Gruppo Bertone known as Bertone, was an Italian automobile company, which specialized in car styling and manufacturing. Bertone styling is distinctive, with most cars having a strong "family resemblance" if they are badged by different manufacturers. Bertone has styled cars for Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin, Citroën, Ferrari, FIAT, Lancia, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo, among others. In addition, the Bertone studio was responsible for two of the designs of the Lambretta motorscooter. In the late 1980s, Bertone styled the K20 motorcycle helmet for Swiss bicycle and motorcycle helmet manufacturer Kiwi; the company was based in Grugliasco in northern Italy. Gruppo Bertone was founded as Carrozzeria Bertone in 1912 by Giovanni Bertone. Designer Nuccio Bertone took charge of the company after World War II and the company was divided into two units: Carrozzeria for manufacturing and Stile Bertone for styling; until its bankruptcy in 2014, the company was headed by the widow of Lilli Bertone. After its bankruptcy, the Bertone name was retained by some of its former employees who continued as a Milan-based design company, Bertone Design.
Giovanni Bertone started a carriage manufacturing business in Turin, at the age of 28. Along with three workers, he built horse-drawn vehicles. In the first decades of the 20th century, cars were not common; the road traffic was dominated by horse-drawn carriages and the coaches built by the young Bertone were regarded for their accuracy and solidity. In 1914, Giuseppe Bertone, nicknamed "Nuccio", the second son of Giovanni Bertone, was born; this nickname became known as the signature to Nuccio, one of the greatest Italian style masters in the world. The outbreak of the first world war triggered a major crisis of the young Italian industrial sector and affected Giovanni Bertone, forced to close his company. At the end of the First World War, Bertone's business restarted and expanded its activities, began focusing on the automotive sector. In 1920, a new plant was opened near the Monginevro 119 in Turin. Twenty people were on the payroll. One year the first important contract was signed to the company.
This was a torpedo styled body based on the SPA 23S chassis. The FIAT "501 Sport Siluro Corsa," the first of a family of models that would characterize the brand in the years to come, was designed. With that, the high-performance sport car was born. During the 1920s, Turin was represented as one of the worldwide centers of excellence of the car industry. Bertone was sitting on the hub of it and formed partnerships with all the manufacturers of the day. Giovanni Bertone began doing bodywork on the Fast, Aurea, SCAT and Diatto chassis; the most important and long-lasting relationships were those with the two biggest Turin manufacturers: FIAT and Lancia. Vincenzo Lancia realised straight away that Giovanni Bertone was an outstanding skilled craftsman with a great future ahead of him. Affectionately nicknaming him "Bertunot", he commissioned Bertone to create complete car bodies, above all for the limited series that the companies of the day were not always equipped to manufacture; this was Bertone's first opportunity to carry out limited production of special cars on standard mechanical bases, was the beginning of a great industrial experience.
These are exciting years for Bertone himself, for the evolution of industrial style and design. The car body shapes are but continuously changing, angular shapes begin to fade, wings start to be joined together. Giovanni Bertone produced torpedo and saloon bodies for FIAT and Lancia, for Itala, Diatto and SPA, he worked on commissions for private customers eager for exclusivity. Alongside sports models like the 1928 Ansaldo 6BS, Giovanni Bertone designed luxury cars like the Fiat 505 limousine and the Itala 51S, both in 1924, he designed the Lancia Lambda VIII Series in 1928. Despite the fact that the depression of 1929 had brought many Turin carmakers to their knees, Giovanni Bertone's shrewd management allowed the company to carry on creating cars with great appeal. In 1932, Giovanni designed the imposingly elegant Lancia Artena, produced until 1936. In 1933; this was that Nuccio Bertone, nineteen at the time began working in his father's company. In the same period, Bertone began working on commercial vehicles, as the business grew, new premises were needed.
The company moved to Corso Peschiera 225. Gruppo Bertone now had fifty members of staff. In 1934, Bertone created the Fiat 527S Ardita 2500, a turning point in car design, with some incredible new details such as the stunning front headlights with fairing along the bonnet. With the Ardita a new kind of style was created, destined to take off towards the end of the decade, with FIAT and Lancia models astounding for their day. Examples were the'six window' FIAT 1500 Aerodinamica, the opulent Lancia Aprilia Cabriolet and the novel Fiat 1500 Torpedo, with structural features that had never been seen before, such as the fold-away hood which stowed away inside the car. With Giovanni's bold innovations and elegant creations, he was appreciated by car experts and fans. With the outbreak of the Second World War, the car market experienced a drastic downturn. All the bodywork manufacturers, including Bertone, reacted to the crisis by turning to military vehicles of various kinds; the company created vehicles such as the Bertone ambulance on a Lancia Artena base.
It was a hard time. The demand was scarce. Raw materials and labour was lacking. Military orders where difficult to fulfill, but production did not stop in the Corso Peschier
Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is an English teaching hospital and part of the Shelford Group. It is one of the largest hospitals in Europe; the Trust is made up of four hospitals – the John Radcliffe Hospital, the Churchill Hospital and the Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, all located in Oxford, the Horton General Hospital in Banbury, north Oxfordshire. As well as the four main hospitals, the trust provides services in four community hospitals across Oxfordshire including Thame, Wallingford and Witney; the services offered at these community hospitals are basic and differ from hospital to hospital. Wantage community hospital is accompanied by Wantage health centre whereby additional health services are provided by the trust. Other clinics and health centres serviced by the trust in Oxfordshire includes Bicester and Oxford with the trust providing some services in clinics and hospitals in neighbouring counties; the Trust was formed in 2011 by a merger with the Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre NHS Trust.
It achieved Foundation Trust status in October 2015. Sir Jonathan Michael chief executive, announced in November 2014 that he planned to retire in 2015 – by which time it was hoped that the Trust would achieve Foundation Trust status; the Trust is to set up an independent business subsidiary in London in partnership with the University of Oxford and Mayo Clinic in 2019. The trust has one of the 11 Genomics Medicines Centres associated with Genomics England which will open across England in February 2014. All the data produced in the 100,000 Genomes project will be made available to drugs companies and researchers to help them create precision drugs for future generations. Part of the Trust's former Littlemore Hospital site is to be developed for housing, it is one of the biggest provider of specialised services in England, which generated an income of £356 million in 2014/5. In September 2016, the trust was selected by NHS England as one of twelve Global Digital Exemplars; the trust halved the number patients medically fit for discharge but stuck in acute beds between January and June 2016 by employing 60 social care workers to provide support in patients' homes after discharge.
In June 2019 the Care Quality Commission downgraded the trust's rating from “good” to “requires improvement” because “Across John Radcliffe Hospital’s wards and in the main theatres the state and repair of the walls, floors and work surfaces were such that adequate cleaning could not always be assured.” There were other problems affecting infection control in the operating theatres. In September 2018 the chief executive, Bruno Holthof, reported that the trust had about 450 nursing vacancies, because of the effect of Brexit and the high cost of living in the area, had to close beds as a result. There were 3,210 nurses and health visitors employed in June 2018. Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust List of NHS trusts Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust Website
George Turnbull was a Scottish philosopher, teacher, writer on education and an early but little-known figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. He taught at Marischal College, worked as a tutor and became an Anglican clergyman. Aside from his published writings on moral philosophy, he is known for the influence he exerted on Thomas Reid and as the first member of the Scottish Enlightenment to publish a formal treatise on the theory and practice of education. George Turnbull was born on 11 July 1698 in Clackmannanshire, he was the son of George Turnbull, a minister, his wife Elizabeth, the third of their nine children. Turnbull began his studies at the University of Edinburgh in 1711 and started studying for a degree in divinity in 1717, graduating MA in 1721. During his years of study in Edinburgh, he became involved with the Rankenian Club, a circle of intellectuals, which included those who would become his closest associates: George Young, the surgeon and William Wishart, a preacher. At this time, Turnbull was interested in creating a rational form of Christianity, which led to his correspondence with John Toland, the writing of an essay in defence of religious toleration, never published.
Turnbull was made regent at Marischal College, Aberdeen, on 14 April 1721. His two graduation theses were De scientiae naturalis cum philosophia morali conjunctione from 1723 and De pulcherrima mundi cum materialis tum rationalis constitutione from 1726; these two works indicate that he was the first Scottish thinker to publish writings that argued for the use of the so-called Newtonian method in constructing a moral philosophy. Turnbull drew on the ideas of Lord Shaftesbury. Although this might be taken to indicate a preoccupation with the scholarship of his time, Turnbull showed great fondness for the classical moralists of antiquity. Although Turnbull was a popular teacher and exerted lasting influence on pupils such as Thomas Reid, he decided to leave Marischal, he had disputes with the principal of the college, Thomas Blackwell. Turnbull went to serve as tutor to the Udney family. In 1727 he formally resigned. After his resignation, he travelled on the Continent of Europe, he received a degree from the University of Edinburgh.
At this point, Turnbull decided that he might seek employment in the Anglican church, matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1733 and received a BCL degree. Financial difficulties forced Turnbull to resume tutoring, with some misgivings he spent 2 years in Italy, tutoring the son of Lord Rockingham. In 1737 he used his connections with Thomas Birch to secure his ordination by the bishop of Winchester; this precipitated his entry into court circles and in 1741 he was made chaplain to the Prince of Wales. A year Turnbull was granted the position of rector of Drumachose by the bishop of Derry and became the tutor of Horace Walpole in 1744. Over the course of the 1730s and 1740s, Turnbull published a series of pamphlets and books which drew on his theological concerns, he published a small tract in 1731, inspired by a passage in Lord Shaftesbury's writings: A philosophical enquiry concerning the connexion betwixt the doctrines and miracles of Jesus Christ, where he maintains that just as experiments confirm scientific theories, so the miracles of Jesus Christ confirm Christian doctrine.
Turnbull wrote a critique of Matthew Tindal in Christianity neither False nor Useless, Tho' not as Old as the Creation in 1732, which dwelled on the relationship between natural religion and revealed religion. In 1740, Turnbull published A Treatise on Ancient Painting, where he argued for the educational usefulness of the finer arts, based on the idea that painting was a kind of language, conveying ideas and truths about life and nature, with drawings by Camillo Paderni; that year, he published a brief religious work, An Impartial Enquiry into the Moral Character of Jesus Christ. In this work, Turnbull expounded Christ as the greatest of moral philosophers, he published the greatest statements of his philosophy in The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, which drew on his old Aberdeen lectures as well as his discussions with philosophers on the Continent. Turnbull's last significant work was published in 1742: Observations upon Liberal Education, where he suggested a new categorisation and breakdown of knowledge, a revision of university curriculum.
Turnbull died in The Hague on 31 January 1748 for reasons unknown. At The Online Library of Liberty Wood, Paul. "Turnbull, George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/40216