The Fabaceae or Leguminosae known as the legume, pea, or bean family, are a large and economically important family of flowering plants. It includes trees and perennial or annual herbaceous plants, which are recognized by their fruit and their compound, stipulate leaves. Many legumes have characteristic fruits; the family is distributed, is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and about 19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are Astragalus, Indigofera and Mimosa, which constitute about a quarter of all legume species; the ca. 19,000 known legume species amount to about 7% of flowering plant species. Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa. Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the Fabaceae is a single monophyletic family; this conclusion has been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by different groups within the family compared with that found among the Leguminosae and their closest relations, but by all the recent phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequences.
These studies confirm that the Fabaceae are a monophyletic group, related to the Polygalaceae and Quillajaceae families and that they belong to the order Fabales. Along with the cereals, some fruits and tropical roots, a number of Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use is related to human evolution; the Fabaceae family includes a number of important agricultural and food plants, including Glycine max, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Medicago sativa, Arachis hypogaea, Ceratonia siliqua, Glycyrrhiza glabra. A number of species are weedy pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulex europaeus, Pueraria lobata, a number of Lupinus species; the name'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included in Vicia. The term "faba" comes from Latin, appears to mean "bean". Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes. Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees to small annual herbs, with the majority being herbaceous perennials.
Plants have indeterminate inflorescences. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single carpel with a short gynophore, after fertilization produce fruits that are legumes; the Leguminosae have a wide variety of growth forms, including trees, herbaceous plants, vines or lianas. The herbaceous plants can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, without basal or terminal leaf aggregations. Many Legumes have tendrils, they are epiphytes, or vines. The latter support themselves by means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or foliar tendrils. Plants can be mesophytes, or xerophytes; the leaves are alternate and compound. Most they are even- or odd-pinnately compound trifoliate and palmately compound, in the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae bipinnate, they always have stipules, which can be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins are entire or serrate. Both the leaves and the leaflets have wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements. In some species, leaflets have evolved into tendrils.
Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants that protect the plant from herbivore insects. Extrafloral nectaries are common among the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae, are found in some Faboideae. In some Acacia, the modified hollow stipules are known as domatia. Many Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called root nodules; these bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to a form of nitrogen, usable to the host plant. This process is called nitrogen fixation; the legume, acting as a host, rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic relationship. The flowers have five fused sepals and five free petals, they are hermaphrodite, have a short hypanthium cup shaped. There are ten stamens and one elongated superior ovary, with a curved style, they are arranged in indeterminate inflorescences. Fabaceae are entomophilous plants, the flowers are showy to attract pollinators. In the Caesalpinioideae, the flowers are zygomorphic, as in Cercis, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals in Bauhinia.
The upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the Faboideae. Some species, like some in the genus Senna, have asymmetric flowers, with one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one, the style bent to one side; the calyx, corolla, or stamens can be showy in this group. In the Mimosoideae, the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in globose inflorescences; the petals are small and the stamens, which can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence open at once. In the Faboideae, the flowers are zygom
The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification; these orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families. Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling; the clade was renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN; the rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.
Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Vitales in the rosids. Others excluded both of these orders; the circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales. The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade; this is one of three groups that compose the Pentapetalae, the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids. The rosids consist of two groups: the eurosids; the eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: malvids. The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are 8 orders in malvids; some of the orders have only been recognized. These are Vitales, Crossosomatales and Huerteales; the phylogeny of Rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website. The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants. Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however. Media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, stems, leaves and seeds; the alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits and cereal grains, but include fruits from others such as tomatoes and courgettes and seeds such as pulses. Vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.
China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day being recommended; the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, was applied to all plants, it derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis "growing, flourishing", a semantic change from a Late Latin meaning "to be enlivening, quickening". The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.
In 1767, the word was used to mean a "plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root". The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie"; as an adjective, the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, leaves, flowers and seeds; the broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of, used for food", a secondary meaning being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food, not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal". Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are treated as vegetables.
In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", used in everyday language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive. "Fruit" has a precise botanical meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items called "vegetables", such as eggplants, bell peppers, tomatoes, are botanically fruits; the question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is identified as, thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of 1883 on imported produce; the court did acknowledge, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers, they foraged for edible fruit, stems, leaves and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Forest gardening in a tropical jungle clearing is thought to be the first example of agriculture.
Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. While the first evidence for the domestication of grasses such as wheat and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is that various peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. Subsistence agriculture continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, South America, elsewhere using their plots of land to produce enough food for their families, while any surplus produce is used for exchange for other goods. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was dull comprising some staple product made from rice, barley, millet or maize; the addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.
In Peru, the Incas subsisted on maize in the lowla
Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. The process involves the high-pressure injection of'fracking fluid' into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas and brine will flow more freely; when the hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, small grains of hydraulic fracturing proppants hold the fractures open. Hydraulic fracturing began as an experiment in 1947, the first commercially successful application followed in 1950; as of 2012, 2.5 million "frac jobs" had been performed worldwide on gas wells. S; such treatment is necessary to achieve adequate flow rates in shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, coal seam gas wells. Some hydraulic fractures can form in certain veins or dikes. Hydraulic fracturing is controversial in many countries, its proponents advocate the economic benefits of more extensively accessible hydrocarbons, as well as replacing coal with gas, cleaner and emits less carbon dioxide.
Opponents argue that these are outweighed by the potential environmental impacts, which include risks of ground and surface water contamination and noise pollution, the triggering of earthquakes, along with the consequential hazards to public health and the environment. Methane leakage is a problem directly associated with hydraulic fracturing, as a Environmental Defense Fund report in the US highlights, where the leakage rate in Pennsylvania during extensive testing and analysis was found to be 10%, or over five times the reported figures; this leakage rate is considered representative of the hydraulic fracturing industry in the US generally. The EDF have announced a satellite mission to further locate and measure methane emissions. Increases in seismic activity following hydraulic fracturing along dormant or unknown faults are sometimes caused by the deep-injection disposal of hydraulic fracturing flowback, produced formation brine. For these reasons, hydraulic fracturing is under international scrutiny, restricted in some countries, banned altogether in others.
The European Union is drafting regulations that would permit the controlled application of hydraulic fracturing. Fracturing rocks at great depth becomes suppressed by pressure due to the weight of the overlying rock strata and the cementation of the formation; this suppression process is significant in "tensile" fractures which require the walls of the fracture to move against this pressure. Fracturing occurs; the minimum principal stress exceeds the tensile strength of the material. Fractures formed in this way are oriented in a plane perpendicular to the minimum principal stress, for this reason, hydraulic fractures in well bores can be used to determine the orientation of stresses. In natural examples, such as dikes or vein-filled fractures, the orientations can be used to infer past states of stress. Most mineral vein systems are a result of repeated natural fracturing during periods of high pore fluid pressure; the impact of high pore fluid pressure on the formation process of mineral vein systems is evident in "crack-seal" veins, where the vein material is part of a series of discrete fracturing events, extra vein material is deposited on each occasion.
One example of long-term repeated natural fracturing is in the effects of seismic activity. Stress levels rise and fall episodically, earthquakes can cause large volumes of connate water to be expelled from fluid-filled fractures; this process is referred to as "seismic pumping". Minor intrusions in the upper part of the crust, such as dikes, propagate in the form of fluid-filled cracks. In such cases, the fluid is magma. In sedimentary rocks with a significant water content, fluid at fracture tip will be steam. Fracturing as a method to stimulate shallow, hard rock oil wells dates back to the 1860s. Dynamite or nitroglycerin detonations were used to increase oil and natural gas production from petroleum bearing formations. On 25 April 1865, US Civil War veteran Col. Edward A. L. Roberts received a patent for an "exploding torpedo", it was employed in Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia using liquid and later, solidified nitroglycerin. Still the same method was applied to water and gas wells.
Stimulation of wells with acid, instead of explosive fluids, was introduced in the 1930s. Due to acid etching, fractures would not close resulting in further productivity increase. Harold Hamm, Aubrey McClendon, Tom Ward and George P. Mitchell are each considered to have pioneered hydraulic fracturing innovations toward practical applications; the relationship between well performance and treatment pressures was studied by Floyd Farris of Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation. This study was the basis of the first hydraulic fracturing experiment, conducted in 1947 at the Hugoton gas field in Grant County of southwestern Kansas by Stanolind. For the well treatment, 1,000 US gallons of gelled gasoline and sand from the Arkansas River was injected into the gas-producing limestone formation at 2,400 feet; the experiment was not successful as deliverability of the well did not change appreciably. The process was further described by J. B. Clark of Stanol
Gwar stylized as GWAR, is an American heavy metal band formed in Richmond, Virginia in 1984, composed of and operated by a rotating line-up of musicians and filmmakers collectively known as Slave Pit Inc. Following the death of frontman and lead singer Dave Brockie in 2014, the group has continued without any of its founding members. Identified by their distinctively grotesque costumes, Gwar's core thematic and visual concept revolves around an elaborate science fiction-themed mythology which portrays the band members as barbaric interplanetary warriors, a narrative which serves as the basis for all of the band's albums, live shows and other media. Rife with over-the-top violent and scatological humor incorporating social and political satire, Gwar have attracted both acclaim and controversy for their music and stage shows, the latter of which notoriously showcase enactments of graphic violence that result in the audience being sprayed with copious amounts of fake blood and semen; such stagecraft leads Gwar to be labeled a "shock rock" band by the media.
Since their formation, Gwar have released thirteen studio albums, two live albums, numerous singles among other recordings, have sold over 820,000 records in the United States. Fueled by the controversies surrounding their concerts, Gwar experienced brief mainstream notoriety during the first half of the 1990s, receiving regular airplay on MTV as well as frequent in-character guest appearances on daytime talk shows, satirizing the topics of censorship and media violence. Though the band's mainstream popularity declined by the end of the 1990s, Gwar has retained a dedicated cult following; the band's extensive videography consists of both live recordings and long-form feature films, most notably 1992's Phallus in Wonderland, which earned a Grammy Award nomination for Best Long Form Music Video. Outside of music and video, Gwar has expanded their franchise into comic books, trading cards, a board game, signature beers, barbecue sauces, e-liquids; the band's characteristic costumes are made of foam latex, polystyrene foam, hardened rubber.
The costumes cover little of the band members' bodies. They further their production in concert by spraying their audiences with fluids. Most of the fluids are made of water and powdered food coloring which, for the most part, flakes off or washes out easily; the thicker fluids are made from a clear seaweed extract called carrageenan, used in ice cream and milkshakes. Gwar can damage the band's costumes. Another trademark of Gwar's live show is their mutilations of celebrities and figures in current events. Victims have included O. J. Simpson, John Kerry, Mike Tyson, every American President since Ronald Reagan, Jerry Garcia, Pope John Paul II, Osama Bin Laden, Michael Jackson, Al Gore, John McCain, Hillary Clinton, Paris Hilton, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Adolf Hitler, Lady Gaga, Marilyn Manson, Jerry Springer, Mr. Lordi, Sarah Palin, Mitt Romney, Pope Francis, Justin Bieber, Tony Abbott, Donald Trump and many others; the band makes frequent references to political and historical figures, fantasy literature, mythology.
For instance, the song "Whargoul" makes reference to Minas Morgul as well as the Eternal Champion of Michael Moorcock. Gwar has many references to Lovecraftian themes. In addition, the title of their fifth album Ragnarok comes from the Norse mythological event Ragnarök, they were nominated for two Grammy Awards, one for Best Metal Performance for "S. F. W." and one for Best Long Form Music Video for Phallus in Wonderland. The band performed fire dancing until the character "Slymenstra Hymen" left the band. Gwar is the end result of two separate projects merged into one. Dave Brockie was the vocalist and bassist for a punk band named Death Piggy that staged mini-plays and used crude props to punctuate their ridiculous music. Bands would practice in a room at the Richmond Dairy, a deserted bottling plant, taken over by hippies; the hippies rented out interior areas to various musicians. It was at the Richmond Dairy that Death Piggy met Hunter Jackson and Chuck Varga, both attendees of Virginia Commonwealth University who had set up "The Slave Pit", a production space for Scumdogs of the Universe, a movie they intended to make.
Jackson would create props for Death Piggy to use on stage. Brockie had an idea to use the costumes made for Scumdogs of the Universe and have Death Piggy open for themselves as a barbaric band from Antarctica, playing nonsense songs while sacrificing fake animals; the name of the joke group was "Gwaaarrrgghhlllgh". The members of Death Piggy began noticing that more people were coming to see Gwaaarrrgghhlllgh and leaving after the set. After several refinements, including shortening the band's name, Death Piggy was phased out in favor of the band now named Gwar; the first known line-up for Gwar consisted of Ben Eubanks, Steve Douglas, Chris Bopst, Jim Thomson and Jackson. However, this line-up was short-lived and would suffer multiple changes in the following months, with Eubanks quitting after just one or two shows and being replaced by Joe Annaruma, who went on to record several demo tracks with the band. Annaruma soon was replaced by Brockie; the band solidified into a line-up consisting of Jackson, Don Drakulich, Mike Delaney, Mike Bonner, Scott Krahl, Dave Musel and Brockie.
Mike Delaney left in 1987. Dewey Rowell, Michael Bishop and Rob Mosby (Nipple
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Cyamopsis is a genus of the family Fabaceae. Its species are distributed across Africa and the Pacific. Cyamopsis comprises the following species: Cyamopsis dentata Torre Cyamopsis senegalensis Guill. & Perr. Cyamopsis serrata Schinz Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taub.—guar Data related to Cyamopsis at Wikispecies