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Guerrero

Guerrero the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero, is one of the 32 states which comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo and its largest city is Acapulco, it is located in Southwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Michoacán to the north and west, México and Morelos to the north, Puebla to the northeast and Oaxaca to the east; the state was named after Vicente Guerrero, one of the most prominent leaders in the Mexican War of Independence and the second President of Mexico. It is the only Mexican state named after a president; the modern entity did not exist until 1849, when it was carved out of territories from the states of Mexico and Michoacán. In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include Acapulco, Ciudad Altamirano, Iguala, Ixtapa and Santo Domingo. Today, it is home to a number of indigenous communities, including the Nahuas and Amuzgos, it is home to communities of Afro-Mexicans in the Costa Chica region.

Geographically, the state is mountainous and rugged with flat areas limited to small mesas and the coast line. This coastline has been important economically for the area, first as the port of Acapulco in colonial and post-Independence area and today for the tourist destinations of Acapulco and Ixtapa. Tourism is the single most important economic factor of the state and Acapulco's tourism is important to the nation's economy as a whole. However, other sources of employment are scarce in the state, which has caused its ranking as number one in the emigration of workers to the United States; the first humans in the state's territory were nomadic hunter-gatherers who left evidence of their existence in various caves starting about 20,000 years ago. Until about 8,000 years ago, climatic conditions better favored human habitation than those today. After that, settlements appeared near the coast because of fishing. At these sites, evidence of weaving, ceramics and other crafts have been found. Around this time, a grain called teocintle, or the forerunner to corn, became the staple of the diet.

There is debate as to whether the earliest civilizations here were Olmecs who migrated to this region or native peoples who were influenced by the Olmecs in the Mexcala River area. Olmec influences can be seen in cave paintings such as those found in Juxtlahuaca and well as stone tools and jade jewelry from the time period. Recent evidence indicates that ancient Guerrero cultures may have influenced the early development of the Olmecs; the peoples of the Mexcala River area developed their own distinctive culture, called Mezcala or Mexcala. It is characterized by ceramics, distinguished by its simplicity. Olmec influence remained with this culture evident in the grouping of villages, construction of ceremonial centers and a government dominated by priests; the culture assimilated aspects of the Teotihuacan model, which included the Mesoamerican ball game. Migrations to the area brought ethnicities such as the Purépecha, the Mixtecs, the Maya and the Zapotecs who left traces on the local cultures as they established commercial centers around the 7th century.

In the 8th century, Toltec influence was felt as they traveled the many trade routes through here in search of tropical bird plumage and amate paper. From the 12th century to the 15th, the various peoples of the state were influence by the Chichimecas, culminating in Aztec domination by the 15th century. In the 11th century, new migrations entered the area from the north, which included the Nahuas, who occupied what is now the center of the state and the Purépecha who took over the west; the Nahuas established themselves in Zacatula and Tlacotepec conquering the areas occupied by the Chontals and Matlatzincas. By the 15th century, the territory of modern Guerrero state was inhabited by a number of peoples, none of whom had major cities or population centers; the most important of these peoples where the Purépecha, Cuitlatecs and Matlatzincas in the Tierra Caliente, the Chontales and Tlahuicas in the Sierra del Norte, the Coixcas and Tepoztecos in the Central Valleys, the Tlapanecos and Mixtecs in the La Montaña, the Jopis and Amuzgos in Costa Chica and Tolimecas, Chubias and Cuitlecas in Costa Grande.

Most of these lived in smaller dominions with moderate social stratification. One distinctive feature of the peoples of this was the use of cotton garments; the Aztecs began making incursions in the Guerrero area as early as 1414 under Chimalpopoca as part of the conquest of the Toluca Valley. Incursions into the Tierra Caliente came around 1433 under Itzcoatl who attacked the Cuitlatecos settled between the Teloloapan and Cocula Rivers. By 1440, the Aztec Empire controlled the north of the La Montaña area. Attempts to take the Costa Chica area began in 1452 against the Yopis. Various battles would be fought between 1452 and 1511 before most of the rest of the state became Aztec tributary provinces; the modern state of Guerrero comprised seven Aztec provinces. During the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, the last Aztec emperor, Cuauhtémoc, came from Ixcateopan. After the fall of Tenochtitlan, there was little resistance by the peoples of the Guerrero area to the Spanish and a number of them, such as the Amuzgos sided with the Europeans.

In 1521, Rodrigo de Castañeda entered the Taxco area, while Gonzalo de Sandoval

Truman W. Collins

Truman Wesley Collins was an American businessman, civic leader, philanthropist from the state of Oregon. He was born into a influential business family. Collins graduated from Willamette University and attended graduate school at Harvard University. After college, he returned to the Pacific Northwest to join his family's lumber business. Over the years, he was the top executive for a number of Collins family businesses, he was an active leader in several timber-related industry groups and contributed to selected education and religious institutions. Collins was born in Ostrander, Washington, on April 29, 1902, the son of Everell Stanton Collins and Mary Collins; the Collins family was one of most influential families in Oregon at that time. His grandfather, Teddy Collins, started the family's successful lumber business in Pennsylvania and it was expanded into Oregon by his father. Collins grew up in the small town of Ostrander in western Washington, his family moved to Portland. He attended Lincoln High School, graduating from there in 1918.

He attended college at Willamette University in Oregon. While at Willamette, he joined Kappa Gamma Rho fraternity. During his senior year, Collins was editor of the university's yearbook. Collins graduated from Willamette with a bachelor's degree in 1922, he went on to graduate school at Harvard University, where he earned a master's degree in business in 1925. In 1925, the Collins family purchased a sawmill in Glenwood, Washington; the new business was called the Mount Adams Pine Company. The Collins family hired J. T. "Mac" McDonald to run the Glenwood sawmill operation. After graduating from Harvard, Collins returned to the Pacific Northwest to join the family business at Glenwood with McDonald as his mentor. In addition to his hands-on experience in Glenwood, Collins began developing his executive skills. In 1926, Collins was elected to the board of directors of the Oregon Paper Company, he remained on that board for a number of years. By 1931, the timber supply in the Glenwood area had run low, so the Collins family sold the sawmill and the related local timber land.

Collins wanted to use the revenue from the Glenwood sale to purchase the Grande Ronde Lumber Company in Pondosa, Oregon. While his father was not convinced this was a good investment, he reluctantly approved the acquisition. Once the purchase was complete, Collins relocated much of the Glenwood workforce to Pondosa, including J. T. McDonald; the Pondosa operation included. However, as cutting operations moved farther from the mill extending the railroad become expensive, so the company began experimenting with truck logging; this proved successful, in 1937, the Collins family joined McDonald in a truck logging business called the McDonald Logging Company. In 1939, a second joint-venture logging company was formed in Oregon. During the 1930s, Collins served as an officer in a number of lumbermen's associations, helping to develop forest industry standards. In 1935, he was elected to the regional board of directors for the Western Pine Association and appointed regional chairman. A year he was elected to the Western Pine Association's national board of directors as second-vice president.

In 1938, Collins attended the annual Pacific Logging Congress, where he was elected to the organization's board of directors. The following year, he was elected president of the Pacific Logging Congress. Collins' father died in 1940. In his father's will, Collins was given the rights to develop 67,800 acres of virgin timber land in the Sierra Nevada Mountains near the small community of Chester, California; the property was known as the Curtis and Holbrook Company lands. Collins continued to manage the Grande Ronde Pine Company as he began developing the Chester property as a long-term sustainable forest; the first logs came out of the Curtis and Holbrook forest in 1941. However, the onset of World War II made development plans subject to the approval of the United States Government's War Production Board; the new Chester sawmill began production in early 1943. In September 1942, Collins was commissioned as a lieutenant in the United States Naval Reserve; this was a busy time for Collins. While he was serving in the navy, Collins kept in touch with his sawmill and forest managers by telephone.

He was appointed to the War Production Board's lumber product advisory committee. Despite his busy wartime work schedule, Collins married Maribeth Akin Wilson on March 12, 1943. Together they had four children. In 1944, the Collins-McDonald truck logging business was expanded into a sawmill operation when the partnership bought the Lakeview Lumber Company, changing its name to the Lakeview Sawmill Company; the sawmill proved to be a profitable venture and in 1945 a second sawmill, the Fremont Sawmill, was added to the Lakeview operation. Despite two fires, one at each mill, both operations were rebuilt and were producing lumber within 90 days of the fires. Since 1910, the Collins family had been a partner in the Elk Lumber Company in Oregon. In 1946, the family along with George Flanagan, bought out the other partners, they updated the sawmill equipment, creating a state-of the-art operation. The new mill facility began production that year with Flanagan as general manager. Over the next several decades, Collins served on the boards of directors of Crown Zellerbach Corporation, Standard Insurance Company, United States National Bank, the National Lumber Manufacturers Association.

He served as chairman of the Forest Industries Council

Communist insurgency in Thailand

The Communist insurgency in Thailand was a guerrilla war lasting from 1965 until 1983, fought by the Communist Party of Thailand and the government of Thailand. The war declined in 1980 following the declaration of an amnesty and by 1983 the CPT had abandoned the insurgency. In 1927, Chinese communist Han Minghuang attempted to create a communist organization in Bangkok before being arrested. Ho Chi Minh visited north Thailand the following year, attempting to organize soviets in local Vietnamese communities. In the aftermath of the Siamese revolution of 1932, conservative Prime Minister Phraya Manopakorn accused his political opponent, Pridi Panomyong, of being a communist and shortly afterwards a law was passed criminalising communism. During World War II communists formed an alliance with the Free Thai Movement. In 1946, Pridi Panomyong assumed office, repealing the Anti-Communist Act of 1933 and establishing diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. In 1960, North Vietnam created a training camp for Thai and Laotian volunteers in Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam.

A total of 400 people attended the camp in its first year of operation. In 1949, Pridi Phanomyong's attempt to return to power after the 1947 coup d'état was crushed; the suppression of the "palace rebellion" convinced the CPT leadership that better preparations had to be made in order for a future rebellion to succeed. The failure of the 1952 Peace Rebellion was followed by the 13 November 1952 Anti-Communist Act; the act was sparked by the spontaneous involvement of a small number of communist party members in the rebellion. During the course of the Korean War, the CPT continued to stockpile weaponry in rural areas and make general preparations for armed struggle. At the same time, the CPT formed the Peace Committee of Thailand, a pacifist movement operating in urban areas; the Peace Committee contributed to CPT's expansion and the rise of anti-American sentiment in the country. Ideologically, the CPT aligned with Maoism and during the Sino-Soviet split the party sided with the Communist Party of China.

In October 1964, the organization declared its position in a congratulatory message on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the foundation of the People's Republic of China, the following month a group of Thai communists formed the Thailand Independence Movement in Peking, China. On 8 December 1964, the Thailand Independence Movement issued a manifesto demanding the removal of US military personnel from Thailand and calling for regime change; the manifesto was also broadcast by Radio Peking. Former Thai army officer Phayon Chulanont established the Thai Patriotic Front, another Thai communist organization, on 1 January 1965; the two parties formed the Thai United Patriotic Front on 15 December 1966. Hill tribesmen, as well as the Chinese and Vietnamese ethnic minorities, formed the backbone of the movement. In the early-1950s, a group of 50 Thai communists traveled to Beijing, where they received training in ideology and propaganda. In 1961, small groups of Pathet Lao insurgents infiltrated north Thailand.

Local communist party cells were organized and volunteers were sent to Chinese and North Vietnamese training camps, where training focused on armed struggle and terror tactics to fight capitalism in the region. Between 1962 and 1965, 350 Thai nationals underwent an eight-month training course in North Vietnam; the guerrillas possessed only a limited number of flintlocks as well as French and Japanese weapons. In the first half of 1965, the rebels smuggled 3,000 US-made weapons and 90,000 rounds of ammunition from Laos; the shipment supplied to the US-supported Royal Lao Armed Forces, was instead sold to smugglers who in turn traded the weapons to the CPT. Between 1961 and 1965, insurgents carried out 17 political assassinations, they avoided full scale guerrilla warfare until the summer of 1965, when militants began engaging Thai security forces. A total of 13 clashes were recorded during that period; the second half of 1965 was marked by a further 25 violent incidents, starting in November 1965, Communist Party of Thailand insurgents began undertaking more elaborate operations, including an ambush on a Thai police patrol outside Mukdahan, at that time in Nakhon Phanom Province.

The insurgency spread to other parts of Thailand in 1966, although 90 percent of insurgency-related incidents occurred in the northeast of the country. On 14 January 1966, a spokesman representing the Thai Patriotic Front called for the start of a "people's war" in Thailand; the statement marked an escalation of violence in the conflict, in early April 1966 rebels killed 16 Thai soldiers and wounded 13 others during clashes in Chiang Rai Province. A total of 45 security personnel and 65 civilians were killed by insurgent attacks during the first half of 1966. Despite insurgent attacks on the 24,470 United States Air Force personnel housed on bases in Thailand, American involvement in the conflict remained limited. Following the defeat of the National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War, its 49th Division crossed into Thailand from neighboring Yunnan; the Chinese troops integrated into Thai society, engaging in the lucrative opium trade under the aegis of corrupt officials. Drug trade provided an important source of income for the local population, while at the same time nationalist troops cooperated with the government during its counter-insurgency operations.

In July 1967, the 1967 Opium War broke out when opium growers refused to pay taxes to the Kuomintang. Government forces became involved in the conflict, destroying a number of villages and resettling suspected communists; the newly transferred populations provided new recruits for the CPT. In February and August 1967, the Thai government conducted a number of counter-insurgency raids in Bangkok