Mariano di Jacopo, called Taccola, was an Italian polymath, administrator and engineer of the early Renaissance. Taccola is known for his technological treatises De ingeneis and De machinis, which feature annotated drawings of a wide array of innovative machines and devices. Taccola's work was studied and copied by Renaissance engineers and artists, among them Francesco di Giorgio, Leonardo da Vinci. Mariano Taccola was born in Siena in 1382. Nothing is known of his early years of training or apprenticeship; as an adult, he pursued a varied career in Siena, working in such diverse jobs as notary, university secretary, superintendent of roads and hydraulic engineer. In the 1440s, Taccola retired from his official positions, he is known to have joined the fraternal order of San Jacomo by 1453 and died around that date. Taccola left behind two treatises, the first being De ingeneis, work on its four books starting as early as 1419. Having been completed in 1433, Taccola continued to amend drawings and annotations to De ingeneis until about 1449.
In the same year, Taccola published his second manuscript, De machinis, in which he restated many of the devices from the long development process of his first treatise. Drawn with black ink on paper and accompanied by hand-written annotations, Taccola depicts in his work a multitude of'ingenious devices' in hydraulic engineering, milling and war machinery. Taccola's drawings show him to be a man of transition: While his subject matter is that of Renaissance artist-engineers, his method of representation still owes much to medieval manuscript illustration. Notably, with perspective coming and going in his drawings, Taccola seemed to remain unaware of the ongoing revolution in perspective painting; this is the more curious, since he is the only man known to have interviewed the'father of linear perspectivity' himself, Filippo Brunelleschi. Despite these graphic inconsistencies, Taccola's style has been described as being forceful, authentic and to be relied upon to capture the essential; the work of Taccola, named the'Sienese Archimedes', stands at the beginning of the tradition of Italian Renaissance artist-engineers, with a growing interest in technological matters of all kinds.
Taccola's drawings were copied and served as a source of inspiration by such as Buonacorso Ghiberti, Francesco di Giorgio, even Leonardo da Vinci. Special historical importance hold his drawings of the ingenious lifting devices and reversible-gear systems which Brunelleschi devised for the construction of the dome of the Florence cathedral, at the time the second widest in the world. Interest in Taccola's work, however ceased some time after his death until the late 20th century, one reason being that his treatises circulated as only hand-copied books, with at least three of them remaining extant today. Taccola's original manuscripts, whose style turned out to be more sophisticated than those of its copies, were rediscovered and identified in the state libraries of Munich and Florence in only the 1960s, giving impetus for the first printed editions of both De ingeneis and De machinis in subsequent years. Guido da Vigevano Renaissance technology Villard de Honnecourt Facsimile editionsJ. H. Beck, ed. Mariano di Jacopo detto il Taccola, Liber tertius de ingeneis ac edifitiis non usitatis, 156 pp. 96 pls.
Frank D. Prager and Gustina Scaglia, eds. Mariano Taccola and His Book "De ingeneis", 230 pp. 129 pls. Gustina Scaglia, ed. Mariano Taccola, De machinis: The Engineering Treatise of 1449, 2 vols. 181 and 210 pp. 200 pls. Secondary sourcesLawrence Fane, "The Invented World of Mariano Taccola", Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 135–143 Lon R. Shelby, "Mariano Taccola and His Books on Engines and Machines", Technology and Culture, Vol. 16, No. 3. Pp. 466–475 Media related to Taccola at Wikimedia Commons Institute and Museum of the History of Science – Online-Exposition about Taccola's drawings
Joan the Lame
Joan of Burgundy known as Joan the Lame, was Queen of France as the first wife of King Philip VI. Joan served as regent. Joan was the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, Agnes of France, her older sister, was the first wife of Louis X of France. Joan married Philip of Valois, Louis's cousin, in July 1313. From 1314 to 1328, they were Countess of Maine. King Philip IV's sons: Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV, left no surviving male heirs, leading to the accession of Joan's husband to the French throne; the Hundred Years' War ensued, with Edward III of England, a nephew of Louis X, claiming the French crown. Intelligent and strong-willed, Joan proved a capable regent while her husband fought on military campaigns during the war. However, her nature and power earned both herself and her husband a bad reputation, accentuated by her deformity, she became known as la male royne boiteuse. One chronicler described her as a danger to her enemies in court: "the lame Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne...was like a King and caused the destruction of those who opposed her will."She was considered to be a scholarly woman and a bibliophile: she sent her son, manuscripts to read, commanded the translation of several important contemporary works into vernacular French, including the Miroir historial of Vincent de Beauvais and the Jeu d'échecs moralisés of Jacques de Cessoles, a task carried out by Jean de Vignay.
Joan died of the plague 12 December 1349. She was buried in the Basilica of Saint Denis, her children with Philip VI were: John II. Marie, who married John of Brabant, the son and heir of John III, Duke of Brabant, but died shortly afterwards. Louis. Louis. A son. A son, stillborn. Philip, Duke of Orléans Joan. A son. In 1361, Joan's grandnephew, Philip I of Burgundy, died without legitimate issue, ending the male line of the Dukes of Burgundy; the rightful heir to Burgundy was unclear: King Charles II of Navarre, grandson of Joan's elder sister Margaret, was the heir according to primogeniture, but John II of France claimed to be the heir according to proximity of blood. In the end, John won. Joan is a character in a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon, she was portrayed by Ghislaine Porret in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series. Hallam, Elizabeth. Capetian France: 987-1328. Longman. Knecht, Robert; the Valois: Kings of France 1328-1589. Hambledon Continuum. Setton, Kenneth Meyer, ed..
A History of the Crusades: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Vol. III. University of Wisconsin Press. Sumption, Jonathan; the Hundred Years War II:Trial by Fire. University of Pennsylvania Press
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. Italian Renaissance painters and architects including Filippo Brunelleschi, Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca and Luca Pacioli studied linear perspective, wrote treatises on it, incorporated it into their artworks, thus contributing to the mathematics of art. Linear perspective always works by representing the light that passes from a scene through an imaginary rectangle, to the viewer's eye, as if a viewer were looking through a window and painting what is seen directly onto the windowpane. If viewed from the same spot as the windowpane was painted, the painted image would be identical to what was seen through the unpainted window; each painted object in the scene is thus a flat, scaled down version of the object on the other side of the window.
Because each portion of the painted object lies on the straight line from the viewer's eye to the equivalent portion of the real object it represents, the viewer sees no difference between the painted scene on the windowpane and the view of the real scene. All perspective drawings assume. Objects are scaled relative to that viewer. An object is not scaled evenly: a circle appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid; this distortion is referred to as foreshortening. Perspective drawings have a horizon line, implied; this line, directly opposite the viewer's eye, represents objects infinitely far away. They have shrunk, to the infinitesimal thickness of a line, it is analogous to the Earth's horizon. Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing. A one-point perspective drawing means that the drawing has a single vanishing point directly opposite the viewer's eye and on the horizon line. All lines parallel with the viewer's line of sight recede to the horizon towards this vanishing point.
This is the standard "receding railroad tracks" phenomenon. A two-point drawing would have lines parallel to two different angles. Any number of vanishing points are possible in a drawing, one for each set of parallel lines that are at an angle relative to the plane of the drawing. Perspectives consisting of many parallel lines are observed most when drawing architecture; because it is rare to have a scene consisting of lines parallel to the three Cartesian axes, it is rare to see perspectives in practice with only one, two, or three vanishing points. The earliest art paintings and drawings sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their spiritual or thematic importance, not their distance from the viewer, did not use foreshortening; the most important figures are shown as the highest in a composition from hieratic motives, leading to the so-called "vertical perspective", common in the art of Ancient Egypt, where a group of "nearer" figures are shown below the larger figure or figures.
The only method to indicate the relative position of elements in the composition was by overlapping, of which much use is made in works like the Parthenon Marbles. Chinese artists made use of oblique perspective from the first or second century until the 18th century, it is not certain. Oblique projection is seen in Japanese art, such as in the Ukiyo-e paintings of Torii Kiyonaga. In the 18th century, Chinese artists began to combine oblique perspective with regular diminution of size of people and objects with distance. Systematic attempts to evolve a system of perspective are considered to have begun around the fifth century BC in the art of ancient Greece, as part of a developing interest in illusionism allied to theatrical scenery; this was detailed within Aristotle's Poetics as skenographia: using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth. The philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of perspective for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his house designed using skenographia, so this art was not confined to the stage.
Euclid's Optics introduced a mathematical theory of perspective, but there is some debate over the extent to which Euclid's perspective coincides with the modern mathematical definition. Various paintings and drawings from the Middle Ages show amateur attempts at projections of objects, where parallel lines are represented in isometric projection, or by nonparallel ones without a vanishing point. By the periods of antiquity, artists those in less popular traditions, were well aware that distant objects could be shown smaller than those close at hand for increased realism, but whether this convention was used in a work depended on many factors; some of the paintings found in the ruins o
Francesco di Giorgio Martini
Francesco di Giorgio Martini was an Italian architect, painter and writer. As a painter, he belonged to the Sienese School, he was considered a visionary architectural theorist—in Nikolaus Pevsner's terms: "one of the most interesting Quattrocento architects". As a military engineer, he executed architectural designs and sculptural projects and built seventy fortifications for the Federico da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino, building city walls and early examples of star-shaped fortifications. Born in Siena, he apprenticed as a painter with Vecchietta. In panels painted for cassoni he departed from the traditional representations of joyful wedding processions in frieze-like formulas to express visions of ideal, symmetrical and all but empty urban spaces rendered in perspective, he composed an architectural treatise Trattato di architettura, ingegneria e arte militare, the third of the Quattrocento, after Leone Battista Alberti's and Filarete's. The projects were well in advance of completed projects at the time, but innovations, for example in staircase planning, running in flights and landings round an open center, or dividing at a landing to return symmetrically on each wall, became part of architectural vocabulary in the following century.
The third book is preoccupied with the "ideal" city, constrained within star-shaped polygonal geometries reminiscent of the star fort, whose wedge-shaped bastions are said to have been his innovation. Francesco di Giorgio finished his career as architect in charge of the works at the Duomo di Siena, where his bronze angels are on the high altar and some marble floor mosaics are attributed to his designs; the design of the church of San Sebastiano in Vallepiatta in Siena is attributed to him. Di Giorgio's painting of the "Madonna and Child with 2 Angels" is found at the Lowe Art Museum in Coral Gables, Florida. Born sometime in 1439 in Siena to a poultry dealer, Francesco Maurizio di Giorgio di Martino was baptized on September 23, 1439. Not much is known about his youth, except that he is assumed to have been a student of Vecchietta due to similarities in style between di Giorgio's early paintings and those of the master; the first record of his work as an artist is from 1464, when at age 25 he was paid 12 lire for a statue of John the Baptist.
He was married two times in quick succession when his first wife, died shortly after they were married in 1467. On January 26, 1469 he married Agnese, the daughter of Antonio di Benedetto di Neroccio, a relative of Neroccio di Bartolomeo de' Landi, with whom di Giorgio shared a studio and an artistic partnership during these years. Di Giorgio's early years as a professional artist and engineer were full of a variety of projects. On top of various artistic commissions that he completed during this time, he and another engineer were given a contract by Siena to work on its aqueduct and fountain system, with the goal of adding about a third more water to the city's water supply, they were able to enlarge the fountain in the Piazza del Campo and make other improvements around the city fulfilling their contract in 1473. During this period, di Giorgio was working with assistants on The Coronation of the Virgin for the Santa Maria della Scala, a large painted altarpiece. Sienese records from 1471 describe an episode in which the artist and nine others broke into the Monastery of the Holy Saviour outside Siena and "behaved dishonorably" once inside.
They were sentenced to be banished from the city for three months, or to pay a 25 lire fine, which di Giorgio paid. During the mid-1470s, di Giorgio came into the employ of Duke of Urbino, he created multiple artistic works for the Duke, including the bronze relief Deposition from the Cross and served as an architect and engineer for the duke during the Pazzi conspiracy. In the fighting between Italian city-states which followed, di Giorgio constructed a series of great fortifications for his patron; this source of employment for di Giorgio continued after da Montefeltro's death with his son the new duke. Architectural work came to di Giorgio through his employment with the Duke, including what is his most famous building, Santa Maria delle Grazie al Calcinaio in Cortona; the church was challenging to design due to the steep incline of its location, but di Giorgio's skill with engineering and architecture allowed him to design a solid building which still stands. Letters from 1485 reveal that the Sienese government wrote to Francesco di Giorgio to request that he return to his native city and embark on the design and construction of public buildings.
He did return to the city in 1486 and began receiving an annual salary of 800 florins for his position as official city engineer in which he would inspect all engineering projects throughout Siena. Di Giorgio completed artistic projects for the city, such as the candle-holding angel sculptures which he contributed to the altar at the Opera del Duomo; this time was one of prosperity and popularity for di Giorgio, whose presence and expertise were fought over by the rulers of several city-states Siena and Urbino. His tax documents from 1488 show material wealth as well as familial wealth in the form of six children. In 1490 he was commissioned by the government of Milan to produce a model for dome of the Milan Cathedral; this project led him to journey to the site of the cathedral, where he met Leonardo da Vinci, hired to consult on the building. Di Giorgio provided useful advice to the constructors of the cathedral, was paid 100 florins for his trouble, his expertise as a war engineer came into play again during the Italian W
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection