of founding an American Ornithologists' Union, upon a basis similar to that of the "British Ornithologists' Union."
The addressees were selected because of their "scientific standing, but somewhat with regard to geographical representation, it being desirable to make the gathering as catholic and non-sectional as possible." Twenty-five responded to the letter and 21 were present at the first meeting. The founding convention was held in the library of the American Museum of Natural History on September 26, 1883. Founding members of the AOU include those present at the inaugural convention, listed below. In addition, the members of the new Union unanimously enrolled two others as founding members: Professor S. Baird, unable to attend due to his duties at the Smithsonian, J. A. Allen, who could not attend due to physical disability. From Iowa: Charles Aldrich. From New York: Harry Balch Bailey, Eugene Pintard Bicknell, Daniel Giraud Elliot, Albert Kenrick Fisher, Joseph Bassett Holder, Edgar Alexander Mearns, Clinton Hart Merriam. From Massachusetts: Charles Foster Batchelder, William Brewster, Charles Barney Cory, Henry Augustus Purdie.
From Oregon: Charles Bendire. From Maine: Nathan Clifford Brown. From New Brunswick: Montague Chamberlain. From the District of Columbia: Elliott Coues, D. Webster Prentiss, Robert Ridgway. From Louisiana: Robert Wilson Shufeldt. From Canada: Thomas McIlwraith. From Ohio: John Maynard Wheaton. Regular membership in the AOS is open to any dues paying person with an interest in birds. Student rates are available for full-time students. Student Membership Awards of a no-cost membership are available to qualified undergraduate and graduate students who wish to pursue a career in ornithology. There are three higher classes of Elective Member, Honorary Fellow and Fellow. Elective Members are selected "for significant contributions to ornithology and/or service to the Union." When elected, they must reside in the Western Hemisphere. A proposed Elective Member must be nominated by three Fellows or Elective Members and more than half of the Fellows and Elective Members must vote for the proposed member to be declared elected.
Honorary Fellows are limited to 100 and are "chosen for exceptional ornithological eminence and must at the time of their election be residents of a country other than the United States of America or Canada." Nominations for Honorary Fellow are by a special committee appointed by the president or any three Fellows. A vote of the majority of the Fellows present at an annual meeting is required for election; each Fellow may vote affirmatively for as many. Fellows are chosen "for exceptional and sustained contributions to ornithology and/or service to the Union" and must be residents or citizens of the Western Hemisphere when elected. Candidates must be an Honorary Elective Member in good standing. A vote of two thirds of the Fellows at an annual meeting is required for election as a Fellow; the quarterly journal, The Auk, has been published since January 1884. The weekly journal The Condor, has been published since 1899. Other significant publications include the AOS Checklist of North American Birds, the standard reference work for the field, a monograph series, Ornithological Monographs.
The AOS presents annual awards to recognize achievements and service, support research, encourage student participation. The AOS recognizes members' outstanding contributions to ornithological science through four senior professional awards and three early professional awards: The William Brewster Memorial Award "is given annually to the author or co-authors of an exceptional body of work on birds of the Western Hemisphere" and consists of a medal and honorarium; the first Brewster Medal was awarded in 1921. The Elliott Coues Award has been presented annually since 1972 to recognize outstanding and innovative contributions to ornithological research without limitation as to geographic area, sub-discipline of ornithology, or when the work was done, it consists of an honorarium. The Loye and Alden Miller Research Award, awarded annually since 1993, recognizes lifetime achievement in ornithological research; the Ralph W. Schreiber Conservation Award honors extraordinary scientific contributions to the conservation, restoration, or preservation of birds and/or their habitats by an individual or team.
The award has been presented since 2005 and consists of a certificate and honor
Nicholas Aylward Vigors
Nicholas Aylward Vigors was an Irish zoologist and politician. He popularized the classification of birds on the basis of the quinarian system. Vigors was born at County Carlow, he studied at Trinity College, Oxford. He served in the army during the Peninsular War from 1809 to 1811, he returned to Oxford, graduating in 1815. He practiced as a barrister and became a Doctor of Civil Law in 1832. Vigors was a co-founder of the Zoological Society of London in 1826, its first secretary until 1833. In that year, he founded, he was a fellow of the Royal Society. He was the author of 40 papers on ornithology, he described 110 species of birds. He provided the text for John Gould's A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains. One bird that he described was "Sabine's snipe"; this was treated as a common snipe by Barrett-Hamilton in 1895 and by Meinertzhagen in 1926, but was thought to be a Wilson's snipe in 1945. Vigors lent a skin for editions of Thomas Bewick's History of British Birds. Vigors succeeded to his father's estate in 1828.
He was MP for the borough of Carlow from 1832 until 1835. He represented the constituency of County Carlow in 1835. Vigors had been elected in a by-election in June after the Conservative MPs returned at the United Kingdom general election, 1835 were unseated on petition and a new writ issued. On 19 August 1835 Vigors and his running mate, in the two member county constituency, were unseated on petition; the same two Conservatives, unseated were awarded the seats. On the death of one of them, Vigors won the subsequent by-election in 1837 and retained the seat until his own death. Webb, Alfred. "Vigors, Nicholas Aylward". A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son – via Wikisource. Kavanagh, P. J.. "Nicholas Aylward Vigors, MP, 1786-1840". Carloviana:. 30: 15–19. Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922, edited by B. M. Walker Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Nicholas Aylward Vigors BBC Your Paintings: Toucan by Vigors
The chicken is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, with a total population of more than 19 billion as of 2011. There are more chickens in the world than domesticated fowl. Humans keep chickens as a source of food and, less as pets. Raised for cockfighting or for special ceremonies, chickens were not kept for food until the Hellenistic period. Genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From ancient India, the domesticated chicken spread to Lydia in western Asia Minor, to Greece by the 5th century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the mid-15th century BC, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, according to the annals of Thutmose III; the chicken used for regular egg and meat production worldwide are corn-ply Broilers with white feathers, yellowish skin and faster growth rate invented in United States of America In the UK and Ireland, adult male chickens over the age of one year are known as cocks, whereas in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, they are more called roosters.
Males less than a year old are cockerels. Castrated roosters are called capons. Females over a year old are known as hens, younger females as pullets, although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs, at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand, there is a generic term chook to describe all both sexes; the young are called chicks. "Chicken" referred to young domestic fowl. The species as a whole was called domestic fowl, or just fowl; this use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens", sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea. The word "chicken" is sometimes erroneously construed to mean females despite the term "hen" for females being in wide circulation, the term “rooster” for males being that most used. In the Deep South of the United States, chickens are referred to by the slang term yardbird. Chickens are omnivores. In the wild, they scratch at the soil to search for seeds and animals as large as lizards, small snakes, or young mice.
The average chicken may live depending on the breed. The world's oldest known chicken was a hen which died of heart failure at the age of 16 years according to the Guinness World Records. Roosters can be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage of long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks and backs, which are of brighter, bolder colours than those of females of the same breed. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright chicken, the rooster has only pointed neck feathers, the same colour as the hen's; the identification can be made by looking at the comb, or from the development of spurs on the male's legs. Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb, or cockscomb, hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. Collectively and other fleshy protuberances on the head and throat are called caruncles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males. A muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chicken's face, giving the appearance of a beard.
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees. Chickens may fly to explore their surroundings, but do so only to flee perceived danger. Chickens live together in flocks, they have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order", with dominant individuals having priority for food access and nesting locations. Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Adding hens younger birds, to an existing flock can lead to fighting and injury; when a rooster finds food, he may call other chickens to eat first. He does this by clucking in a high pitch as well as dropping the food; this behaviour may be observed in mother hens to call their chicks and encourage them to eat. A rooster's crowing is a loud and sometimes shrill call and sends a territorial signal to other roosters.
However, roosters may crow in response to sudden disturbances within their surroundings. Hens cluck loudly after laying an egg, to call their chicks. Chickens give different warning calls when they sense a predator approaching from the air or on the ground. To initiate courting, some roosters may dance in a circle around or near a hen lowering the wing, closest to the hen; the dance triggers a response in the hen and when she responds to his "call", the rooster may mount the hen and proceed with the mating. More matin