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Guadalcanal campaign

The Guadalcanal campaign known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater of World War II. It was the first major land offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan. On 7 August 1942, Allied forces, predominantly United States Marines, landed on Guadalcanal and Florida in the southern Solomon Islands, with the objective of using Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases in supporting a campaign to capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain; the Japanese defenders, who had occupied those islands since May 1942, were outnumbered and overwhelmed by the Allies, who captured Tulagi and Florida, as well as the airfield – named Henderson Field –, under construction on Guadalcanal. Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November to retake Henderson Field.

Three major land battles, seven large naval battles, daily aerial battles culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November, with the defeat of the last Japanese attempt to bombard Henderson Field from the sea and to land enough troops to retake it. In December, the Japanese abandoned their efforts to retake Guadalcanal, evacuated their remaining forces by 7 February 1943, in the face of an offensive by the U. S. Army's XIV Corps; the Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic Allied combined-arms victory in the Pacific theater. While the Battle of Midway was a heavy defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy, it did not stop Japanese offensives, which continued both at sea and on the ground; the victories at Milne Bay, Buna–Gona, Guadalcanal marked the Allied transition from defensive operations to taking the strategic initiative in the theater, leading to offensive campaigns in the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, the Central Pacific, which resulted in the surrender of Japan, ending World War II.

On 7 December 1941, Japanese forces attacked the United States Pacific Fleet at Naval Station Pearl Harbor, incorporated territory of Hawaii. The attack killed 2,500 people and crippled much of the U. S. battleship fleet, precipitating an open and formal state of war between the two nations the next day. The initial goals of Japanese leaders were to neutralize the U. S. Navy, seize possessions rich in natural resources, establish strategic military bases to defend Japan's empire in the Pacific Ocean and Asia. To further those goals, Japanese forces captured the Philippines, Malaya, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands, New Britain and Guam. Joining the U. S. in the war against Japan were the rest of the Allied powers, several of whom, including the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, had been attacked by Japan. The Japanese made two attempts to continue their strategic initiative, offensively extend their outer defensive perimeter in the south and central Pacific to where they could threaten Australia and Hawaii or the U.

S. West Coast; those efforts were thwarted at the naval battles of Coral Midway respectively. Coral Sea was a tactical stalemate, but a strategic Allied victory which became clear only much later. Midway was not only the Allies' first clear major victory against the Japanese, it reduced the offensive capability of Japan's carrier forces, but did not change their offensive mindset for several crucial months in which they compounded mistakes by moving ahead with brash brazen decisions, such as the attempt to assault Port Moresby over the Kokoda trail. Up to this point, the Allies had been on the defensive in the Pacific but these strategic victories provided them an opportunity to take the initiative from Japan; the Allies chose the Solomon Islands the southern Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal and Florida Island, as the first target, designated Task One, with three specific objectives. The objectives were the occupation of the Santa Cruz Islands, "adjacent positions". Guadalcanal, which became the focus of the operation, was not mentioned in the early directive and only took on the operation-name Watchtower.

The Imperial Japanese Navy had occupied Tulagi in May 1942 and had constructed a seaplane base nearby. Allied concern grew when, in early July 1942, the IJN began constructing a large airfield at Lunga Point on nearby Guadalcanal—from such a base Japanese long-range bombers would threaten the sea lines of communication from the West Coast of the Americas to the populous East Coast of Australia. By August 1942, the Japanese had about 900 naval troops on Tulagi and nearby islands and 2,800 personnel on Guadalcanal; these bases would protect Japan's major base at Rabaul, threaten Allied supply and communication lines and establish a staging area for a planned offensive against Fiji, New Caledonia and Samoa. The Japanese planned to deploy 60 bombers to Guadalcanal. In the overall strategy for 1942 these aircraft would provide air cover for Japanese naval forces advancing farther into the South Pacific; the Allied plan to invade the southern Solomons was conceived by U. S. Admiral Ernest King, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet.

He proposed the offensive to deny the use of the islands by the Japanese as bases to threaten the supply routes between the United States and Australia and to use them as starting points. With U. S. President Frankl

Autotopagnosia

Autotopagnosia from the Greek a and gnosis, meaning "without knowledge", topos meaning "place", auto meaning "oneself", autotopagnosia translates to the "lack of knowledge about one's own space," and is clinically described as such. Autotopagnosia is a form of agnosia, characterized by an inability to localize and orient different parts of the body; the psychoneurological disorder has been referred to as "body-image agnosia" or "somatotopagnosia." Somatotopagnosia has been argued to be a better suited term to describe the condition. While autotopagnosia emphasizes the deficiencies in localizing only one's own body parts and orientation, somatotopagnosia considers the inability to orient and recognize the body parts of others or representations of the body; the cause of autotopagnosia is a lesion found in the parietal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain. However, it as been noted that patients with generalized brain damage present with similar symptoms of autotopagnosia; as a concept, autotopagnosia has been criticized as nonspecific.

Due to the subjective nature of autotopagnosia, there are many hypotheses presented as to the underlying causation. Since the condition by definition is an inability to recognize the human body and its parts, the disorder could stem from a language deficit specific to body parts. On the other hand, the patient could suffer from a disrupted body image or a variation of the inability to separate parts from whole, it is believed that autotopagnosia has multiple underlying causes that cannot be categorized as either language-specific or body-image-specific. The rarity of autotopagnosia combined with the manifestation of other psychoneurological disorders, makes the prime cause difficult to study. In many cases, one of these accompanying conditions—often aphasia—could be masking the patient's autotopagnosia altogether. Although it is still unclear what precise deficits in brain function cause the symptoms of autotopagnosia, the location of brain damage is not as ambiguous. Autotopagnosia is most attributed to lesions in the parietal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain.

However, it is believed that the disorder can be caused by general brain damage as well. Many different types of brain lesions can cause autotopagnosia. “Pure” autotopagnosia is seen with smaller lesions, as larger lesions tend to create other unseen deficits that can confuse or mask the appearance of the symptoms of autotopagnosia—such as aphasia, as discussed above. The parietal lobe is involved in the integration of sensory visuospatial processing; the left parietal lobe is important to the understanding of language and mathematics, has a more prominent role for right handed people. Lesions in the left parietal lobe are thought to disrupt one or more of four putative mental representations of body schema; the deficiencies associated with the disease seem to arise from a dysfunction in the mental representation of the body. According to Felician et al. the notion of body schema can be categorized into four tiers of mental representation: Patients with autotopagnosia exhibit an inability to locate parts of their own body, the body of an examiner's, or the parts of a representation of a human body.

Deficiencies can be in localizing parts of the entire body. Contiguity errors, the most common errors made by patients with autotopagnosia, refer to errors made when the patient is asked to locate a certain body part and points to the surrounding body parts, but not the part they’ve been asked to locate. Semantic errors refer to errors made when patients point to body parts in the same category as that which they’ve been asked to locate, but cannot locate the correct body part. An example of a semantic error would be a patient pointing to an elbow. Semantic errors are much less common than contiguity errors; some patients demonstrating the symptoms of autotopagnosia have a decreased ability to locate parts of other multipart object. Patients are considered to suffer from “pure” autotopagnosia, however, if their deficiency is specific to body part localization. Patients suffering from “pure” autotopagnosia have no problems carrying out tasks involved in everyday life that require body part awareness.

Patients have difficulty locating body parts when directly asked, but can carry out activities such as putting on pants without difficulty. Patients can describe the function and appearance of body parts, yet they are still unable to locate them. Damage to the left parietal lobe can result in, it can include right-left confusion, a difficulty with writing Agraphia and a difficulty with mathematics Acalculia. In addition, it can produce language deficiencies Aphasia and an inability to recognize objects Agnosia. Other related disorders include: Apraxia: an inability to perform skilled movements despite understanding of the movements and intact sensory and motor systems. Finger agnosia: An inability to name the fingers, move a specific finger upon being asked, and/or recognize which finger has been touched when an examiner touches one; the nature of the alleged mental representations that underlie the act of pointing to target body parts have been a controversial issue. It was diagnosed as the effects of general mental deterioration or of aphasia on the task of pointing to body parts on

José Joaquín Puello

José Joaquín Puello de Castro was a general and government minister from the Dominican Republic. He and his brothers and Eusebio, were the only prominent black Dominicans in the Dominican War of Independence. Puello was former colonel in the Haitian Army. On 16 July 1844, General Pedro Santana assumed the CIG's Presidency. Puello’s refusal to face the coup against President Francisco del Rosario Sánchez favored the victory of the coup. President Santana appointed him as minister of Treasury and Commerce and promoted him to the rank of General. Following the ratification of the first constitution in November 1844, Puello was made governor of the Santo Domingo Province. In the 1845 Haitian invasion, Puello had an important role in the Battle of Estrelleta that forced the Haitian retreat. However, his alignment with the liberals gained him enemies among the conservative-ruled government; the Puello brothers were indicted on charges of instigating an anti-white revolution in the country and ingratitude to the white race.

José Joaquín and Gabino were sentenced to death by the twenty-five-man jury and executed by a firing squad on 23 December 1847. Garrido, Víctor. Los Puello. Santo Domingo: Secretaría de Estado de Educación, Bellas Artes y Cultos

Ma Zhiyuan

Ma Zhiyuan, courtesy name Dongli, was a Chinese poet and celebrated playwright, a native of Dadu during the Yuan dynasty. Among his achievements is the development and popularizing of the sanqu lyric type of Classical Chinese poetry forms; the poem "Autumn Thoughts" from the book'东篱乐府' is the most known of his sanqu poems. Ma Zhiyuan's sanqu poem "Autumn Thoughts", composed to the metric pattern Tianjingsha, uses ten images in twenty-two monosyllables to preamble a state of emotion, is considered as the penultimate piece in Chinese poetry to convey the typical Chinese male literati's melancholy during late autumn: 《秋思》 Autumn Thoughts 枯藤老樹昏鴉。 Over old trees wreathed with rotten vines fly evening crows. 夕陽西下,斷腸人在天涯。 Westward declines the sun. Only seven of his 15 plays are extant, of which four have been translated into English: Autumn in Han Palace, 漢宮秋 ) The Yellow-Millet Dream, 黃粱夢 Yueyang Tower, 岳陽樓 Tears on the Blue Gown, 青衫淚 任風子 薦福碑 陳搏高臥 Chinese Sanqu poetry Qu Zaju Ci hai bian ji wei yuan hui (辞海编辑委员会).

Ci hai (辞海). Shanghai: Shanghai ci shu chu ban she (上海辞书出版社), 1979. Works by Ma Zhiyuan at LibriVox

List of law enforcement agencies in North Carolina

This is a list of law enforcement agencies in the state of North Carolina. According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics' 2008 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, the state had 504 law enforcement agencies employing 23,442 sworn police officers, about 254 for each 100,000 residents. Sheriffs have been required in each county of North Carolina since the North Carolina Constitution of 1776. Article VII, Section 2 of the 1971 Constitution of North Carolina gives the authority and qualifications for a sheriff in each county: "In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected and shall hold his office for a period of four years, subject to removal for cause as provided by law. No person is eligible to serve as Sheriff if that person has been convicted of a felony against this State, the United States, or another state, whether or not that person has been restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law.

Convicted of a felony includes the entry of a plea of guilty. NC SBI non-governmental agency list

Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument

The Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument is a complex of three Spanish missions located in the U. S. state of New Mexico, near Mountainair. The main park visitor center is in Mountainair. Construction of the missions began in 1622 and was completed in 1635. Once, thriving Native American trade communities of Tiwa and Tompiro language-speaking Puebloans inhabited this remote frontier area of central New Mexico. Early in the 17th century Spanish Franciscans found the area ripe for their missionary efforts. However, by the late 1670s the entire Salinas District, as the Spanish had named it, was depopulated of both Indian and Spaniard. What remains today are austere yet beautiful reminders of this earliest contact between Pueblo Indians and Spanish Colonials: the ruins of three mission churches, at Quarai, Abó, Gran Quivira and the excavated pueblo of Las Humanas or, as it is known today, the Gran Quivira pueblo, it was first proclaimed Gran Quivira National Monument on November 1, 1909. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.

On December 19, 1980 it was enlarged and two New Mexico State Monuments were absorbed into it on November 2, 1981. It was renamed on October 28, 1988; the Quarai Ruins are located about 8 miles north at about 6650 feet above sea level. There is a 0.5 mile trail through the ruins. In a forest, an interpretive sign reads that when Francis Gardes traveled through the area, he heard birds sing a song called "When Explorers Came". Francis Gardes's trail became Francis Garde National Historic Trail, it passes through Quarai. Another sister of Quarai,Francis Gardes passsed here in 1567, he didn't hear birds sing,but Abo looked like the same of Quarai,so he called them "Sister Churches". The complex includes an interpretive trail. Rumor has it. You can find him resting under a tree. Abo has been added to the monument in 1989; the Gran Quivira Ruins are located about 25 miles south of Mountainair, at about 6500 feet above sea level. There is a small visitor center near the parking lot. A 0.5 mile trail leads through excavated pueblo ruins and the ruins of the uncompleted mission church.

The Gran Quivira, as it has been called for over a hundred years, is by far the best known of the Salinas pueblos, in fact is one of the most celebrated ruins in all of the Southwest. This is not strange, as it is altogether the largest ruin of any Christian temple that exists in the United States. How and when it first received its deceptive title of "Gran Quivira" we may never know. From the days of Coronado the name of "Quivira" had been associated with the idea of a great unknown city, of wealth and splendor, situated somewhere on the Eastern Plains; the Gran Quivera Historic District was listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. National Register of Historic Places listings in Socorro County, New Mexico National Register of Historic Places listings in Torrance County, New Mexico List of National Historic Landmarks in New Mexico List of National Monuments of the United States Ivey, James E.. In the Midst of a Loneliness: The Architectural History of the Salinas Missions: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument Historic Structire Report.

Southwest Cultural Resource Center Professional Papers. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Division of History, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Southwest Region, National Park Service, Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan