A tile is a thin object square or rectangular in shape. Tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, baked clay, or glass used for covering roofs, walls, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite and mineral wool used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games; the word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are used to form wall and floor coverings, can range from simple square tiles to complex or mosaics. Tiles are most made of ceramic glazed for internal uses and unglazed for roofing, but other materials are commonly used, such as glass, cork and other composite materials, stone. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts.
Decorative tilework or tile art should be distinguished from mosaic, where forms are made of great numbers of tiny irregularly positioned tesserae, each of a single color of glass or sometimes ceramic or stone. The earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin, with sections elsewhere. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis; the use of sun-dried bricks or adobe was the main method of building in Mesopotamia where river mud was found in abundance along the Tigris and Euphrates. Here the scarcity of stone may have been an incentive to develop the technology of making kiln-fired bricks to use as an alternative. To strengthen walls made from sun-dried bricks, fired bricks began to be used as an outer protective skin for more important buildings like temples, city walls and gates.
Making fired. Fired bricks are solid masses of clay heated in kilns to temperatures of between 950° and 1,150°C, a well-made fired brick is an durable object. Like sun-dried bricks they were made in wooden molds but for bricks with relief decorations special molds had to be made. Rooms with tiled floors made of clay decorated with geometric circular patterns have been discovered from the ancient remains of Kalibangan and AhladinoTiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools. Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship and close fit of the tiles. Tiling from this period can be seen in Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura; the Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed brick tiles, including Darius the Great's palace at Susa, buildings at Persepolis. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, glazed up to a centimeter thick.
Early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls. Seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples; the dome of Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period. The golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces and assembled by pouring liquid plaster between them. After hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings, but the mosaic was not limited to flat areas. Tiles were used to cover both the exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this technique include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz, the Molana Mosque. Other important tile techniques of this time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih, or straps.
Mihrabs, being the focal points of mosques, were the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed. The 14th-century mihrab at Madrasa Imami in Isfahan is an outstanding example of aesthetic union between the Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament; the pointed arch, framing the mihrab's niche, bears an inscription in Kufic script used in 9th-century Qur'an. One of the best known architectural masterpieces of Iran is the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, from the 17th century, its dome is a prime example of tile mosaic and its winter praying hall houses one of the finest ensembles of cuerda seca tiles in the world. A wide variety of tiles had to be manufactured in order to cover complex forms of the hall with consistent mosaic patterns; the result was a technological triumph as well as a dazzling display of abstract ornament. During the Safavid period, mosaic ornaments were replaced by a haft rang technique. Pictures were painted on plain rectangle tiles and fired afterwards. Besides economic reasons, the seven colors method gave more freedom to artists and was less time-consuming.
It was popular until the Qajar period, when the palette of colors was extended by orange. The seven colors of Haft Rang tiles were black, ultramarine
In architecture, a vault is a self-supporting arched form of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof. The simplest kind of vault is the barrel vault, semicircular in shape; the barrel vault is the length being greater than its diameter. As in building an arch, a temporary support is needed while rings of voussoirs are constructed and the rings placed in position; until the topmost voussoir, the keystone, is positioned, the vault is not self-supporting. Where timber is obtained, this temporary support is provided by centering consisting of a framed truss with a semicircular or segmental head, which supports the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed. With a barrel vault, the centering can be shifted on to support the next rings; the parts of a vault exert lateral thrust. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required. However, when the vault is built above ground, various replacements are employed to supply the needed resistance.
An example is the thicker walls used in the case of barrel or continuous vaults. Buttresses are used to supply resistance. Amongst the earliest known examples of any form of vaulting is to be found in the neolithic village of Khirokitia on Cyprus. Dating from ca. 6000 BCE, the circular buildings supported beehive shaped corbel domed vaults of unfired mud-bricks and represent the first evidence for settlements with an upper floor. Similar Beehive tombs, called tholoi, exist in Northern Iraq, their construction differs from that at Khirokitia in that most appear buried and make provision for a dromos entry. The inclusion of domes, represents a wider sense of the word vault; the distinction between the two is that a vault is an arch, extruded into the third dimension, whereas a dome is an arch revolved around its vertical axis. Pitched-brick vaults are named for their construction, the bricks are installed vertically and are leaning at an angle: This allows their construction to be completed without the use of centering.
Examples have been found in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia dating to the 2nd and 3rd millennium BC which were set in gypsum mortar. A barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault and resembles a barrel or tunnel cut lengthwise in half; the effect is that of a structure composed of continuous pointed sections. The earliest known examples of barrel vaults were built by the Sumerians under the ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia, built of fired bricks cemented with clay mortar; the earliest barrel vaults in ancient Egypt are thought to be those in the granaries built by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, the ruins of which are behind the Ramesseum, at Thebes. The span was 12 feet and the lower part of the arch was built in horizontal courses, up to about one-third of the height, the rings above were inclined back at a slight angle, so that the bricks of each ring, laid flatwise, adhered till the ring was completed, no centering of any kind being required. A similar system of construction was employed for the vault over the great hall at Ctesiphon, where the material employed was fired bricks or tiles of great dimensions, cemented with mortar.
Assyrian palaces used pitched-brick vaults, made with sun-dried mudbricks, for gates, subterranean graves and drains. During the reign of king Sennacherib they were used to construct aqueducts, such as those at Jerwan. In the provincial city Dūr-Katlimmu they were used to created vaulted platforms; the tradition of their erection, would seem to have been handed down to their successors in Mesopotamia, viz. to the Sassanians, who in their palaces in Sarvestan and Firouzabad built domes of similar form to those shown in the Nimrud sculptures, the chief difference being that, constructed in rubble stone and cemented with mortar, they still exist, though abandoned on the Islamic invasion in the 7th century. In all the instances above quoted in Sumer and Egypt the bricks, whether burnt or sun-dried, were of the description to which the term "tile" would now be given; the earliest Egyptian examples of regular voussoirs in stone belong to the XXVIth Dynasty in the additions made to the temple of Medinet Habu, here it is probable that centering of some kind was provided, as the vaults are built in rings, so that the same centering could be shifted on after the completion of each ring.
The earliest example of shaped voussoirs, of about the same date, is found in the cloaca at Graviscae in Etruria, with a span of about 14 feet, the voussoirs of which are from 5 to 6 feet long. The cloaca maxima in Rome, built by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus to drain the marshy ground between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills, was according to Commendatore Boni vaulted over in the 1st century B. C. the vault being over 800 feet long, 10 feet in span, with three concentric rings of voussoirs. The enormous Eyvan-e Khosro at Ctesiphon was built over 1,500 years ago during the Persian Sasanian period as a throne room; the arch is about
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones and concrete masonry units and seal the irregular gaps between them, sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls. In its broadest sense mortar includes pitch and soft mud or clay, such as used between mud bricks. Mortar comes from Latin mortarium meaning crushed. Cement mortar becomes hard. Mortars are made from a mixture of sand, a binder, water; the most common binder since the early 20th century is Portland cement but the ancient binder lime mortar is still used in some new construction. Lime and gypsum in the form of plaster of Paris are used in the repair and repointing of buildings and structures because it is important the repair materials are similar to the original materials; the type and ratio of the repair mortar is determined by a mortar analysis. There are several types of cement additives; the first mortars were made of clay. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, Babylonian constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch for mortar.
According to Roman Ghirshman, the first evidence of humans using a form of mortar was at the Mehrgarh of Baluchistan in Pakistan, built of sun-dried bricks in 6500 BCE. The ancient sites of Harappan civilization of third millennium BCE are built with kiln-fired bricks and a gypsum mortar. Gypsum mortar called plaster of Paris, was used in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and many other ancient structures, it is made from gypsum. It is therefore easier to make than lime mortar and sets up much faster which may be a reason it was used as the typical mortar in ancient, brick arch and vault construction. Gypsum mortar is not as durable as other mortars in damp conditions. In early Egyptian pyramids, which were constructed during the Old Kingdom, the limestone blocks were bound by mortar of mud and clay, or clay and sand. In Egyptian pyramids, the mortar was made of either gypsum or lime. Gypsum mortar was a mixture of plaster and sand and was quite soft. In the Indian subcontinent, multiple cement types have been observed in the sites of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as the Mohenjo-daro city-settlement that dates to earlier than 2600 BCE.
Gypsum cement, "light grey and contained sand, traces of calcium carbonate, a high percentage of lime" was used in the construction of wells, drains and on the exteriors of "important looking buildings." Bitumen mortar was used at a lower-frequency, including in the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro. Building with concrete and mortar next appeared in Greece; the excavation of the underground aqueduct of Megara revealed that a reservoir was coated with a pozzolanic mortar 12 mm thick. This aqueduct dates back to c. 500 BCE. Pozzolanic mortar is a lime based mortar, but is made with an additive of volcanic ash that allows it to be hardened underwater; the Greeks obtained the volcanic ash from the Greek islands Thira and Nisiros, or from the Greek colony of Dicaearchia near Naples, Italy. The Romans improved the use and methods of making what became known as pozzolanic mortar and cement; the Romans used a mortar without pozzolana using crushed terra cotta, introducing aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide into the mix.
This mortar was not as strong as pozzolanic mortar, because it was denser, it better resisted penetration by water. Hydraulic mortar was not available in ancient China due to a lack of volcanic ash. Around 500 CE, sticky rice soup was mixed with slaked lime to make an inorganic−organic composite sticky rice mortar that had more strength and water resistance than lime mortar, it is not understood how the art of making hydraulic mortar and cement, perfected and in such widespread use by both the Greeks and Romans, was lost for two millennia. During the Middle Ages when the Gothic cathedrals were being built, the only active ingredient in the mortar was lime. Since cured lime mortar can be degraded by contact with water, many structures suffered from wind blown rain over the centuries. Ordinary Portland cement mortar known as OPC mortar or just cement mortar, is created by mixing powdered Ordinary Portland Cement, fine aggregate and water, it was invented in 1794 by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 December 1824 as a result of efforts to develop stronger mortars.
It was made popular during the late nineteenth century, had by 1930 became more popular than lime mortar as construction material. The advantages of Portland cement is that it sets hard and allowing a faster pace of construction. Furthermore, fewer skilled workers are required in building a structure with Portland cement; as a general rule, Portland cement should not be used for the repair or repointing of older buildings built in lime mortar, which require the flexibility and breathability of lime if they are to function correctly. In the United States and other countries, five standard types of mortar are used for both new construction and repair. Strengths of mortar change based on the ratio of cement and sand used in mortar; the ingredients and the mix ratio for each type of mortars are specified under the ASTM standards. These premixed mortar products are designated by one of the five letters, M, S, N, O, K. Type M mortar is the strongest, Type K the weakest; these type
Boston Public Library
The Boston Public Library is a municipal public library system in Boston, United States, founded in 1848. The Boston Public Library is the Library for the Commonwealth of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; the Boston Public Library contains 24 million volumes, electronic resources, making it the third-largest public library in the United States behind only the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library. In fiscal year 2014, the library held over 10,000 programs, all free to the public, lent 3.7 million materials. According to its website, the Boston Public Library has a collection of over 23.7 million items, which makes it one of the largest municipal public library systems in the United States. The vast majority of the collection – over 22.7 million volumes — is held in the Central Branch research stacks. Between July 2012 and June 2013, the annual circulation of the BPL was 3.69 million. Because of the strength and importance of its research collection, the Boston Public Library is a member of the Association of Research Libraries, a not-for-profit organization comprising the research libraries of North America.
The New York Public Library is the only other public library, a member of the ARL. The library has established collections of distinction, based on the collection's depth and breadth, including subjects such as Boston history, the Civil War, Irish History, etc. In addition, the library is both a federal and state depository of government documents. Included in the BPL's research collection are more than 1.7 million rare books and manuscripts. It possesses wide-ranging and important holdings, including medieval manuscripts and incunabula, early editions of William Shakespeare, the George Ticknor collection of Spanish literature, a major collection of Daniel Defoe, records of colonial Boston, the personal 3,800 volume library of John Adams, the mathematical and astronomical library of Nathaniel Bowditch, important manuscript archives on abolitionism, including the papers of William Lloyd Garrison, a major collection of materials on the Sacco and Vanzetti case. There are large collections of prints, photographs and maps.
The library, for example, holds one of the major collections of watercolors and drawings by Thomas Rowlandson. The library has a special strength in music, holds the archives of the Handel and Haydn Society, scores from the estate of Serge Koussevitzky, the papers of and grand piano belonging to the important American composer Walter Piston. For all these reasons, the historian David McCullough has described the Boston Public Library as one of the five most important libraries in America, the others being the Library of Congress, the New York Public Library, the university libraries of Harvard and Yale. In the mid-19th century, several people were instrumental in the establishment of the Boston Public Library. George Ticknor, a Harvard professor and trustee of the Boston Athenaeum, raised the possibility of establishing a public library in Boston beginning as early as 1826. At the time, Ticknor could not generate enough interest. In 1839, Alexandre Vattemare, a Frenchman, suggested that all of Boston's libraries combine themselves into one institution for the benefit of the public.
The idea was presented to many Boston libraries, most were uninterested in the idea. At Vattemare's urging, Paris sent gifts of books in 1843 and 1847 to assist in establishing a unified public library. Vattemare made yet another gift of books in 1849. Josiah Quincy, Jr. anonymously donated $5,000 to begin the funding of a new library. Quincy made the donation. Indirectly, John Jacob Astor influenced the establishment of a public library in Boston. At the time of his death, Astor bequeathed $400,000 to New York to establish a public library there; because of the cultural and economic rivalry between Boston and New York, this bequest prompted more discussion of establishing a public library in Boston. In 1848, a statute of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enabled the creation of the library; the library was established in Boston by a city ordinance in 1852. Mayor Benjamin Seaver recommended to the city council. In May 1852 the city council adopted the recommendations of the mayor and Edward Capen was chosen to become Boston Public Library's first librarian.
Eager to support the library, Edward Everett collected documents from both houses of Congress, bound them at his own expense, offered this collection to help establish the new library. At the time of Everett's donation, George Ticknor became involved in the active planning for the new library. In 1852, financier Joshua Bates gave a gift of $50,000 to establish a library in Boston. After Bates' gift was received, Ticknor made lists of, he traveled extensively to purchase books for the library, visit other libraries, set up book agencies. To house the collection, a former schoolhouse located on Mason Street was selected as the library's first home. On March 20, 1854, the Reading Room of the Boston Public Library opened to the public; the circulation department opened on May 2, 1854. The opening day collection of 16,000 volumes fit in the Mason Street building, but it became obvious that its quarters were inadequate. So in December 1854, the library's commissioners authorized the library to move to a new building on Boylston Street.
Designed by Charles Kirk Kirby to hold 240,000 volumes, the imposing Italianate edifice opened in 1858. But the library outgre
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and non-specialty grout. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the mid 19th century, originates from limestone, it is a fine powder, produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker, grinding the clinker, adding 2 to 3 percent of gypsum. Several types of Portland cement are available; the most common, called ordinary Portland cement, is grey, but white Portland cement is available. Its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England, it was named by Joseph Aspdin who obtained a patent for it in 1824. However, his son William Aspdin is regarded as the inventor of "modern" Portland cement due to his developments in the 1840s. Portland cement is caustic, so it can cause chemical burns; the powder can cause irritation or, with severe exposure, lung cancer, can contain some hazardous components, such as crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium.
Environmental concerns are the high energy consumption required to mine and transport the cement, the related air pollution, including the release of greenhouse gases, dioxin, NOx, SO2, particulates. The production of Portland cement contributes to about 10% of world carbon dioxide emission. To meet the rising global population, the International Energy Agency estimated that the cement production is set to increase between 12 to 23% by 2050. There are several ongoing researches targeting a suitable replacement of Portland cement by supplementary cementitious materials; the low cost and widespread availability of the limestone and other naturally-occurring materials used in Portland cement make it one of the lowest-cost materials used over the last century. Concrete produced from Portland cement is one of the world's most versatile construction materials. Portland cement was developed from natural cements made in Britain beginning in the middle of the 18th century, its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, a type of building stone quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England.
The development of modern Portland cement began in 1756, when John Smeaton experimented with combinations of different limestones and additives, including trass and pozzolanas, relating to the planned construction of a lighthouse, now known as Smeaton's Tower. In the late 18th century, Roman cement was patented in 1796 by James Parker. Roman cement became popular, but was replaced by Portland cement in the 1850s. In 1811, James Frost produced a cement. James Frost is reported to have erected a manufactory for making of an artificial cement in 1826. In 1811 Edgar Dobbs of Southwark patented a cement of the kind invented 7 years by the French engineer Louis Vicat. Vicat's cement is an artificial hydraulic lime, is considered the'principal forerunner' of Portland cement; the name Portland cement is recorded in a directory published in 1823 being associated with a William Lockwood and others. In his 1824 cement patent, Joseph Aspdin called his invention "Portland cement" because of the its resemblance to Portland stone.
However, Aspdin's cement was nothing like modern Portland cement, but was a first step in the development of modern Portland cement, has been called a'proto-Portland cement'. William Aspdin had left his father's company. In the 1840's William Aspdin accidentally, produced calcium silicates which are a middle step in the development of Portland cement. In 1848, William Aspdin further improved his cement. In 1853, he moved to Germany, where he was involved in cement making. William Aspdin made what could be called'meso-Portland cement'. Isaac Charles Johnson further refined the production of'meso-Portland cement', claimed to be the real father of Portland cement. John Grant of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1859 set out requirements for cement to be used in the London sewer project; this became a specification for Portland cement. The next development in the manufacture of Portland cement was the introduction of the rotary kiln, patented by Frederick Ransome in 1885 and 1886; the Hoffmann'endless' kiln, said to give'perfect control over combustion' was tested in 1860, showed the process produced a better grade of cement.
This cement was made at the Portland Cementfabrik Stern at Stettin, the first to use a Hoffmann kiln.. The Association of German Cement Manufacturers issued a standard on Portland cement in 1878. Portland cement had been imported into the United States from Germany and England, in the 1870s and 1880s, it was being produced by Eagle Portland cement near Kalamazoo, in 1875, the first Portland cement was produced in the Coplay Cement Company Kilns under the direction of David O. Saylor in Coplay, Pennsylvania. By the early 20th century, American-made Portland cement had displaced most of the imported Portland cement. ASTM C150 defines Portland cement as'hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinkers which consist of hydraulic calcium silicates containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an inter ground addition'; the European Standard EN 197-1 uses the following definition: Portland cement clinker is a hydraulic material which shall consist of at l
A corbel arch is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. A corbel vault uses this technique to support the superstructure of a building's roof. A corbel arch is constructed by offsetting successive courses of stone at the springline of the walls so that they project towards the archway's center from each supporting side, until the courses meet at the apex of the archway. For a corbeled vault covering the technique is extended in three dimensions along the lengths of two opposing walls. Although an improvement in load-bearing efficiency over the post and lintel design, corbeled arches are not self-supporting structures, the corbeled arch is sometimes termed a "false arch" for this reason. Unlike "true" arches, not all of the structure's tensile stresses caused by the weight of the superstructure are transformed into compressive stresses. Corbel arches and vaults require thickened walls and an abutment of other stone or fill to counteract the effects of gravity, which otherwise would tend to collapse each side of the archway inwards.
The Newgrange passage tomb has an intact corbel arch supporting the roof of the main chamber, the buildings of the monastery at Skellig Michael are constructed using this method. During the Fourth Dynasty reign of Pharaoh Sneferu, the Ancient Egyptian pyramids used corbel vaults in some of their chambers; these monuments include the Red Pyramid. The Great Pyramid of Giza uses corbel arches at the Grand Gallery. Corbel arches and vaults are found in various places around the ancient Mediterranean. In particular, corbelled burial vaults constructed below the floor are found in Ebla in Syria, in Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo in Israel. Ugarit has corbelled constructions. Nuraghe constructions in ancient Sardinia, dating back to 1900 BC, use similar corbel techniques; the use of Beehive tombs on the Iberian peninsula and elsewhere around the Mediterranean, going back to 3000 BC, is similar. The Hittites in ancient Anatolia were building corbelled vaults; the earliest ones date to the 16th century BC. Some similarities are found between the Mycenaean construction techniques.
Yet the Hittite corbelled. The ruins of ancient Mycenae feature many corbel arches and vaults, the "Treasury of Atreus" being a prominent example; the Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenean corbel arch bridges which are part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between Tiryns and Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in use; the well-preserved hellenistic Eleutherna Bridge on Crete has an unusually large span of nearly 4 m. Corbeled arches are a distinctive feature of certain pre-Columbian Mesoamerican constructions and historical/regional architectural styles in that of the Maya civilization; the prevalence of this spanning technique for entrances and vaults in Maya architecture is attested at a great many Maya archaeological sites, is known from structures dating back to the Formative or Preclassic era. By the beginning of the Classic era corbeled vaults are a near-universal feature of building construction in the central Petén Basin region of the central Maya lowlands.
Before the true arch was introduced in Indo-Islamic architecture, the arches in Indian buildings were trabeated or corbelled. In North India in the state of Orissa, "the temples at Bhubaneswar were built on the principle of corbelled vaulting, seen first in the porch of the Mukteswar and, technically speaking, no fundamental change occurred from this time onwards."It took a century from the start of the Delhi Sultanate in 1206 for the true arch to appear. By around 1300 true domes and arches with voussoirs were being built; the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer, Rajasthan is an example of Islamic architecture drawing on Persia and Central Asia, where builders were well used to the true arch, that prefers to stick with the corbelled arch that Indian builders were used to. The candi or temples of Indonesia which are constructed between 8th to 15th century, are made use of corbel arch technique to create a span opening for gate or inner chamber of the temple; the notable example of corbel arch in Indonesian classic temple architecture is the arches of Borobudur.
The interlocking andesite stone blocks creating the corbel arch, is notable for its "T" formed lock on the center top of the corbel arch. All the temples in Angkor made use of the corbel arch, between 12th centuries. Beehive house Beehive tomb Catenary arch Corbelling Parabolic arch Coe, Michael D.. The Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27455-X. Harle, J. C; the Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176 An illustrated glossary of the terms used masonry construction
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.