Grundtvig's Church, Esbjerg
Grundtvigs Church is a modern church in Esbjerg in the southwest of Jutland, Denmark. Designed by Ole Nielsen of Lyngby, the building of red brick with a strangely-shaped, red-tiled roof was completed in 1969. The process leading to a decision on the construction dragged on for decades. As far back as the 1920s, the committee of the Church of Our Saviour had discussed building a church to be named Rørkjær Church near Rørkjæar School southeast of the town centre. Matters were delayed after Jerne Parish was incorporated into Esbjerg Municipality, further delays occurred when the congrational committee of Zions Church discussed and finally decided to build Trinity Church in the east area of the town. Nevertheless, a competition was arranged in 1957, with Ole Nielsen submitting one of the 130 proposals, in 1966, after it became easier to obtain a building loan, Nielsens offer was accepted and the foundation stone was laid. The new parish was separated from Trinity Parish and the church was consecrated in 1969, the complex consists of the church itself with parish rooms to the west surrounding a courtyard.
There is a courtyard with a funeral chapel. The rectangular nave flanking Grundtvigs Allé with an altar to the north is completed by a low transverse tower behind the altar wall, the churchs V-shaped roof rises towards the tower while a short area of roofing covers the organ loft at the south end. The steeply inclined ceiling is of untreated boarding, the floor, which falls towards the slightly raised altar, is paved with white Italian marble tiling. The altar and pulpit are brick, there is a simple wooden cross above the altar which is decorated as the Tree of Life. The font is a granite block. The organ from 1971 was made by Frobenius & Sons, Lyngby and it has 18 stops, three manuals and a pedal
Church of Denmark
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark, is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the secular authority in the church. As of 1 January 2017,75. 9% of the population of Denmark are members, Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Christian and began organizing the church, since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions. The 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church the Danish peoples church, the Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops, ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, there is no archbishop, the Bishop of Copenhagen acts as a primus inter pares. The Church of Denmark is organized in dioceses, each led by a bishop.
There are no archbishops, the most senior bishop is the Bishop of Copenhagen, the further subdivision includes 111 deaneries and 2,200 parishes. Each parish has a council, elected by church members in four-year terms. The parochial council leads the business of the local church and decides employment of personnel. The vicar is subordinate to the council, except in matters such as conducting church services. Both parochial councils and vicars are, subordinate to bishops, a special feature is the possibility of creating voluntary congregations within the Church. These account for a few percent of church members and they are voluntary associations, electing their own parochial council and vicar, whom they agree to pay from their own pockets. In return, they are exempt from church tax, the voluntary congregation and its vicar are subordinate to bishops, and members remain full members of the Church. Historically, when a parish was dominated by a fundamentalist majority and rector, today the voluntary congregations are often a solution for people who find the idea of a free church appealing, but wish to keep some bonds to the church.
Another, less commonly used feature is parish optionality, according to official statistics from January 2017,75. 9% of Danes are members of the Church of Denmark. Membership rates vary from 58. 1% in the Diocese of Copenhagen to 85. 2% in the Diocese of Viborg, any person who is baptised into the Church of Denmark automatically becomes a member. Members may renounce their membership and if they wish
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Indre By, known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen, is an administrative district in central Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It covers an area of 4.65 square kilometres, has a population of 26,223, and its boundaries pretty much reflect the entire city’s extent during the reign of King Christian IV. At the time it was a city and its borders were made of defensive walls with moats. To ensure water for the moats there was a series of dams, the gates were dismantled in 1856. The locations are now commemorated with milestones erected on the spot, additionally artificial lakes were constructed as part of Christian IVs large building project. These still exist to this day, and are simply referred to as the lakes. The area beyond the lakes, now heavily populated city districts, was used primarily for grazing. It was prohibited to build beyond these original city limits so that the cannons could have clear shot. The fortification system was sold to Copenhagen municipality in 1869 and largely dismantled the year after, evidence of the walls can be found in the street names outlining the central part of the city.
From Kastellet at the northeast point of the district runs Øster Voldgade to the southwest, the street changes names near Nørreport Train Station and continues as Nørre Voldgade. Vester Voldgade starts at Ørsteds Park and runs southeast until it reaches the water of Copenhagen Harbour, the fortification system continues on the other side of the water in the Christianshavn city district. Copenhagen was founded around year 1000 by Sweyn I Forkbeard and his son Canute the Great and it was only a fishing village until the middle of the 12th century when Havn, as the town was called, assumed increasing importance in the Danish kingdom. Around 1160 King Waldemar the Great gave control of Copenhagen to Absalon, whereas other cities in the Danish realm were under the governance of the king, Havn or Købmannehavn as it comes to be known, was given to the Bishop of Roskilde. Bishop Absalon built his fortified Castle at Havn in 1167 on an island outside the harbour itself. In the years that follow, the town grew tenfold in size, the excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagens growth until it became an important centre of commerce.
Købmannehavns economy blossomed due to the income from an enormous herring fishery trade, in 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. It was repeatedly attacked by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic League and again the town was besieged and laid waste by the Hanseatic League. In 1369 they tore down the castle, but a new castle—Copenhagen Castle was built in its place, at the same time the Danish king was attempting to take Copenhagen back from the bishop. The crown succeeded in 1416, when King Erik of Pomerania took control of the town, thenceforth Copenhagen belonged to the Danish Crown
The term Brick Expressionism describes a specific variant of expressionist architecture that uses bricks, tiles or clinker bricks as the main visible building material. Buildings in the style were erected mostly in the 1920s, primarily in Germany and The Netherlands, the style had some impact outside the areas mentioned. Brick Expressionism developed at the time as the New Objectivity of Bauhaus architecture. They were meant to express the dynamic of the period, its intensity, the most important building materials were the eponymous bricks and clinker bricks. Hard-fired clinker was very fashionable, especially for facades and that material was especially well adapted to the difficult environmental requirements of industrial buildings, particularly in the Ruhr area. Its characteristic rough surface and rich variety of colours, from brown via red to purple, a striking feature of Brick Expressionism is the liveliness of its facades, achieved purely through the deliberate setting of bricks in patterns.
This helped to enliven large, otherwise monotonous, walls, in some cases, even brick wasters were used as decorative elements, exploiting their individual appearance. The angular bricks were combined in various arrangements, creating a rich ornamental repertoire, horizontal brick courses that alternate between protruding and being slightly recessed are another common feature, e. g. on the Hans-Sachs-Haus in Gelsenkirchen. The facade designs were enhanced by the use of architectural sculpture, a well-known representative of this form of art was Richard Kuöhl. Ernst Barlach created statues, such as the frieze Gemeinschaft der Heiligen on St. Catherines in Lübeck. Occasionally, elements from other styles were referenced, translated into the brick repertoire of forms. For example, Fritz Högers Chilehaus in Hamburg is dominated by Art Déco aesthetics, the Anzeigerhochhaus in Hanover quotes oriental architecture. But Brick Expressionism created its own, often quite idiosyncratic forms, such as Parabola Churches.
Some outstanding examples of Brick Expressionism are found in Hamburg, Fritz Höger created the highly innovative Chilehaus, with its pronounced vertically oriented design and near-playful use of material. Other examples are the neighbouring Sprinkenhof, the Broschekhaus and the Zigarettenfabrik Reemtsma, another important Northern German representative of the style was Fritz Schumacher. Böttcherstrasse at Bremen is an important example of the style in Northern Germany. Examples in Northern Germany Brick Expressionism had its densest distribution in the Rhine-Ruhr area, the material could withstand difficult industrial conditions and permitted the creation of well-balanced and varied facade designs with relatively little effort. But hard-fired clinkler was comparatively expensive, so many buildings were designed with part-clinkered and part-whitewashed facades, examples were created all over the Ruhr, including industrial architecture and residential buildings
St. Ansgar's Cathedral
Saint Ansgars Cathedral in Copenhagen, Denmark is the principal church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen, which encompasses all of Denmark, including the Faroe Islands and Greenland. It was consecrated in 1842 and became a cathedral in 1941, the first Catholic congregations in Denmark after the Protestant reformation were centered on foreign legations. Starting with the one formed by the Spanish diplomat Count Bernardino de Rebolledo, from its original location at de Rebolledos residence on Østergade the chapel moved around between various legation addresses, but in 1764 it settled at the present location on what is now Bredgade. For some time the Austrian legation had been the main supporter of the congregation, the present day church was designed by the German-born architect Gustav Friedrich Hetsch. Construction began in 1840 and the church was consecrated on All Saints Day,1 November 1842, during 1988–1992 the church underwent extensive restoration in collaboration with the National Museum of Denmark under the direction of the architect Vilhelm Wohlert.
The cathedral possesses the skull of St. Lucius, an early pope, which previously had been in Roskilde Cathedral which was originally dedicated to the saint
An aisle is, in general, a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other. Aisles can be seen in shops and factories, in warehouses and factories, aisles may consist of storage pallets, and in factories, aisles may separate work areas. In health clubs, exercise equipment is arranged in aisles. Aisles are distinguished from corridors, walkways, footpaths/pavements, paths, aisles have certain general physical characteristics, They are virtually always straight, not curved. An open space that had three rows of chairs to the right of it and three to the left generally would not be considered an aisle. Theatres, meeting halls, etc. usually have aisles wide enough for 2-3 strangers to walk past each other without feeling uncomfortably close. In such facilities, anything that could accommodate more than 4 people side-by-side would generally be considered an open area. Factory work area aisles are wide enough for workers to comfortably sit or stand at their work area, while allowing safe and efficient movement of persons.
Passage aisles usually are quite enough for a large person to carry a suitcase in each hand. Usually, even without luggage one person must turn sideways in order for the one to pass. Warehouse aisles normally are at least 8–10 feet wide, to use of mechanical loading equipment. Wedding aisles are wide enough to allow two people to walk comfortably beside each other and still have space, the width of these aisles varies and is up to those who design the layout of the wedding. Vehicle aisles are wide enough to allow a type of vehicle to pass one or two way. Width generally varies for vehicle type and other variables like no of parking accessibility etc. Note that spaces between buildings, e. g. rows of storage sheds, would not be considered aisles, in architecture, an aisle is more specifically the wing of a house, or a lateral division of a large building. The earliest examples of aisles date back to the Roman times and can be found in the Basilica Ulpia, the church of St. Peters in Rome has the same number.
In cathedral architecture, an aisle is more specifically a passageway to either side of the nave that is separated from the nave by colonnades or arcades, occasionally aisles stop at the transepts, but often aisles can be continued around the apse. Aisles are thus categorized as nave-aisles, transept-aisles or choir-aisles, a semi-circular choir with aisles continued around it, providing access to a series of chapels, is a chevet
Christian's Church, Copenhagen
Christians Church is a magnificent Rococo church in the Christianshavn district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved, it was built 1754–59, the church was originally built by the German community as a church for the large German community at Christianshavn and served this purpose until the end of the 19th century. Today it is a parish church for Christians Parish within the Danish National Church. Its name is a reference to King Christian IV. who founded the Christianshavn district in 1611, after Christian IV founded Christianshavn in 1617 as a town specially for merchants, a large community of German tradrers and craftsmen settled there. This lasted until they finally asked King Christian VI for permission to build their own church, the King approved the plans and contributed with a lot, a former saltern, located at the end of Strandgade in the southern part of the neighbourhood. He granted permission for a lottery to be held to cover the financing with the result that the finished church used to be colloquially known as the Lottery Church.
In return for his approaval and donation of the lot, the laid down very specific guidelines for the placement. Nicolai Eigtved, the preferred architect at the time, was charged with the design of the new church but died in 1754. Instead his son-in-law, Royal Master Builder Georg David Anthon, was entrusted with supervising the construction of the church which was completed in 1759. Anthon designed the spire which is an addition from 1769, the church originally called Frederiks German Church, and served its original purpose as a church for the German congregation until it was dissolved in 1886. Since 1991 it has been a parish church for Christians Parish which includes part of Christianshavn as well as Slotsholmen. The church has a layout, the nave occupying the space between the shorter rather than the longer sides of the rectangle, giving it exceptional width. Standing on a plinth, the church is a yellow brick building with sandstone finishing for the portal. Ionic pilasters decorate the portal and the windows are tall.
The tower stands 70 metres high, designed by Eigtveds son-in-law D. G. Anthon, the spire was added in 1769. The tower is positioned at the centre of the side which serves as the main facade. The unusual interior of Christians Church is reminiscent of a theatre, in addition to the benches on either side of the nave, three tiers of galleries complete with boxes rise the full height of the building on the northern and southern sides. They are all arranged to provide the congregation with an excellent view of the podium on the side which is reminiscent of a stage
N. F. S. Grundtvig
Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig, most often referred to as N. F. S. Grundtvig, was a Danish pastor, poet, historian and politician. He was one of the most influential people in Danish history and it was steeped in the national literature and supported by deep spirituality. Grundtvig holds a position in the cultural history of his country. Grundtvig and his followers are credited with being influential in the formulation of modern Danish national consciousness. Called Frederik rather than Nikolaj by those close to him, N. F. S. Grundtvig was the son of a Lutheran pastor and he was brought up in a very religious atmosphere, although his mother had great respect for old Norse legends and traditions. He was schooled in the tradition of the European Enlightenment, but his faith in reason was influenced by German romanticism, in 1791 he was sent to Thyregod in Sydjylland to live and study with pastor Laurids Svindt Feld. He subsequently studied at the Aarhus Katedralskole, the school of Aarhus. He left for Copenhagen in 1800 to study theology and was accepted to the University of Copenhagen in 1801, at the close of his university life, Grundtvig began to study Icelandic and the Icelandic Sagas.
In 1805 Grundtvig took a position of tutor in a house on the island of Langeland, the next three years he used his free time to study writers Shakespeare and Fichte. In 1802 his cousin, the philosopher Henrich Steffens, returned to Copenhagen full of the teaching of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and his lectures and the early poetry of Adam Oehlenschläger opened Grundtvigs eyes to the new era in literature. His first work, On the Songs in the Edda, attracted no attention, returning to Copenhagen in 1808, Grundtvig achieved greater success with his Northern Mythology, and again in 1809 with a long drama, The Fall of the Heroic Life in the North. Grundtvig boldly denounced the clergy of the city in his first sermon in 1810, when Grundtvig published the sermon three weeks it offended the ecclesiastical authorities, and they demanded him punished. In 1810 Grundtvig underwent a crisis and converted to a strongly held Lutheranism. He retired to his fathers country parish in Udby as his chaplain and it won him notoriety among his peers and cost him several friends, notably the historian Christian Molbech.
Upon his fathers death in 1813, Grundtvig applied to be his successor in the parish but was rejected, from 1816 to 1819 he was editor of and almost sole contributor to a philosophical and polemical journal entitled Danne-Virke, which published poetry. From 1813 to 1815, he attempted to form a movement to support the Norwegians against the Swedish government, he preached on how the weakness of the Danish faith was the cause of the loss of Norway in 1814. His sermon was met by a congregation in Copenhagen. Grundtvig withdrew from the pulpit because of lacking his own parish, in 1821 he resumed preaching briefly when granted the country living of Præstø, and returned to the capital the year after
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, styles therefore emerge from the history of a society. They are documented in the subject of architectural history, at any time several styles may be fashionable, and when a style changes it usually does so gradually, as architects learn and adapt to new ideas. Styles often spread to places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist. A style may spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, one example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, revivals and re-interpretations may occur, for instance, classicism has been revived many times and found new life as neoclassicism.
Each time it is revived, it is different, the Spanish mission style was revived 100 years as the Mission Revival, and that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture works slightly differently and is listed separately and it is the native method of construction used by local people, usually using labour-intensive methods and local materials, and usually for small structures such as rural cottages. It varies from region to region even within a country, as western society has developed, vernacular styles have mostly become outmoded due to new technology and to national building standards. Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and this type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Terms originated to describe architectural periods were often applied to other areas of the visual arts, and more widely still to music, literature.
In architecture stylistic change often follows, and is possible by. While many architectural styles explore harmonious ideals, Mannerism wants to take style a step further and explores the aesthetics of hyperbole, Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favours compositional tension and instability rather than balance and clarity, the definition of Mannerism, and the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola. in the country side outside of Rome. The proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more quickly than any previous styles, a center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th-century boom. Through Antwerp and Mannerist styles were introduced in England, Germany. During the Mannerist Renaissance period, architects experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid, the Renaissance ideal of harmony gave way to freer and more imaginative rhythms