SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Grozny

Grozny is the capital city of Chechnya, Russia. The city lies on the Sunzha River. According to the 2010 Census, it had a population of 271,573, it was known as Groznaya. In Russian, "Grozny" means "fearsome", "menacing", or "redoubtable", the same word as in Ivan Grozny. While the official name in Chechen is the same, informally the city is known as "Соьлжа-Гӏала", which means "the city on the Sunzha River". In 1996, during the First Chechen War, the Chechen separatists renamed the city Dzhokhar-Ghala, or Dzhokhar/Djohar for short, after Dzhokhar Dudayev, the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. In December 2005, the Chechen parliament voted to rename the city "Akhmadkala" —a proposition, rejected by his son Ramzan Kadyrov, the prime minister and President of the republic; the fortress of Groznaya. was founded in 1818 as a Russian military outpost on the Sunzha River by general Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov. As the fort was being built the workers were fired upon by the Chechens; the Russians solved the problem by placing a cannon at a chosen point outside the walls.

When night fell and the Chechens came out of their hiding places to drag the gun away all the other guns opened up with grapeshot. When the Chechens recovered their senses and began to carry away the bodies the guns fired again; when it was over 200 dead were counted. Thus did the'terrible' fort receive its baptism of fire, it was a prominent defense center during the Caucasian War. Russian poets Alexander Griboedov, Alexander Polezhayev, Mikhail Lermontov, the classic of Russian literature Leo Tolstoy, the Decembrist and writer Alexander Bestuzhev and other famous figures of Russian culture visited the fortress. After the annexation of the region by the Russian Empire, the military use of the old fortress was obsolete and on 11 January 1870) it was granted town status and renamed Grozny; as most of the residents there were Terek Cossacks, the town grew until the development of oil reserves in the early 20th century. The founder of the Nobel prize Alfred Nobel took part in the development of the oil industry of the city of Grozny, as well as members of the Rothschild family.

In addition to the Nobels and Rothschilds, British companies played an important role in the oil industry from 1893 onward. Alfred Stuart, an English engineer, completed the first well in Grozny by drilling in 1893 the largest oil field in the Caucasus region. Eleven firms drilled 116 wells before 1900; this encouraged the rapid development of petrochemical production. In addition to the oil drilled in the city itself, the city became a geographical center of Russia's network of oil fields, in 1893 became part of the Transcaucasia — Russia Proper railway; the result was the population doubled from 15,600 in 1897 to 30,400 in 1913. In early 1914, the largest oil company Royal Dutch Shell was established in the city thus making Grozny one of the largest industrial centers of the Caucasus. One day after the October Revolution, on November 8, 1917, the Bolsheviks headed by N. Anisimov seized Grozny; as the Russian Civil War escalated, the Proletariat formed the 12th Red Army, the garrison held out against numerous attacks by Terek Cossacks from August 11 to November 12, 1918.

However, with the arrival of Denikin's armies, the Bolsheviks were forced to withdraw and Grozny was captured on February 4, 1919, by the White Army. Underground operations were carried out, but only the arrival of the Caucasus front of the Red Army in 1920 allowed the city to permanently end up with the Russian SFSR on March 17, it became part of the Soviet Mountain Republic, formed on January 20, 1921, was the capital of the Chechen National Okrug inside it. On November 30, 1922, the mountain republic was dissolved, the national okrug became the Chechen Autonomous Oblast with Grozny as the administrative center. At this time most of the population was still Russian, but of Cossack descent; as Cossacks were viewed as a potential threat to the Soviet nation, Moscow encouraged the migration of Chechens into the city from the mountains. In 1934 the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was formed, becoming the Chechen-Ingush ASSR in 1936. Due to its oil, Grozny with Maikop were the main strategic objectives of the German Fall Blau operation in summer of 1942.

See Battle of the Caucasus. The failure to take Grozny was a major defeat for Germany and was a factor in holding fast at Battle of Stalingrad, as that city could have served as a base from which to take Grozny or cut off oil supplies up the Volga River from Astrakhan; the failure to prioritize Grozny transferring critical Panzer divisions north to the Siege of Leningrad, was a major factor in Adolf Hitler taking operational level control of the Wehrmacht from his generals who had prioritized the two major cities over the oil supplies - against Hitler's express orders. Soviet doctrine however never failed to prioritize the food of the Ukraine nor the oil of the Caucasus, which resulted in drastic action after Germany's expulsion/retreat in 1943. In 1944, the entire population of Chechens and Ingush was deported after rebelling against Soviet rule. Large numbers of people who were not deemed fit for transport were'liquidated' on the spot, and

Auburn–UAB men's basketball rivalry

The Auburn–UAB men's basketball rivalry is a men's college basketball rivalry between the Auburn Tigers and the UAB Blazers. Despite its relative youth and a 15-year hiatus from 2000–2014, the rivalry remains one of the fiercest and most competitive in the state of Alabama. Auburn and UAB first played in 1982, just four seasons after the creation of the UAB men's basketball program; the matchup originated as a supplementary event at the Birmingham–Jefferson Civic Center for Auburn fans in Birmingham on the night before the Iron Bowl football game was played at Legion Field. However, UAB's quick rise to national prominence led to the Auburn–UAB game gaining significance in its own right. Three of those first five games in the BJCC saw one of the two teams come in ranked in the top 25, the 1984 game remains the third-largest home crowd in UAB basketball history. Following a one-year break, Auburn and UAB played each other for 12 consecutive seasons. UAB was dominant during this period, winning eight out of ten games from 1989–1997.

The 1997 and 1998 editions of the rivalry were played in the Holiday Hardwood Classic at the BJCC as part of a doubleheader with Alabama. Following their 1999 matchup, Auburn head coach Cliff Ellis wanted the series to be played at Auburn until the number of games played in Auburn was equal to those played in Birmingham. UAB athletic director Gene Bartow and UAB head coach Murry Bartow refused to play the game in Auburn, so the series came to a halt. Despite pleas from both the media and the fans to continue the rivalry, no games were scheduled between the two programs for 15 seasons. In May 2015, following UAB's NCAA Tournament upset over 3-seed Iowa State and Bruce Pearl's first season at Auburn, UAB announced that they had reached an agreement to play Auburn in a four-game series; the first game would be played at Auburn, the second at UAB back at Auburn finally at Legacy Arena. Auburn won the first game of the series renewal in front of a sold out Auburn Arena, 75–74, on a 3-pointer in the final seconds of the game.

In 2016, Auburn defeated UAB in the first game played at Bartow Arena in the series since 1996, 74–70

Kadru

In Hindu scriptures, according to the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata, Kadru is regarded as the daughter of Daksha. Kashyapa married twelve of Daksha's other daughters. Kashyapa was the son of Marichi, the manasputra or mind-born son of Brahma. Kadru was the mother of a thousand nāgas. Legends of Kadru tell of her relationship with her elder sister Vinata, one of Kashyapa's many wives. In one story and Vinata vie to bear children of Kashyapa who are more powerful than each other's children. While Kadru gives birth to a thousand nāgas, Vinata has Aruṇa and Garuda. Kadru is portrayed as more scheming and wily than Vinata, she challenges Vinata to guess the colour of the tail of the divine white horse. After Vinata says the tail is white, Kadru tricks Vinata by directing her sons to coil around the horse's tail, causing it to appear black; as a result, Vinata loses the bet and she and her sons must become the slaves of Kadru and her sons. Another legend states that when Kadru asks Garuda to take her sons on his back to the abode of the sun so they can pay obeisance and they are scorched, Vinata asks Garuda to carry water of the Ganges from the netherworld and sprinkle it on the nāgas to revive them.

In another tale and Suparna, another of Kashyapa's wives, disobey Kashyapa and disrupt some sages who are performing rites on the banks of the Ganga. As a result, they are turned into rivers. Kashyapa is only able to restore them to their original forms by performing penance to Shiva. Kadru is described as the daughter of Daksha Prajapati and the wife of the sage Maharishi Kashyapa; the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, which gives a detailed tale about her, recognizes her as one of Kashyapa's many wives. There is a view that she was the daughter of Daksha, but it has not been established from Puranic literature. In the Aranyakanda of the Valmiki Ramayana it is mentioned that Daksaprajapati had sixty daughters of whom he married off Aditi, Danu, Tamra, Krodhavasa and Surasa to Kashyapa. Krodhavasa had eight daughters of. Thus, Kadru may alternatively be considered the granddaughter of Daksha. Vinata, Kadru's sister, is another wife of Kashyapa. According to the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata, Kadru lived in the abode of Brahma.

In the Vana Parva of the Mahabharata it is stated that to destroy the embryo in a woman, Kadru enters her womb by assuming a tiny form called "Skanda graha". Kadru was the younger sister of Vinata, when they both lived with Kashyapa as his wives and attended to all his comforts he blessed them by granting each of them a boon. Kadru asked for serpent sons who should be valiant. Prompted by her sister's demand for sons, Vinata asked for only two sons who should be more powerful and bright than Kadru's children. Kashaya granted them their wishes. After his wives became pregnant, he advised them to look after the children, left for his penance in the forest. After a long time Kadru gave birth to Vinata to two eggs; the eggs were incubated in containers with hot water or in jars which were kept warm. After a lapse of five hundred years, the eggs laid by Kadru hatched and her sons came to life. All the serpents born in this world are the descendants of these thousand sons. Vinata became. In a moment of haste, she broke open one of the eggs.

This son was enraged by his physical form and cursed his mother for her hasty act, saying she would be a slave to Kadru for five hundred years till the son from her second egg was born. He became a charioteer and herald for the sun god and the creator of the red sky at dawn, was therefore named Aruṇa. After five hundred years, Vinata's second son Garuda was born in the form of a huge bird with immense power; as soon as he was born he flew away with grace. According to the Brahma Purana, known as Prajapati Kashayapa, was approached by the Valakhilyas. Offering him half of their ascetic powers, they requested that he beget them a son who could take revenge on Indra who had insulted them. Kashyapa had one son from each of his two wives, Kadru the mother of snakes and Suparna. Before going on an errand, Kashyapa instructed his wives not to leave the house as they would create mischief and do evil acts and come to grief. In spite of these instructions and Suparna went out to the banks of the Ganga where enlightened sages were performing sattra rites and started disturbing the rites.

Infuriated, the sages cursed them to become rivers. Kashyapa was told of the incident by the sages; when Kashyapa asked how he might retrieve his wives, the sages advised him to do penance to Shiva at Gautami Ganga. Kashyapa prayed by reciting a hymn that praised Shiva in the role of a triad, his role in the three worlds, his three gunas,Pleased with Kashyapa's hymn, Shiva restored to him his wives, blessed the wives so that they would beget children again by the grace of Ganga. Kashyapa invited the sages to participate in the fourth-to-sixth month hair-parting ceremony of his pregnant wives. After the sages were fed, when Kashyapa respectfully stood before them with his wife to thank them, Kadru looked at the sages and gave them a sly look with one of her eyes; the sages cursed Kadru to lose that eye. Thus, Kadru became one-eyed. Once Kadru called Vinata and asked her to tell her the colour of Uccaissravas, the divine white horse which emanated from the ocean when it was churned by the devas and asuras to generate necta