Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, 1892—and was one of two Democrats to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Born to a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland grew up in upstate New York. In 1881, he was elected Mayor of Buffalo and governor of New York. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats, his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism, he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps" bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.
As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896; the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, he drew corresponding criticism, his intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities.
He had no endowments. He possessed honesty, firmness and common sense, but he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U. S. presidents, he was by rejected by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey, to Ann and Richard Falley Cleveland. Cleveland's father was a Congregational and Presbyterian minister, from Connecticut, his mother was the daughter of a bookseller. On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635, his father's maternal grandfather, Richard Falley Jr. fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the son of an immigrant from Guernsey. On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.
Cleveland was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Grover spent much of his childhood. Neighbors described him as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks," and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Cleveland's father moved to Clinton, New York, to work as district secretary for the American Home Missionary Society. Despite his father's dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville; the experience was valuable and brief, the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.
In 1853, when missionary work began to take a toll on his health, Cleveland's father took an assignment in Holland Patent, New York and the family moved again. Shortly after, he died from a gastric ulcer, with Grover reputedly hearing of his father's death from a boy selling newspapers. Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. After his father died in 1853, he again left school to help support his family; that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854, where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister. Cleveland declined, in 1855 he decided to move west, he stopped first in New York, where his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, gave him a clerical job. Allen was an important man in Buffalo, he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers and Rogers.
Hugo Benedict Schwyzer is an American author, speaker and a former instructor of history and gender studies. Hugo Schwyzer was born in California, to Hubert Schwyzer and Alison Schwyzer. Both parents were professors of philosophy: Hubert taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara, his younger brother, Philip pursued an academic career and is now Professor of Renaissance Literature at the University of Exeter, England. Hugo himself was an instructor of history and gender studies at Pasadena City College for nearly twenty years. Schwyzer's parents divorced, he and his brother were raised by his mother in Carmel, California. However, Schwyzer maintained a profound connection to his father, taken to England as a child when his parents fled Austria after the Anschluss, emigrated to California, his paternal grandfather, was a Vienna-based Jewish physician while his paternal grandmother, was half-Jewish. Schwyzer studied history at University of California, specializing in medieval history.
He developed a passion for this subject after seeing Derek Jacobi perform Shakespeare's Richard II. He attended graduate school at UCLA and was awarded his PhD in 1999, his doctoral dissertation was entitled "Arms and the Bishop: The Anglo-Scottish War and the Northern Episcopate, 1296–1357", dealt with the military role of the Bishops of Durham and the Archbishops of York during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He published a related book chapter, "Northern bishops and the Anglo-Scottish War in the reign of Edward II", in Thirteenth Century England 7, his three areas of study at graduate level were: Medieval English philosophy – William of Ockham & Duns Scotus Early Irish monasticism, the Collectio canonum Hibernensis Early modern economic development proto-industrializationSchwyzer joined the Pasadena City College faculty as an adjunct instructor in 1993, was soon hired to a tenure-track position in 1994. Over the course of the following two decades, he taught various history and gender studies courses at PCC, as well as co-taught an interdisciplinary humanities course alongside English and psychology faculty members.
After a 20-year career, he was forced to resign in October 2013 due to personal issues and public controversies. In February 2013, Schwyzer invited adult film actor James Deen to return to his alma mater, Pasadena City College, to speak to students about his career; the appearance open to the public, was restricted by college administrators due to "public safety concerns" over "protesters". Deen was restricted to speaking to the students of Pasadena City College's "Navigating Pornography" class. Schwyzer was a prolific writer and wrote on topics both public and personal, stemming from his own curiosities as well as the inquisitiveness of others, he has written for such publications as Jezebel and The Atlantic, was a contributor to The Good Men Project, co-authored Beauty, Disrupted: A Memoir, a biography of supermodel Carré Otis published in October 2011 by HarperCollins. Schwyzer became the subject of controversy when he disclosed to school administration and the general public his many affairs with his young female college students.
In several blog posts and interviews, Schwyzer further admitted to an ongoing problem with alcohol and drug abuse, a decades-long struggle with borderline personality disorder and bipolar depression, a violent murder-suicide attempt with his ex-girlfriend while both were under the influence of narcotics in the summer of 1998. On August 9, 2013, Schwyzer tweeted a rapid-fire series of confessions described as a "meltdown"; when white feminists expressed concern for Schwyzer's mental health, black activist Mikki Kendall created the hashtag #solidarityisforwhitewomen, which trended worldwide. In an op-ed for the Guardian, Kendall noted that "Hugo Schwyzer's Twitter confession was the catalyst" for the hashtag's creation and subsequent popularity. In September 2013, the college announced that it was launching an investigation of Schwyzer that could lead to his termination. In the media, Schwyzer indicated that he would resign and leave if the college allowed him to remain on salary until the end of the year, at which time health benefits and disability retirement would have commenced.
The college denied this request. On October 8, 2013, Schwyzer resigned and the college investigation closed. A week earlier, writing under the heading "Picking up a felony DUI", Schwyzer announced that he had been involved in a car crash, causing injury to a 25-year-old woman; the incident occurred on 27 September 2013, near San Juan Bautista, California. Schwyzer apologized to the injured woman before she was airlifted to hospital, made a full confession to law enforcement, stated "I am a danger to myself and others and mitigating that danger is vital." He was charged with felony DUI and released from San Benito County Jail on bail of $100,000. A court date of 5 November 2013 was given. Schwyzer was reported to be in "an extended treatment program in Malibu, focusing on mental illness and chemical dependency." In an April 2015 blog comment, Schwyzer claimed that the DUI matter had been resolved, but that he had been asked not to comment on the matter further. In January 2014, Schwyzer began working as a tax accounting assistant in Los Angeles.
In March 2015, in the final entry on his blog, Schwyzer noted that he was not "coming back" nor planning any "grand return" to public life. As of October 2018, Schwyzer was reported to be working at a Trader Joe's
Antheia was a town on the western coast of the Pontus Euxinus in ancient Thrace, a colony of the Milesians and Phocaeans. It bore the Latin name Anthium, was the precursor settlement to Apollonia Pontica, it was located on the Gulf of Burgas between the modern cities of Sozopol in Bulgaria. The settlement was on the coast of the Gulf of Burgas, located on the peninsula of Atia, which lies between the bays of Vromos and Atya, about 2 km northwest of the modern town of Chernomorets. About 10 km southeast is Sozopol, the ancient Apollonia, the successor settlement to Antheia. Today, the peninsula is occupied by the Atiya Naval Base, thus the site is within a restricted military area. Not far away is the village Atia. In the course of Greek colonization of the Black Sea in the late 7th and early 6th century BCE; the place was founded by Greeks from Phocaea. All finds made in the area of settlement originate from Archaic period leading to the conclusion that the place was abandoned early; the place was just an apoikia and never attained the status of polis, merged with Apollonia by synoikismos.
Pliny, writing in the first century, reports that Antheia was located in the area where Apollonia was in his time - Astice regio habuit oppidum Anthium, nunc est Apollonia. The interpretation of this passage, that Antheia was a former name of Apollonia, is based on a misunderstanding. From Antheia comes the statue of a headless archaic Kouros and archaic ceramics. In 1927 a hoard of arrowheads of the 5th century BCE was found there, interpreted as showing that arrowheads were a form of pre-monetary medium of exchange. In the Middle Ages, the Atia peninsula was populated again. On its highest elevation are the sparse remains of a medieval fortress; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Antheia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray