The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the Peoples Army of Vietnam, although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20,1960, many of the Việt Cộngs core members were volunteer regroupees, southern Viet Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord. Hanoi gave the military training and sent them back to the South along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the early 1960s. The NLF called for southern Vietnamese to overthrow the colonial regime of the American imperialists. The offensive riveted the attention of the media for weeks. Later communist offensives were conducted predominantly by the North Vietnamese, the organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were officially unified under a communist government.
The term Việt cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956 and it is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản, or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản. The earliest citation for Việt Cộng in English is from 1957, American soldiers referred to the Viet Cong as Victor Charlie or V-C. Victor and Charlie are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet, Charlie referred to communist forces in general, both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese. The official Vietnamese history gives the name as the Liberation Army of South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front, in 1969, the Viet Cong created the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, abbreviated PRG. Although the NLF was not officially abolished until 1977, the Viet Cong no longer used the name after PRG was created, members generally referred to the Viet Cong as the Front. Todays Vietnamese media most frequently refers to the group as the Peoples Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam, by the terms of the Geneva Accord, which ended the Indochina War and the Viet Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces.
The Viet Minh had become the government of Democratic Republic of Vietnam since the Vietnamese 1946 general election, military forces of non-communists regrouped in South Vietnam, which became a separate state. The political forces was not compulsory to regroup, elections on reunification were scheduled for July 1956. A divided Vietnam angered Vietnamese nationalists, but it made the country less of a threat to China, Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the past and Vietnam in the present do not recognise that Vietnam was divided into two countries. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai negotiated the terms of the ceasefire with France, about 90,000 Viet Minh were evacuated to the North while 5,000 to 10,000 cadre remained in the South, most of them with orders to refocus on political activity and agitation
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, in 1988, during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August 1991. Estonia is a parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn, with a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, OECD and Schengen Area. Estonia is a country with an advanced, high-income economy that is among the fastest growing in the EU.
Its Human Development Index ranks very highly, and it performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, the 2015 PISA test places Estonian high school students 3rd in the world, behind Singapore and Japan. Citizens of Estonia are provided with health care, free education. Since independence the country has developed its IT sector, becoming one of the worlds most digitally advanced societies. In 2005 Estonia became the first nation to hold elections over the Internet, in the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning country people or people of the land. The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning Country Parish or Land Parish, one hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania. The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric, the geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being further down south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is called in Icelandic. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia, esthonia was a common alternative English spelling prior to 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago, the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to Kunda culture, which is named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in communities near bodies of water
Background of the occupation of the Baltic states
The background of the occupation of the Baltic states covers the period before the first Soviet occupation on 14 June 1940, stretching from independence in 1918 to the Soviet ultimatums in 1939–1940. The Baltic states gained their independence during and after the Russian revolutions of 1917 and they managed to sign non-aggression treaties in the 1920s and 1930s. Despite the treaties, the Baltic states were incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940 in the aftermath of the German–Soviet pact of 1939. The Russian Empire acquired the Baltic areas as autonomous Duchies administered by Baltic German nobility via the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, in 1914, World War I broke out and by 1915 German armies had occupied Lithuania and Courland incorporating the areas into Ober Ost. As the Russian Empire began to collapse, independence movements sprung up on many regions. Later in 1918, the area was drawn into the Russian Civil War and proclamations of independence were issued in Lithuania on 16 February, in Estonia on 24 February, between years of 1918–1920, the bolsheviks tried to establish Soviet republics in the Baltic area.
In November 1918 the Red Army conquested Narva and they proclaimed the Commune of the Working People of Estonia, but it was able to function only for six weeks. In December, the Latvian communists controlled Riga and proclaimed the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic, in May 1919, the communist control ended when the city was taken by combined German and White Russian troops. By 1920, German troops had withdrawn and the Russian Civil War was in its final phase, the Baltic states signed peace treaties with Soviet Russia. Estonia signed the Treaty of Tartu on 2 February, Lithuania signed the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty on 12 July, in 1920, all three Baltic states adopted constitutions including universal suffrage, a multi-party system and parliamentary with a president. However, the communists were prohibited from participation in politics, the Bolsheviks could not prevent the independence of the Baltic states, but the West had to be persuaded to accept it. By 1921 Lithuania, and by 1922 Estonia and Latvia, all obtained de jure international recognition, all three states joined the League of Nations in 1921.
The Baltic states begin to build an alliance system with their neighbours in Scandinavia. In the south, Poland was reconstituted with consolidation of territories from Germany, furthermore, in summer 1920, Lithuania cooperated with Bolsheviks trying to seize Vilnius, what poisoned Lithuanian relations with their neighbours. In the north, Finland had been under Russian control from 1809 until its independence in 1918, in the west, Sweden followed a policy of neutrality, but during the 1920s it took a more active regional role. Between 1917 and 1934 the Baltic states worked to improve security, the Estonians and Latvians concluded a military convention in 1923, which Lithuania joined in 1934. Further, the Estonians and Latvians held a joint military exercise in 1931, the Finns and the Estonians had secret military exercises in the early 1930s, reconstructing the tsarist naval batteries. Finally in 1934 the three Baltic states reached the Baltic Entente agreement, in spite of the Vilnius issue, the Baltic states were open to the Polish option
The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia and Lithuania. After World War II, the Baltic States had been incorporated into the USSR after military occupation and annexation first in 1940. Glasnost rescinded limitations on political freedoms in the Soviet Union which led to problems within the non-Russian nations occupied in the build-up to war in the 1940s, hitherto unrecognised issues previously kept secret by the Moscow government were admitted to in public, causing dissatisfaction within the Baltic States. Combined with the war in Afghanistan and the fallout in Chernobyl, grievances were aired in a publicly explosive. Massive demonstrations against the Soviet regime began after widespread liberalisation of the failed to take into account national sensitivities. It was hoped by Moscow that the nations would remain within the USSR despite the removal of restrictions on freedom of speech. However, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1989 there were aimed at freeing the nations from the Soviet Union altogether.
On 14 May 1988, the first expression of national feeling occurred during the Tartu Pop Music Festival, five patriotic songs were first performed during this festival. People linked their hands together and a tradition had begun, on 26–28 August 1988, the Rock Summer Festival was held, and patriotic songs, composed by Alo Mattiisen, were played. On 11 September 1988, a song festival, called Song of Estonia, was held at the Tallinn Song Festival Arena. This time nearly 300,000 people came together, more than a quarter of all Estonians, on that day citizens and political leaders expressed, through the voice of Trivimi Velliste, of their ambition to regain independence. On 16 November 1988, the body of Estonia issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration. In 1990 Estonia was the first Soviet republic to defy the Soviet army by offering alternative service to Estonian residents scheduled to be drafted, most Estonians, simply began avoiding the draft. The Singing Revolution lasted over four years, with protests and acts of defiance.
People acted as shields to protect radio and TV stations from the Soviet tanks. Through these actions Estonia regained its independence without any bloodshed, Independence was declared on the late evening of 20 August 1991, after an agreement between different political parties was reached. The next morning Soviet troops, according to Estonian TV, attempted to storm Tallinn TV Tower but were unsuccessful, the Communist hardliners coup attempt failed amidst mass pro-democracy demonstrations in Moscow led by Boris Yeltsin. On 22 August 1991, Iceland became the first nation to recognise the newly restored independence of Estonia, today, a plaque commemorating this event is situated on the outside wall of the Foreign Ministry, which itself is situated on Islandi väljak 1, or Iceland Square 1
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union. Its territory was conquered by Nazi Germany in June–July 1941. Soviet rule came to the end during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and restoring its former state symbols - flag and anthem. The full independence of the Republic of Latvia was restored on 21 August 1991, during the 1991 Soviet coup détat attempt, on September 24,1939, the USSR entered the airspace of Estonia, flying numerous intelligence gathering operations. On September 25, Moscow demanded that Estonia sign a Soviet–Estonian Mutual Assistance Treaty that would allow the USSR to establish military bases, Latvia was next in line, as the USSR demanded the signing of a similar treaty. The authoritarian government of Kārlis Ulmanis accepted the ultimatum, signing the Soviet–Latvian Mutual Assistance Treaty on October 5,1939. On June 16,1940, after the USSR had already invaded Lithuania, hundreds of thousands Soviet troops entered Estonia, Lithuania.
These additional Soviet military forces far outnumbered the armies of each country, the Latvian army did not fire a shot and was quickly decimated by purges and included in the Red Army. Ulmanis government resigned and was replaced by a government created under instructions from the USSR embassy. Up until the elections of the Peoples Parliament on July 14–15,1940 there were no public statements about governmental plans to introduce a Soviet political order or to join the Soviet Union. Soon after the occupation, the Communist Party of Latvia was legalized as the legal party. It was the only permitted participant in the election, after an attempt by other politicians to include the Democratic Bloc on the ballot was prevented by the government and its office was closed, election leaflets confiscated and its leaders arrested. The election results themselves were fabricated, the Soviet press service released them so early that they appeared in a London newspaper a full 24 hours before the polls had closed, all Soviet army personnel present in the country were allowed to vote.
The newly elected Peoples Parliament convened on 21 July to declare the creation of the Latvian SSR, on August 5, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union completed the process of annexation by accepting the Latvian petition, and formally incorporated Latvia into the Soviet Union. Some of the Latvian diplomats stayed in the West and the Latvian Diplomatic Service continued to advocate the cause of Latvias freedom for the next 50 years. Therefore, the history of Soviet Latvia can broadly be divided in the periods of rule by the First Secretaries, Jānis Kalnbērziņš, Arvīds Pelše, Augusts Voss, in the following months of 1940 the Soviet Constitution and criminal code were introduced. The sham elections of July 1940 were followed by elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union in January 1941, the remaining Baltic Germans and anyone who could claim to be one emigrated to the German Reich. On August 7,1940 all print media and printing houses were nationalized, most of the existing magazines and newspapers were discontinued or appeared under new, Soviet names
The Baltic Entente was based on Treaty of Good-Understanding and Co-operation signed between Lithuania and Estonia on September 12,1934 in Geneva. The main objective of the agreement was joint action in foreign policy and it included commitments to support one another politically and to give diplomatic support in international communication. The plans for division of control of European lands located between the two laid out in the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact assigned the Baltic countries into Soviet sphere of influence. In 1940 all three countries were indeed occupied by and annexed into the Soviet Union, the idea of setting up a Baltic Union started gaining momentum between 1914 and 1918 and became a direct consequence of peoples hopes for independence. The concept of uniting Estonia and Lithuania originated in the minds of the numerous refugees and they pooled their efforts in the struggle to achieve freedom and create nationhood. Their efforts became more evident after the end of World War I in 1918, all three Baltic countries managed to secure their independence by signing individual peace treaties with Russia in 1920.
It was a big step in the way of cooperation between the Baltic states and allowed each nation to receive recognition of their sovereignty from the other states. Acceptance of the Baltic States as members of the League of Nations in September 1921 meant that Latvian and Lithuanian security seemed endorsed, the major outcome of World War I determined a new international order in Europe. Under the new conditions, the issue of solidifying independence for the Baltic States was of paramount importance, however, it was not until 1934 that establishing the union was possible. Lithuania remained reluctant to the idea because its political strategy contradicted these of Latvia and Estonia. While Latvia and Estonia saw Germany and Soviet Russia as the primary dangers, only the Polish-Soviet and German–Polish Non-Aggression Pacts in 1934 resulted in collapse of the Lithuanian foreign relations strategy and forced the country to change its position. At the heart of the establishment of the Entente was the desire of its members to prolong, at the heart of the organisation was a coordinating agency.
It was necessary by the plans of the Entente to pursue a foreign policy. Without the internal weaknesses and a conflict with Poland, the Baltic Entente could have been a significant entity, one of the first incidents that led to the demise of the union was the Polish-Lithuanian crisis. The crisis resulted from the death of a Polish soldier on the Lithuanian border, the Polish government used this incident as leverage to force Lithuania back into diplomatic contact with Poland. The ambiguity led to a lack of common goals among the member countries, lack of ability to create mutual safety, since the Baltic Entente did not become a military alliance, its members could not rely on the organization to provide for their security. Lack of a foundation, the fact that all three countries were not integrated into a mutually beneficial economic domain took its toll on significant weakening the alliance. Having had similar structures, all three were forced to compete with each other, rather than to co-operate
The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on 23 August 1989. The demonstration originated in Black Ribbon Day protests held in the cities in the 1980s. It marked the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, the pact and its secret protocols divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence and led to the occupation of the Baltic states in 1940. The event was organised by Baltic pro-independence movements, Rahvarinne of Estonia, the Tautas fronte of Latvia, the protest was designed to draw global attention by demonstrating a popular desire for independence for each of the entities. It illustrated solidarity among the three nations and it has been described as an effective publicity campaign, and an emotionally captivating and visually stunning scene. Within seven months of the protest, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare independence, the Soviet Union denied the existence of the secret protocols to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, even though they were widely published by western scholars after surfacing during the Nuremberg Trials.
The Baltic states claimed that they were forcefully and illegally incorporated into the Soviet Union, Popular opinion was that the secret protocols proved that the occupation was illegal. Such an interpretation of the Pact had major implications in the Baltic public policy, if Baltic diplomats could link the Pact and the occupation, they could claim that the Soviet rule in the republics had no legal basis and therefore all Soviet laws were null and void since 1940. This would open the possibility of restoring legal continuity of the independent states existed in the interwar period. Claiming all Soviet laws had no power in the Baltics would cancel the need to follow the Constitution of the Soviet Union. In anticipation of the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, tensions were rising between the Baltics and Moscow, lithuanian Romualdas Ozolas initiated a collection of 2 million signatures demanding withdrawal of the Red Army from Lithuania. The Communist Party of Lithuania was deliberating the possibility of splitting off from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, on 8 August,1989, Estonians attempted to amend election laws to limit voting rights of new immigrants.
This provoked mass strikes and protests of Russian workers, Moscow gained an opportunity to present the events as an inter-ethnic conflict – it could position itself as peacemaker restoring order in a troubled republic. The rising tensions in anticipation of the protest spurred hopes that Moscow would react by announcing constructive reforms to address the demands of the Baltic people, at the same time fears grew of violent clampdown. Erich Honecker from East Germany and Nicolae Ceauşescu from Romania offered the Soviet Union military assistance in case it decided to use force, on 17 August, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union published a project of new policy regarding the union republics in Pravda. However, this project offered few new ideas, it preserved Moscows leadership not only in foreign policy and defense, but in economy, during the interview, Yakovlev admitted that the secret protocols were genuine. He condemned the protocols, but maintained that they had no impact on the incorporation of the Baltic states, thus Moscow reversed its long-standing position that the secret protocols did not exist or were forgeries, but did not concede that events of 1940 constituted an occupation.
It was the first time that an official Soviet body challenged the legitimacy of the Soviet rule, in the light of glasnost and perestroika, street demonstrations had been increasingly growing in popularity and support
Sovietization of the Baltic states
The Sovietization of the Baltic states refers to the sovietization of all spheres of life in Estonia and Lithuania when they were under control of the Soviet Union. The first section deals with the occupation from June 1940 to July 1941 when the German occupation began, the second period covers 1944 when the Soviet forces pushed the German out, until 1991 when independence was declared. After the Soviet invasion of Estonia, Lithuania in 1940 the repressions followed with the deportations carried out by the Soviets. The local Communist parties emerged from underground with 1500 members in Lithuania,500 in Latvia and 133 members in Estonia, the Soviets began a constitutional metamorphosis of the Baltic states by first forming transitional Peoples Governments. The new cabinets at first denied any intention of setting up Soviet regimes, not to mention incorporation into the Soviet Union, in late June and early July, the cabinets announced that the Communist Parties were the only legal political parties.
Police forces were replaced by specially recruited militias, formed Peoples Armies were rapidly Sovietized in preparation for their eventual absorption into the Red Army. On July 14–15,1940, rigged elections for the Peoples Parliaments were conducted by local Communists loyal to the Soviet Union. Because of newly installed election restrictions, only the Communists and their allies were allowed to run. The new assemblies met for the first time in late July and this belied claims prior to the elections that no such action would be taken. In each case, the petitions passed, in due course, the Soviet Union accepted all three petitions and formally annexed the three countries. Public tribunals were set up to punish traitors to the people. Immediately after the elections, NKVD units under the leadership of Ivan Serov arrested more than 15,000 hostile elements and deportations began slowly, partly because of the language problems, not enough Soviet officials capable of reading the local language documents.
A large-scale operation was planned for the night of 27–28 June 1941 and it was postponed until after the war when the Germans invaded the USSR on June 22,1941 – Operation Barbarossa. A Lithuanian government official claimed to have seen a Soviet document suggesting that 700,000 deportations were envisaged from Lithuania alone, the new Soviet-installed governments in the Baltic states began to align their policies with current Soviet practices. According to the doctrine in the process, the old bourgeois societies were destroyed so that new socialist societies, run by loyal Soviet citizens. The reconstituted parliaments quickly proclaimed the nationalization of industries, banks, private housing. Although land was now considered the property of the people, for the time being, the Red Army quickly absorbed the military forces of the Baltic states. Soviet security forces such as the NKVD, imposed strict censorship, between July and August 1940, Estonian and Lithuanian envoys to the United States and the United Kingdom made official protests against Soviet occupation and annexation of their countries
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Baltic states housing bubble
The Baltic states housing bubble is an economic bubble involving major cities in Estonia and Lithuania. The Baltic States had enjoyed a strong economic growth between 2000 and 2006, and the real estate sectors had performed well since 2000. In fact, in between 2005Q1 and 2007Q1, the house price index for Estonia and Lithuania recorded a sharp jump of 104. 6%,134. 3% and 106. 7%. By comparison, the house price index for Euro Area increased by 11. 8% for a similar time period. The crisis eventually hit in 2007 due to the crisis of 2007-08 resulting in fragile Baltic economies. The housing price correction had begun in Estonia by mid-2007 followed by Latvia and Lithuania in mid-2008, subsequently and Estonia experienced recession by first half of 2008, while Lithuania had experienced a slowdown in its economy by the first half of 2008. The situation worsened after the September 2008 global financial crash, sending the entire region into a full-blown recession, all three countries experienced recession by 2009.
The increase of supply to private sectors was largely to be blamed for the housing bubble in the Baltic states. Domestic banks were largely reliant on rolling their foreign loans with large exposure to the estate sector. The condition was worsened due to the absence of loan-to-value ratio as well as negative real interest rate which spurred speculators to drive the market housing demand higher. The credit supply was deteriorated at the peak of the boom as both foreign and domestic banks tightened lending standards due to the credit risk in the region. Subsequently, real estate market were dragged down, further deteriorate credit quality, the severity of the crisis differed from one to another, with Latvia was the hardest hit by the crisis. Lithuania experienced lesser impact from the crisis compared to Latvia, as it adopted significant austerity measures, public sector wage faced cuts as well as lesser social benefits. Estonia, on the hand, saw the public sector wages. The economy in the Baltic states had been among the fastest growing in the European Area following the collapse of the Soviet Union as well as the due to 1998 Russian financial crisis.
To minimize its dependence on Russia, the Baltic states opted to integrate closer to the Western Europe, by early 2000, the Baltic states economy had begun to grow, to some extent higher than some of its Euro Area counterparts. Following the EU accession of Estonia and Lithuania in 2004, a combination of growth above potential, high inflation and far widening of the current account deficit were singled out as causes behind the overheating economy in the Baltic states. A credit boom in addition to real estate investment spurred by foreign banks worsened the scenario
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept, where a revolt takes the form of armed rebellion, it may not be viewed as an insurgency if a state of belligerency exists between one or more sovereign states and rebel forces. When insurgency is used to describe a movements unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land, criticisms of widely held ideas and actions about insurgency started to occur in works of the 1960s, they are still common in recent studies. Sometimes there may be one or more simultaneous insurgencies occurring in a country, the Iraq insurgency is one example of a recognized government versus multiple groups of insurgents. Other historic insurgencies, such as the Russian Civil War, have been rather than a straightforward model made up of two sides. During the Angolan Civil War there were two sides, MPLA and UNITA.
At the same time, there was another separatist movement for the independence of the Cabinda region headed up by FLEC, if there is a rebellion against the authority and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents, the rebellion is an insurgency. However, not all rebellions are insurgencies, as a state of belligerency may exist between one or more states and rebel forces. When insurgency is used to describe a movements unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land, its use is neutral. The use of the term insurgency recognizes the political motivation of those who participate in an insurgency, if an uprising has little support, such a resistance may be described as brigandry and those who participate as brigands. The distinction on whether an uprising is an insurgency or a belligerency has not been as clearly codified as many other covered by the internationally accepted laws of war for two reasons. The dispute resulted in a compromise wording being included in the Hague Conventions known as the Martens Clause from the diplomat who drafted the clause.
The United States Department of Defense defines it as this, An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a government through use of subversion. The United States counterinsurgency Field Manual, This definition does not consider the morality of the conflict, or the different viewpoints of the government and it is focused more on the operational aspects of the types of actions taken by the insurgents and the counter-insurgents. The Department of Defenses definition focuses on the type of violence employed towards specified ends and this characterization fails to address the argument from moral relativity that one mans terrorist is another mans freedom fighter. The French expert on Indochina and Vietnam, Bernard Fall, who wrote Street Without Joy, insurgency has been used for years in professional military literature. Under the British, the situation in Malaya as often called the Malayan insurgency or the Troubles in Northern Ireland, each had different specifics but shared the property of an attempt to disrupt the central government by means considered illegal by that government.
North points out, that insurgents today need not be part of an organized movement, Some are networked with only loose objectives