Guernica and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain. The town of Guernica is united in one municipality with neighbouring Lumo, as Gernika-Lumo; the population of the municipality is 16,224 as of 2009. Gernika is best known to those residing outside the Basque region as the scene of the April 26, 1937 Bombing of Guernica, one of the first aerial bombings by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe, it inspired the painting Guernica by Pablo Picasso. This village is situated at 10m altitude, in the region of Busturialdea, in the valley of the Oka river, its mouth is known as Urdaibai's estuary's heart. Gernika borders on the following townships: North: Forua and Arratzu. East: Ajangiz South: Muxika West: Errigoiti The town of Guernica was founded by Count Tello on April 28, 1366, at the intersection of the road from Bermeo to Durango with the road from Bilbao to Elantxobe and Lekeitio; the strategic importance of the site was increased by the fact that it lay on a major river estuary, where vessels could dock at the port of Suso.
In time, it took on the typical shape of a Basque town, comprising a series of parallel streets and a transverse street called Santa María, with a church at each end of the built-up area. Life in the town became rigidly structured, with the aim being to preserve the privileges of the dominant middle classes; this pattern continued unaltered until the late 17th century. On a small hillock in the town, stands the Meeting House and the famous Tree of Gernika. By ancient tradition and indeed other peoples in Medieval Europe, held assemblies under a tree an oak, to discuss matters affecting the community. In Biscay, each administrative district had its appointed tree, but over the centuries, the Tree of Guernica acquired particular importance, it stood on a site known as Gernikazarra, beside a small shrine. The laws of Biscay continued to be drawn up under this tree until 1876, with each town and village in the province sending two representatives to the sessions, known as General Assemblies; this early form of democracy was recorded by the philosopher Rousseau, by the poet William Wordsworth, by the dramatist Tirso de Molina and by the composer Iparragirre, who wrote the piece called Gernikako Arbola.
When the Domain of Biscay was incorporated into the kingdom of Castile, the king of Castile visited Guernica and swore an oath under the Tree promising to uphold the fueros or local laws of Biscay. The oath of King Ferdinand, known as the "Catholic Monarch", on June 30, 1476, is depicted in a painting by Francisco de Mendieta popularly known as El besamanos. On July 3, 1875, during the Carlist Wars, the pretender to the throne Don Carlos visited Guernica and swore the oath. Throughout the 19th century, there were frequent meetings under the Tree, including both General Assemblies and other political events. By the 18th century, there was a square at the centre of the town, flanked by the town hall, a public gaol housing prisoners from all over the Lordship of Biscay, a hospital and a poor-house for local people. Day-to-day life comprised agriculture and trade; this was a time of continual conflicts with the neighbouring parish of Lumo over disputed land. These disputes were not settled until 1882, when the two parishes joined together to form Gernika-Lumo.
The first industrial concerns were set up in the early years of the 20th century. This encouraged population growth, the town grew from 4,500 inhabitants in 1920 to 6,000 in 1936. On April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, Guernica was the scene of the Bombing of Guernica by the Condor Legion of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe and the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. According to official Basque figures, 1,654 civilians were killed, but German sources report a round figure of 300 civilians killed in the bombing, according to the German Bundeswehr Magazine; the raid was requested by Francisco Franco to aid in his overthrowing the Basque Government and the Spanish Republican government. The town was devastated, though the Oak of Guernica survived; the Bombing of Guernica, that went on continuously for three hours, is considered to be the beginning of the Luftwaffe doctrine of terror bombing, where civilian targets were selected to demoralize the enemy. Pablo Picasso painted his famous Guernica painting to commemorate the horrors of the bombing and René Iché made a violent sculpture the day after the bombing.
It has inspired musical compositions by Octavio Vazquez and René-Louis Baron, poems by Paul Eluard, Uys Krige. There is a short film from 1950 by Alain Resnais titled Guernica. Celebrations were staged in 1966 to mark the 600th anniversary of the founding of the town; as part of these celebrations, a statue of Count Tello, made by local sculptor Agustín Herranz, was set up in the Fueros square. At present, Gernika-Lumo has 16,244 inhabitants, it is a town with a prosperous service sector, is home to industrial companies, as well as good cultural and educational amenities. Guernica is the seat of the parliament of the province of Biscay, whose executive branch is located in nearby Bilbao. In prior centuries, Lumo had been the meeting place of the traditional Biscayan assembly, Urduña and char
Panda was a Mexican rock band formed in Monterrey, Nuevo León in 1996 as part of the musical movement known as Avanzada Regia. The last line-up consisted in singer José Madero, drummer Jorge Vásquez, lead guitarrist Arturo Arredondo and bassist Ricardo Treviño. Founded by singer/guitarrist José Madero, guitarrist Jorge "Ongi" Garza, bass guitarrist Ricardo Treviño and drummer David Castillo. In 1997, Vásquez replaced Castillo, which led to demo recordings and a deal with independent label Movic Records the following year; the band ended receiving local attention in 2000 with debut and second studio albums Arroz Con Leche and La Revancha Del Príncipe Charro and newly found breakthrough with major-label debut mainstream success in follow-up Para Ti Con Desprecio. It reached gold and platinum status, with album sales over 200,000; the band would become the target of massive backlash over plagiarism reports that had caused poor criticism and damage to their reputation and image for years to come.
Garza exit from the group after its release, Súper Azfalto guitarrist Arturo Arredondo would replace him. Their fourth effort, highly-acclaimed Amantes Sunt Amentes became the band's highest-selling with over 250,000 albums sold, gained gold and double platinum status as well, while achieving international success with Poetics and Sangre Fría. In early 2016, it was announced its members would go on separate ways, considering a brief break from recording and/or touring, the band has been on a temporal hiatus since; some sources determined that the group had broke up afterwards, but Treviño have replied saying "I think people get tired of the same thing. This break serves us to fans missing us on stage." Madero pursued a solo career, while the three resting members formed a new band by the name of Desierto Drive in 2018. The band started playing covers but they realized they were good at writing their own material, so they started writing songs about friends and love; those songs were placed on a demo tape, Demo 1997, distributed to independent labels.
Soon after that, After all that their personal friend and independent producer Mario Huerta acting as A&R, caught the attention of an independent label, Movic Records, signed a record deal. Panda's debut studio album, Arroz con leche was released on September 2, 2000, drew little attention by people and critics selling over 50,000 copies, their second follow-up, La Revancha Del Príncipe Charro, was released February 3, 2002. It reached platinum in Mexico; the album contained a cover from Joan Sebastian and Alberto Vazquez's duet song, "Maracas". The band toured in the United States and Mexico to promote their album. At the end of the tour, they went into the studio to record a third effort. Jorge Garza left the band after the group finished the material and was replaced by another member from Super Azfalto, this time guitarist. Para Ti Con Desprecio was released in May 11, 2005; the record solified a change in tone, shifting from their previous sanitized, humorous pop punk sound for a more darker, matured aesthethic elements.
It is their most popular album to date in Mexico and Latin America, although it made them lose fans, now called Anti-Pandas, over plagiarism accusations that derivated in stealing lyrics and guitar riffs from groups such as My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy, Green Day, Smashing Pumpkins. The singles "Cita en el Quirófano", "Cuando no es como debiera ser", "Disculpa los malos pensamientos" topped MTV's Los 10+ Pedidos fora total of 39 weeks. "Disculpa los malos pensamientos" was the most voted video on MTV in 2006. That same year, the band collaborated in the soundtrack of "Skimo", a Mexican sitcom from Nickelodeon, with the song "Si esto fuese realidad". At the end of the year, the band released Amantes Sunt Amentes, their fourth album, which reached the top of the Mexican charts within weeks and was certified platinum. To date, the album has sold 200,000 copies, was close to Maná first album Falta Amor. During this time the band released their second single, "Los Malaventurados no Lloran"; the music video has received heavy rotation in MTV.
In February 2007, the band collaborated in the album Tributo al más grande, a tribute album for Mexican norteña band Bronco. The band recorded the song "Oro" with a new rock style; the singer José Madero, accompanied Guadalupe Esparza and Luis Cortes in the song "Amigo Bronco" and led to a great upset. In mid July, the band released a third single: "Procedimientos Para Llegar A Un Común Acuerdo"; because of the extensive success of the band's previous single, the song was sent to radio stations in all of Latin America at the same time. "Procedimientos" debuted in some of the important Latin charts reaching the top 10 in many countries. On November 30, 2007, Panda released "Sinfonía Soledad", their first live album that contains a concert on Auditorio Nacional in Mexico City, it contains two new songs dedicated to their fans. The band was nominated in Los Premios MTV Latinoamérica 2006, winning the categories Best Group or Duet, Best Alternative Artist, Breakthrough Artist; the band performed "Narcicista Por Excelencia" during the show.
In Los Premios MTV Latinoamérica 2007, the band was nominated for three categories, but only won Best Alternative Artist. In 2005, the Mexican magazine R & R published an article stating that several Panda songs from the album Para ti con Desprecio, were similar to songs from other bands of similar genres (some lyrics were virtuall
Sir Ramaswami Srinivasa Sarma was an Indian journalist and politician. He was the first Indian journalist to be knighted. Srinivasa Sarma was born in 1890 to Ramaswami Iyer and Lakshmi in the village of Pudu Agraharam near Thiruvaiyaru. Ramaswami Iyer was the district registrar of Tanjore district. Sarma studied at the Kalyanasundaram High School, Thiruvarur High School in Tiruvarur and the Mission High School in Royapettah. In 1908, he joined the Mission High School in Thiruvallur, but Sarma never passed his matriculation examinations. Sarma was involved in the Indian independence movement from his early days. While a student, Sarma organised a procession in Tiruvarur. In 1911, Sarma sold his properties in Tiruvarur and Madras and moved to Calcutta where he joined Surendranath Banerjee and worked for the New India newspaper. In 1929, Sarma was nominated to the Imperial Legislative Council of India by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India. In the assembly, Sarma was the leader of a faction known as the "Central Party".
In 1911, Sarma joined the Bengalee newspaper of Calcutta as a proofreader at a pay of Rs. 15 a month. Two or three months he was promoted to sub-editor, he left the Bengalee in 1914 to join New India in Madras. But owing to differences with its editor, B. P. Wadia, Sarma quit the Bengalee and returned to New India. In 1916, Sarma joined the Associated Press and visited the United Kingdom in 1919, where he campaigned in favour of the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. On his return to Calcutta, Sarma worked as editor of the New Empire newspaper and helped increase its popularity. Sarma was made a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in 1920 New Year Honours' List. In 1922, he was offered the post of General Manager of the Garden Reach Jute Mills of G. D. Birla with a princely salary of Rs. 5,000 a month. Seven years he became the first Indian to fly to the United Kingdom when Imperial Airways introduced its England-India service. In 1934, with the possibility of rapprochement between the Government of British India and Indian nationalists, Sarma started a weekly newspaper The Whip and toured the United Kingdom to popularize it.
At the recommendation of Sir John Anderson, Sarma was knighted by Edward VIII. Sarma holds the unique record of being the only person to have been knighted by Edward VIII as the king abdicated shortly afterwards. On returning to India, Sarma continued to be active in politics. In 1943, as a part of the government's war effort, Sarma was sent to the United States of America representing the government of British India. In the United States, Sarma had a meeting with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Sarma started a magazine for the East India Railway. In 1952, Sarma contested in the Lok Sabha elections for the Thanjavur seat as an independent against the Indian National Congress's R. Venkataraman but lost by a margin of 4,000 votes. Disenchanted, Sarma quit politics with this defeat. Sarma was a lifelong bachelor. In the 1930s, he bought land in the Cauvery Delta and constructed a manor in the English fashion naming it Durgalaya, he built a temple nearby. He had a brother called a sister. Sarma wrote over to him 100 Veli's of land.