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Guatemala City

Guatemala City, locally known as Guatemala or Guate Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, is the capital and largest city of Guatemala, the most populous urban area in Central America. The city is located in the south-central part of the country, nestled in a mountain valley called Valle de la Ermita, it is estimated. Guatemala City is the capital of the Municipality of Guatemala and of the Guatemala Department. Guatemala City is the site of the Mayan city of Kaminaljuyu, founded around 1500 BC. Following the Spanish conquest, a new town was established, in 1776 it was made capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala. In 1821, Guatemala City was the scene of the declaration of independence of Central America from Spain, after which it became the capital of the newly established United Provinces of Central America. In 1847, Guatemala declared itself an independent republic, with Guatemala City as its capital; the city was completely destroyed by the 1917–18 earthquakes. Reconstructions following the earthquakes have resulted in a more modern architectural landscape.

Today, Guatemala City is the political and economic center of Guatemala. It is served by La Aurora International Airport. Human settlement on the present site of Guatemala City began with the Maya who built a city at Kaminaljuyu; the Spanish colonists established a small town, made a capital city in 1775. At this period the Central Square with the Cathedral and Royal Palace were constructed. After Central American independence from Spain the city became the capital of the United Provinces of Central America in 1821; the 19th century saw the construction of the monumental Carrera Theater in the 1850s, the Presidential Palace in the 1890s. At this time the city was expanding around the 30 de junio Boulevard and elsewhere, displacing native settlements from the ancient site. Earthquakes in 1917–1918 destroyed many historic structures. Under Jorge Ubico in the 1930s a hippodrome and many new public buildings were constructed, although peripheral poor neighborhoods that formed after the 1917–1918 earthquakes continued to lack basic amenities.

During the Guatemalan Civil War, terror attacks beginning with the burning of the Spanish Embassy in 1980 led to severe destruction and loss of life in the city. In May 2010 two disasters struck: the eruption of the Pacaya volcano, two days Tropical Storm Agatha. Guatemala City serves as the economic and cultural epicenter of the nation of Guatemala; the city functions as Guatemala's main transportation hub, hosting an international airport, La Aurora International Airport, serving as the origination or end points for most of Guatemala's major highways. The city, with its robust economy, attracts hundreds of thousands of rural migrants from Guatemala's interior hinterlands and serves as the main entry point for most foreign immigrants seeking to settle in Guatemala. In addition to a wide variety of restaurants, shops, a modern BRT transport system, the city is home to many art galleries, sports venues and museums and provides a growing number of cultural offerings. Guatemala City not only possesses a history and culture unique to the Central American region, it furnishes all the modern amenities of a world class city, ranging from an IMAX Theater to the Ícaro film festival, where independent films produced in Guatemala and Central America are debuted.

Guatemala City is located in the mountainous highlands of the country, between the Pacific coastal plain to the south and the northern lowlands of the Peten region. The city's metropolitan area has grown rapidly and has absorbed most of the neighboring municipalities of Villa Nueva, San Miguel Petapa, San Juan Sacatepequez, San José Pinula, Santa Catarina Pinula, San Pedro Ayampuc, Amatitlán, Villa Canales and Chinautla forming what is now known as the Guatemala City Metropolitan Area; the city is subdivided into 22 zones designed by the urban engineering of Raúl Aguilar Batres, each one with its own streets. Avenues and sometimes "Diagonal" Streets, making it pretty easy to find addresses in the city. Zones are numbered 1-25 with Zones 20, 22 and 23 not existing as they would have fallen in two other municipalities' territory. Addresses are assigned according to the street or avenue number, followed by a dash and the number of metres it is away from the intersection. For example, the INGUAT Office on "7a Av.

1-17, Zona 4" is a building, located on Avenida 7, 17 meters away from the intersection with Calle 1, toward Calle 2 in zone 4. 7a Av. 1-17, Zona 4. 1-17, Zona 10, are two radically different addresses. Short streets/avenues do not get new sequenced number, for example, 6A Calle is a short street between 6a and 7a; some "avenidas" or "Calles" have a name instead of a number, if it is wide, for example Avenida la Reforma is an avenue which separates Zone 9 and 10 and Calle Montúfar is Calle 12 in Zone 9. Calle 1 Avenida 1 Zona 1 is the center of every city in Guatemala. Zone One is the Historic Center, lying in the heart of the city, the location of many important historic buildings including the Palacio Nacional de la Cultura, the Metropolitan Cathedral, the National Congress, the Casa Presidencial, the National Library and Plaza de la Constitución. Efforts to revitalize this important part of the city have been undertaken by the municipal government. Besides the parks, t

MalÄ IF

Malå IF is a Swedish football club located in Malå in Västerbotten County. Since its foundation Malå IF has participated in the middle and lower divisions of the Swedish football league system; the club plays in Division 3 Norra Norrland, the fifth tier of Swedish football. They play their home matches at the Tjamstavallen in Malå. Malå IF are affiliated to Västerbottens Fotbollförbund. In recent seasons Malå IF have competed in the following divisions: 2010 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2009 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2009 – Division IV, Västerbotten Elit 2008 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2007 – Division III, Norra Norrland 2006 – Division III, Norra Norrland 2005 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2004 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2003 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2002 – Division III, Norra Norrland 2001 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 2000 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra 1999 – Division IV, Västerbotten Norra In recent seasons Malå IF have had the following average attendances: Malå IF – Official Website

Richard Thornton

Richard Thornton was an English millionaire. He is buried at West Norwood Cemetery in London. On his death, Richard Thornton left an estate of £2,800,000, the largest fortune to have been valued for probate in Great Britain before 1870. Richard Thornton was a trader, notably in Baltic goods, he was a Liveryman of the Leathersellers' Company, of which he became Master in 1836. He funded the new almshouses built for the Leathersellers' Company at Barnet, where his bust is still preserved and a nearby road is named Thornton Road in his honour; the Leathersellers' Company has a portrait of Thornton painted in 1838 by Frederick Yeates Hurlstone. Richard Thornton was born in North Yorkshire, he funded a primary school and a church building in the village. He was educated at Christ's Hospital, Newgate Street, London from 1785 to 1791, he became a Donation Governor of Christ's Hospital in 1833. Christ's Hospital – an English boarding school – is now located at Horsham in Sussex. Richard Thornton's wealth was remarkable.

At his death in 1865, his estate of £2.8m was one of the largest recorded. That figure equalled 0.35% of the net national income of the day, or £3.9bn in 2007 terms, which makes him the 165th richest Briton since 1066. Yet, as the eminent historian W G Hoskins noted in his article for the magazine History Today, his name means nothing today though in his lifetime his wealth rivalled that of the Rothschilds and the Barings. Richard Thornton made part of his fortune as an indirect result of Napoleon's fatal and failed invasion of Russia. During this campaign the French army was stationed at Danzig from where it guarded every Baltic port; the Danish were strong supporters of Napoleon and their hostility to English trade was considerable: captains of Danish ships were threatened with death should they engage in any form of commerce with England. This made valuable and essential Baltic trade dangerous for English merchant ships. In response Richard Thornton armed one of his own merchant ships, fought off a hostile Danish gunboat, landed in the Baltic under an assumed German name.

In the process he secured essential supplies of Baltic hemp for the Royal Navy at considerable profit to himself. Richard Thornton's lucrative Baltic trade continued and two years in 1812, his brother Laurence was in the port of Memel, now known as Klaipėda, when he heard of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, he got word back to Richard in London so speedily that it was three days before the news reached any one else in the city, including members of the British Government. Realizing this, Richard Thornton went about the city obtaining signatures on contracts for the forward delivery of Baltic goods. Since the contract prices were inflated by the blockade which had now been removed, his sizable profits became greater. Richard Thornton's activities in the Baltic earned him the nickname “The Duke of Danzig”. On 12 June 1827, Richard Thornton sold the paddle steamer "Quentin Durward" to Kaptajnløtnant Lauritz Christensen, who renamed her “Dania”. Since he first used her on pleasure tours on the Sound, this makes her the first private steam yacht.

Leathersellers' Company History Today