India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire safety measures include those that are intended to prevent ignition of an uncontrolled fire, those that are used to limit the development and effects of a fire after it starts. Fire safety measures include those that are planned during the construction of a building or implemented in structures that are standing, those that are taught to occupants of the building. Threats to fire safety are referred to as fire hazards. A fire hazard may include a situation that increases the likelihood of a fire or may impede escape in the event a fire occurs. Fire safety is a component of building safety; those who inspect buildings for violations of the Fire Code and go into schools to educate children on Fire Safety topics are fire department members known as Fire Prevention Officers. The Chief Fire Prevention Officer or Chief of Fire Prevention will train newcomers to the Fire Prevention Division and may conduct inspections or make presentations.
Fire safety policies apply throughout its operating life. Building codes are enacted by local, sub-national, or national governments to ensure such features as adequate fire exits and construction details such as fire stops and fire rated doors and walls. Fire safety is an objective of electrical codes to prevent overheating of wiring or equipment, to protect from ignition by electrical faults. Fire codes regulate such requirements as the maximum occupancy for buildings such as theatres or restaurants, for example. Fire codes may require portable fire extinguishers within a building, or may require permanently installed fire detection and suppression equipment such as a fire sprinkler system and a fire alarm system. Local authorities charged with fire safety may conduct regular inspections for such items as usable fire exits and proper exit signage, functional fire extinguishers of the correct type in accessible places, proper storage and handling of flammable materials. Depending on local regulations, a fire inspection may result in a notice of required action, or closing of a building until it can be put into compliance with fire code requirements.
Owners and managers of a building may implement additional fire policies. For example, an industrial site may designate and train particular employees as a fire fighting force. Managers must ensure buildings comply with fire evacuation regulations, that building features such as spray fireproofing remains undamaged. Fire policies may be in place to dictate training and awareness of occupants and users of the building to avoid obvious mistakes, such as the propping open of fire doors. Buildings institutions such as schools, may conduct fire drills at regular intervals throughout the year; some common fire hazards are: Kitchen fires from unattended cooking, grease fires/chip pan fires Electrical systems that are overloaded, poorly maintained or defective Combustible storage areas with insufficient protection Combustibles near equipment that generates heat, flame, or sparks Candles and other open flames Smoking Equipment that generates heat and utilizes combustible materials Flammable liquids and aerosols Flammable solvents placed in enclosed trash cans Fireplace chimneys not properly or cleaned Cooking appliances - stoves, ovens Heating appliances - fireplaces, wood burning stoves, boilers, portable heaters, solid fuels Household appliances - clothes dryers, curling irons, hair dryers, freezers, boilers Chimneys that concentrate creosote Electrical wiring in poor condition Leaking/ defective batteries Personal ignition sources - matches, lighters Electronic and electrical equipment Exterior cooking equipment - barbecue In the United States, the fire code is a model code adopted by the state or local jurisdiction and enforced by fire prevention officers within municipal fire departments.
It is a set of rules prescribing minimum requirements to prevent fire and explosion hazards arising from storage, handling, or use of dangerous materials, or from other specific hazardous conditions. It complements the building code; the fire code is aimed at preventing fires, ensuring that necessary training and equipment will be on hand, that the original design basis of the building, including the basic plan set out by the architect, is not compromised. The fire code addresses inspection and maintenance requirements of various fire protection equipment in order to maintain optimal active fire protection and passive fire protection measures. A typical fire safety code includes administrative sections about the rule-making and enforcement process, substantive sections dealing with fire suppression equipment, particular hazards such as containers and transportation for combustible materials, specific rules for hazardous occupancies, industrial processes, exhibitions. Sections may establish the requirements for obtaining permits and specific precautions required to remain in compliance with a permit.
For example, a fireworks exhibition may require an application to be filed by a licensed pyrotechnician, providing the information necessary for the issuing authority to determine whether safety requirements can be met. Once a permit is issued, the same authority may inspect the site and monitor safety during the exhibition, with the power to halt operations, when unapproved practices are seen or when unforeseen hazards arise. Fireworks, explosives and cannons, model rockets Certification for servicing and ins
Bed and breakfast
A bed and breakfast is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and breakfast. Bed and breakfasts are private family homes and have between four and eleven rooms, with six being the average. In addition, a B&B has the hosts living in the house. Bed and breakfast is used to describe the level of catering included in a hotel's room prices, as opposed to room only, half-board or full-board. Guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom; some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom, shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in a dining room, or the host's kitchen. B&Bs and guest houses may be operated as either a secondary source of income or a primary occupation; the owners themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms, but some bed and breakfasts hire staff for cleaning or cooking. Properties with hired professional management are uncommon but may exist if the same owner operates multiple B&Bs.
Some B&Bs operate in a niche market. Floating bed and breakfasts are houseboats which offer B&B accommodation. In some communities, former lighthouse keeper quarters have been turned into B&B rooms after the light has been automated or decommissioned. In China expatriates have remodelled traditional structures in quiet picturesque rural areas and opened a few rustic boutique hotels with minimum amenities. Most patrons are tourists but they are growing in popularity among the Chinese. In Cuba, which opened up to tourism in the 1990s after the financial support of the Soviet Union ended, a form of B&B called casa particular became the main form of accommodation outside the tourist resorts. Not all casas particulares offer breakfast. In Hungary, B&Bs are popular, they are a small family-run hotel, have an intimate ambience and a pleasant atmosphere. It provides an affordable alternate for the hotels. In Hungarian the B&B is called "Panzió" or "Szálló". In India, the government is promoting the concept of breakfast.
The government is doing this to increase tourism keeping in view of the demand for hotels during the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi. They have classified B&Bs in 2 categories - Gold B&Bs, Silver B&Bs. All B&Bs must be approved by the Ministry of Tourism, who will categorize it as Gold or Silver based upon a list of pre-defined criteria. Enormous growth in metro cities like Delhi, Pune and Mumbai have seen such rapid growth that people are rushing to these cities to find a respectable job for their respective trades, operating or hosting a Bed & Breakfast is becoming a favourite option among them. Average B&B service providers are offering standard services and other accoutrements that westerners have come to expect when traveling abroad; the basics include: air-conditioner or air cooler, free food, free wi-fi internet. Premium providers may offer extra services to justify the increased price; some of these services include, but are not limited to: buildings with a lift/elevator, no surcharge electricity use for the duration of a customers stay, free geyser usage.
50Mbit/s to 100Mbit/s leased internet line for guests, an intercom system, security with IP cameras that are monitored by security guards 24*7 rounds out the services provided to premium properties. The cost to rent a room at standard B&Bs are around $100 to $120 per person per month, premium B&B packages start around $180 per person per month, but may increase if more services are provided Registered Irish B&Bs are star rated by Fáilte Ireland and along with the majority unregistered B&Bs, form the B&B Owners Association Ireland. B&Bs in Ireland are family owned & run, with a small percentage being leased/managed but still with the personal service expected in this sector. Owners / Managers nearly always live on premises. Breakfast can mean continental style buffet; the Israeli B&B is known as a zimmer. All over the country, but in northern Israel the zimmer has developed into an extensive industry; this industry began to develop in the 1990s, when agriculture became less profitable, many families with farms in moshavim, farms and in cities decided to try their luck in the business of hospitality.
In the last decade, there has been development of bed and breakfasts in southern Israel in the Negev. In Italy, regional law regulates B&Bs. There is a national law "Legge 29 marzo 2001, n. 135" but each region maintains a specific regulation. Each region can adopt different regulations but they must observe the national law on Tourism. Bed & Breakfast in the Netherlands means what it says, namely'bed with breakfast'. In the Netherlands, it is often referred to as lodgings with breakfast, a guestroom or guesthouse. Bed & Breakfast is a small-scale type of accommodation, available to guests for a short stay. Nearly all bed & breakfasts are established in a residential home and are run by the owners of that particular residence. Dutch bed & breakfasts are held in historic monumental houses or farms. There are 5,000 bed & breakfasts in the Netherlands. Bed and breakfasts in New Zealand tend to be more expensive than motels and feature historic homes and furnished bedrooms at a commensurate price; the trend of B&Bs in Pakistan is quite widespread.
Popular resorts like Murree, which attract many tourists from different parts of the country, have a number of such res
Dark tourism has been defined as tourism involving travel to places associated with death and tragedy. More it was suggested that the concept should include reasons tourists visit that site, since the site's attributes alone may not make a visitor a "dark tourist"; the main attraction to dark locations is their historical value rather than their associations with death and suffering. While there is a long tradition of people visiting recent and ancient settings of death, such as travel to gladiator games in the Roman colosseum, attending public executions by decapitation, visiting the catacombs, this practice has been studied academically only recently. Travel writers were the first to describe their tourism to deadly places. P. J. O'Rourke called his travel to Warsaw and Belfast in 1988'holidays in hell', or Chris Rojek talking about'black-spot' tourism in 1993 or the'milking the macabre'. Academic attention to the subject originated in Glasgow, Scotland: The term'dark tourism' was coined in 1996 by Lennon and Foley, two faculty members of the Department of Hospitality, Tourism & Leisure Management at Glasgow Caledonian University, the term'thanatourism' was first mentioned by A. V. Seaton in 1996 Professor of Tourism Marketing at the University of Strathclyde.
As of 2014, there have been many studies on definitions and subcategorizations, such as Holocaust tourism and slavery-heritage tourism, the term continues to be molded outside academia by authors of travel literature. There is little empirical research on the perspective of the dark tourist. Dark tourism has been formally studied from three main perspectives by a variety of different disciplines: Scholars in this interdisciplinary field have examined many different aspects. Lennon and Foley expanded their original idea in their first book, deploring that "tact and taste do not prevail over economic considerations” and that the "blame for transgressions cannot lie on the shoulders of the proprietors, but upon those of the tourists, for without their demand there would be no need to supply." Philip Stone and Richard Sharpley from the Department of Tourism and Leisure Management of the Lancashire Business School at the University of Central Lancashire, UK have looked through the lens of the market place at dark tourism.
Stone and Sharpley have published prolifically in this area, although not conducted empirical research, founded an Institute for Dark Tourism. In 2005 Stone suggested that "within contemporary society people consume death and suffering in touristic form in the guise of education and/or entertainment", sounded a call for research on "Dark Tourism Consumption" to "establish consumer behavior models that incorporate contemporary socio-cultural aspects of death and dying." In a 2006 paper Stone discussed "the dark tourism product range", arguing that "certain suppliers may share particular product features and characteristics, which can be loosely translated into various'shades of darkness'." His typology of death-related tourist sites consists of seven different types, ordered from light to dark: dark fun factories, dark exhibitions, dark dungeons, dark resting places, dark shrines, dark conflict sites and dark camps of genocide. In 2008 Stone and Sharpley hypothesized, that coming together in places associated with grief and death in dark tourism represents immorality, so that morality may be communicated.
Whether a tourist attraction is educational or exploitative is defined by both its operators and its visitors. Tourism operators motivated by greed can "milk the macabre" or reexamine tragedies for a learning experience. Tourists consuming dark tourism products may desecrate a place and case studies are needed to probe who gains and loses. Thanatourism and slum-tourism have been described as re-interpreting the pastime according to the needs of financial elite. Chris Hedges described the "Alcatraz narrative as presented by the National Park Service" as "whitewashing", because it "...ignores the savagery and injustice of America's system of mass incarceration". By omitting challenging details, the park service furthers a "Disneyfication", per Hedges. Destinations of dark tourism include: castles and battlefields such as Culloden in Scotland and Bran Castle and Poienari Castle in Romania, it includes sites of human atrocities and genocide, such as the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall in China, the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum in Cambodia.
In Bali "death and funeral rites have become commodified for tourism... where enterprising businesses begin arranging tourist vans and sell tickets as soon as they hear someone is dying." In the US, visitors can tour the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D. C. "with an identity card which matches their age and gender with that of a name and photo of a real holocaust victim. Against a backdrop of video interpretation portraying killing squads in action, the pseudo holocaust victim enters a personal ID into monitors as they wander around the attraction to discover how their real-life counterpart is faring." In late 2017
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects including disasters; the World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster. Thus, emergency management is crucial to avoid the disruption transforming into a disaster, harder to recover from. Emergency management should not be equated to disaster management. Emergency planning, a discipline of urban planning and design, first aims to prevent emergencies from occurring, failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies; as time goes on, more data become available through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as business continuity and security risk management, as set out below: Recognition or identification of risks Ranking or evaluation of risks Responding to significant risks Tolerating Treating Transferring Terminating Resourcing controls and planning Reaction planning Reporting and monitoring risk performance Reviewing the risk management frameworkThere are a number of guidelines and publications regarding emergency planning, published by professional organizations such as ASIS, National Fire Protection Association, the International Association of Emergency Managers.
There are few emergency management specific standards, emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards. In order to avoid or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure business continuity of critical operations after the incident, it is essential for an organization to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated. An emergency plan must be maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, to ensure it is up-to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers follow a common process to anticipate, prevent, prepare and recover from an incident. Cleanup during disaster recovery involves many occupational hazards; these hazards are exacerbated by the conditions of the local environment as a result of the natural disaster.
While individual workers should be aware of these potential hazards, employers are responsible for minimizing exposure to these hazards and protecting workers, when possible. This includes identification and thorough assessment of potential hazards, application of appropriate personal protective equipment, the distribution of other relevant information in order to enable safe performance of the work. Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for these workers ensures that the effectiveness of the disaster recovery is unaffected. Flood-associated injuries: Flooding disasters expose workers to trauma from sharp and blunt objects hidden under murky waters causing lacerations, as well as open and closed fractures; these injuries are further exacerbated with exposure to the contaminated waters, leading to increased risk for infection. When working around water, there is always the risk of drowning. In addition, the risk of hypothermia increases with prolonged exposure to water temperatures less than 75 degrees Fahrenheit.
Non-infectious skin conditions may occur including miliaria, immersion foot syndrome, contact dermatitis. Earthquake-associated injuries: The predominant injuries are related to building structural components, including falling debris with possible crush injury, trapped under rubble and electric shock. Chemicals can pose a risk to human health. After a natural disaster, certain chemicals can be more prominent in the environment; these hazardous materials can be released indirectly. Chemical hazards directly released after a natural disaster occur concurrent with the event so little to no mitigation actions can take place for mitigation. For example, airborne magnesium, chloride and ammonia can be generated by droughts. Dioxins can be produced by forest fires, silica can be emitted by forest fires. Indirect release of hazardous chemicals can be unintentionally released. An example of intentional release is insecticides used after a flood or chlorine treatment of water after a flood. Unintentional release is.
The chemical released is toxic and serves beneficial purpose when released to the environment. These chemicals can be controlled through engineering to minimize their release when a natural disaster strikes. An example of this is agrochemicals from inundated storehouses or manufacturing facilities poisoning the floodwaters or asbestos fibers released from a building collapse during a hurricane; the flowchart to the right has been adopted from research performed by Stacy Young, et al. and can be found here. Exposure limits Below are TLV-TWA, PEL, IDLH values for common chemicals workers are exposed to after a natural disaster. Direct release Magnesium Phosphorus Ammonia SilicaIntentional release Insecticides Chlorine dioxideUnintentional release Crude oil components Benzene, N-hexane, hydrogen sulfi
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot